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Full text of "The American bee keeper"


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T» uiai;ff. . . ...T cf u.wIlvJU umicr 




y JANUARY 




I RiUered ;it tlic- F'osiofficc. Fort Pierce, Fla.. as second-class mail matt 




Webster's Uivabrid^ed 

Send $1.00, the regular subscription price oi iljE 
will iccei\c the Kealin one full year and WEBSlt-K'b 
IKiNAKY. full regular size, bound m cloth, l:i82 papes, size 
letters, mottled edges. The dictionary is guaranietd to be e.N 
many stores for $5 and $6. We send both for only $1. 

THE HOUSEHOLD REALM 

is a lar-e handsome, illustrated magazine, devoted to al, that periains to the home. Some of 
he Department, are. Household. Cooking, Children Garden, truU and Flower House Plans, 
i-Lshion Fancy Work Stories, Poetry. Music. Miscellaneous Articles, etc Established in IXSfi 
''^THE HOUSkHOLD REALM. 325 DEARBORN ST.. CHICAGO, ILL. 



HOU.SHilOLD KEAI.M, and you 
COMl'LinE UNAP.R1D1..KD DIC- 
f page SVi-xl^yi inches, gilt 
tly the same as retails in 



ienic 



rE^T.^''' COMMODE 

IN SUBURBAN HOJVIES, 

where modern bath ro om facilities are denied from lack of sewerage, 
the Hveienic "Water-Seai Commode is an absolute necessity 
for coniiurl and sanitation. .N'eeded in all Hospitals Sanitariums 
and IWs! IN SICKNESS, especially in GuNTAGIOUS DiS- 
- !■■ \SES the Commode is indispensable in every home, as the Water- 
Seal prevents the esca pe of all germs .ind odors. It is light and port- 
able—weighs 1-2 lbs; made of best galvanized iron; will last a life- 
nme. Provided wuh disinjectant, cup Indor^d by leading f^A^FlfE^ls^^cVATcfes.'^"' '" 
nit'strated Circular IK l;^^r J.. 0^^ DESIRED, for 25 cents additional. 

HVG^KiNlC U ATEUSEAL COMMODE CO.. Como. Bldg., Chicago, 111. 




If, H. 



If, BINGHAM 

has made all the im- 
provements ill 

Bee Smokers and 
Honey Knives 

made in the last 20 years, undoubtedl} 

he makes the best on earth. 

Smoke Engine. 4 inch stove, none too larg^,..sent 

postpaid, per mail «l •''^ 

3!^ inch 1-10 

Knife, 80 cents. 3 inch lO^ 

24 inch 911 

r . F . B i n gh a rn , j^J^y^ VvondeV, 2 in', ies 
Farwell, Mich. 




\ 
\\lnn\ Aiitiiij;- to advertisers mention 
The Auioricaji .T^ee-Keeper. 



Salzer's 

National Oats \y^ 

Greatest out of the century. 

Yielded In 10U3 In Ohio 1K7, 

In Mich. 231, in Mo. 2'>.'),and in 

N. Dukota 310 bus. per acre. Yoa 

can beat that record In 1904 • 

For 10c and tbis notice 

we mall you free lots of farm seed 
samples unil our bis cutalotc, tell- 
ing all about this oat wonder and ^ 
thousands of other seeds. 
JOHN A. SALZERSEEDCO. 
La Crosse, 
F. Wis. 



The only strictly ^jgricultural 
paper pviblished in thisbtate. The 
only agricultural paper published 
every week. It goes to every post 
office in State of Tennessee and to 
many offices in Kentucky, Alabama, 
Georgia, Mississippi, Arkansas, 
Texas, Florida and Louisiana. It 
is the official organ of the Agricul- 
tural Department of Tennessee and 
Live Stock Commission. Subscrip- 
tion $1 per year in advance. 

Tennessee Farmer Pub. Co., 
8t£ Nashville, Tenn. 

Patent Wired Comb Foundation 

has no "sc 'n brood franif> 

Thin Flat Bottom Faundatioa 

has HO Fish-bone in Surplus ITcnrv 
Being the cleanest is usually wort*- < li. 
quickest of any foundation made. T" •' k 
about wiring frames seems absurd. We furnish 
a Wired Foundation that is Better. Cheaner 
and not h.iU the trouble to use that it is m 
wire brood frames. 
Circulars an.l samples free. 

J. VAN DEUSEN S SONS, 

Sole Manufactu'-*rs 

■4ontRomery Coum- Sp- > P.rook. M V 



Bee Hives 
Sections 

EVERYTHING 

THAT IS USED BY BEE-KEEPERS CAN BE 
PROCURED OF US AS CHEAPLY AS ANY- 
WHERE, AND WE KNOW. 

Our Goods are Superior 

BOTH IN MATERIALS AND WORKMAN- 
SHIP TO THOSE OF ANY COMPETITOR. 

One Trial Will Convince You 

THAT'S ALL WE ASK. WE KNOW YOU 
WILL NEVER BUY OF ANYBODY ELSE. 

Our new illustrated catalog and price list is now 
. ready. Send for one on a postal card. 



The W. T. 
FALCOWER IVIANFG. CO., 

JAMESTONA/N, N. Y. 




IF YOU 

WANT TO GROW 

Vegetables, Fruits and Farm 
Products in Florida subscribe 
for the FLORIDA AQRICUL= 
JURIST. Sample copy sent 
on application. 

E.O. Painter Pub. Co. 

JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA. 



DO YOUR HENS PAY? 
This woman understands 
her business, 10 Dozen 
Eggs at 36c. per dozen 
from 180 hens in ~ 
one da|. 



That^Egg 

Basket 

tells the 
story. 





BEGINNERS. 



shoM.ihaveacopy of 

The Amateur Bee-keeper, 

a 70 page book, by Prof. J. W. Rouse; written c» I 
pecially for amateurs. Second edition just ou 
First edition of 1,000 sold in less than two year» | 
Editor York savs: "It i« the finest little book pub- 
lished at the present time." Price 24 cenU.; by' 
mail 28 cents. The little book and 

The Progressive Bee-keeper, 

(a lire, proeressiTe, 2« page monthly journal,) one 
year for 6.ic. Apply to any firgt-class dealer, M 
address 

LEAHY MFG- CO., Higgiasvaie.M.. 



Ten Dozen it ho per do7. in one day f oi 
Our New Hoik' Helps for I'oulli v Kt 
how, explains why so many tail and bo !■ 
A Book we can commend with o good c< 
a GREAT HEIA' to all Pou^fy I^«it,Pt!\ 
old. Describes 60 varieties of towls, well . . 
and contains a Poultry Keepers Accouiu • . 
gain or loss monthly -.on heavy paper wor h - ■► ^ ■ 
This Book Free with our Poultry taper one j ear !■ 
1 2.50. or Book free wiih paper 3 D'oiiths for 1 
Descriptive circulars Free to; stamp t?PayPOf'f,S 
AVavslde Poultry < o.. rhr.onville. Conn. 




iTHlMlSiVfP^I'BE^ 



The only Pips made 

that cannot be toM 

from a cifiar. Holdi 

a laree pipe full of 

tobacco and lasts for years. Agents' outfit and a 25-cent sami.to 

by mail for 10«., and our Big Bargain Catalog Free. Address, 

ZE:N0 supply CO., IndlanapoUs, Ind. 



DON'T KILL 

VOURSELF.WASHINGthi. - 

WAY, BUT BUY AH E IVl HI K E. 

WASHER, with which the 
frailest woman can do an or- 
dinnry walking in one hour, 
without wetting her handii. _ _ 

Sample atwholesaleprice. Satisfaction Ctnirante 
No pav until tried. Write for Illustrated Catalo 
andprices ofWringertJroning Tablet, Clothet He 
DryinoBari, WagonJaek*,({-e. ARentsWaBted. i 
, eral Terms. QuickSales! Little WorKll Big P^ 
I .Arfdrew.THi JEuriKiW ASHia Co..J Mttestown.n 

BARNES' 

Fcot Power Machine 

This cut represents 
Combined Machine, wh 
is the best machine m 
for use in the construct 
of Hives, Sections, Boi 
etc. Sent on trial. Send 
Catalogue and Price Lis 
W. F. & J. BARNES C 
913 Ruby St., Rockford. 



PftTENl^ 



promptly obtained OE NO FEE. Trade-Marks. 
Cavatfi. Copvri|?htB and LabelB registered. 
TWENTY TEAKS' PEACTICE. Highest references. 
Send model, sketch or photo, for free report 
on patent.ibility. All business confidential. 
HAND-BOOK FEEE. Explains everything, lens 
How to Obtain and Sell Patents, What Inventions 
Will Pay, How to Get a Partner, explains best 
mechanical movements, and contamB 300 otner 
lubjecti of importance to inventors. Aaaress, 

H.B.WILLS0N&CO. '"•"' 




790 F Street North. 



Attorneys 
WASHINGTON, D. 



BIG MUGftZlE "^^el^'VlS^l 

er's, Mnnsey's, LadiesHome Journal or McClu 
SeiidlO cents to help pay postage. AJWERIC 
STOKIES. Dept. H.D., Grand Rapids, J 



HOHE WORK S^r^'sT 

week. Enclose stamp. H. T>. LEADER C 
Grand Rapids, Aich: 



W. M. Gerrish. R. F. D.. Eppmr. N. 
keeps a complete aupply of our goods. 
Eastern customers will save freight by or 
inf of him. ^ _ . .rr 

The W. T. Falconer Mfg. ' 



Homes in 

Old Virginia- 

It is gradually brought to light 
that the Civil war has made great 
changes, freed the slaves, iind in 
consequence has made the large 
land owners poor and finally freed 
the land from the original owners 
who would not sell until they were 
compelled to do so. There are some 
of the finest lands in the market at 
very low prices, lands that produce 
all kinds of crops, grasses, fruits, 
and berries; fine for stock. You 
find green truck patches, such as 
cabbage, turnips, lettuce, kale, 
spinach, etc., growing all the win- 
ter. The climate is the best all th» 
year around to be found, not too 
cold nor too warm. Good water. 
Healthy. Railroads running in 
every direction. If you desire to 
know all about Virginia send 10c. 
for three months subscription of 

the VIRGINIA FARMER to 

Farmer Co., Emporia, Va. i 



PATENTS 

Caveats, Trade Marks 
Copyrights and Designs 

Send your business direct to Washington 
Saves time, josts less, better service 

My office close to the U. S. Patent 
Office. Personal attention given. Twenty 
years' experience. 

Book "How to Obtain 
Patents" etc., sent free. 

Patents procured through E. G. Siggers receir* 
special notice, without charge, ia the 

INVRM^IVR AGR. 

'Ilustrated Monthly. Twelfth year. Terms$layear 

E. G. SIGGERS, 

Washington, D. C. 



918 F Street N. W. 



Th«r« is BO trade or profession better catered to 
»y good jouraals than that of the farmer. Uiii»- 
telligaat mBprogrviiireBCss has now no excuse 
tf. 



Good Adveitisers 

Those who are careful where they 
Via.cc thfclr advertisinf money, ujse 

BARNUM'S 

MIDLAND FARMER 

which reaches over 30,000 prosperous, 
wide-awaks, buying farmers every is- 
sue. Regular rate 14 cents per agate 
line, but send us a trial order at 10 
cents per line ($1.40 per inch each 
time), and we will place it where it 
will do the most good. Two or more 
new subscriptions (sent together), 20 
cents per year. Sixteen pages, four 
columns to page. Departments cover- 
ing every branch of farming and stock- 
raising. The little journal that is 
"readand re-read by its readers." Bar- 
num's Midland Farmer, No. 22 North 
Second st, St. Louis, Mo. 7tf 



Poultry Success 

14th Year, 32 to 64 Pages. 

The 20th Century 

!,;r^ POULTRY MAGAZINE, 

jBeautitully ilhistraled. .")(» t-ts. per year. 
[Greatly improved and enlarged. Shows 
readers how to succeed with poultry 

SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY OFFER. 

'o years, (jO cts.; 1 year, 25 cts.; 4 
months' trial. 10 cts.; stamps ac- 
cepted. 

SAMPLE COPY FREE. -«"3> 

Large, Illustrated, I'ractieal Poultry 
Book FREE to yearly subscribers. 

Catalogue of poultrji publications 
FREE. Address nearest office. 

POULTRY SUCCESS CO., 

i Dept. 16. I , ! «? J 

DesMoiues, Iowa, Springfield," Ohio,' 



American 




BEE 



Journal 



16 -p. Weekly. 
„c:^.,T-^ — Sample Free. 
«»" All about Bees and their 
profitable care. Best writers. 
Oldest beepaper; illustrated. 

iJepartments for begrianera 
and for women bee-keepers. 

Address. 

aEORaEW.YORK^kCO. 
144 & 146 Erie St. Chicago.Ilu 



When writing to advertisers mention 
The American Bee-Keeper. 



AGENTS Wanted ' WaVhTng Machines 

You can double your money every time you sell one 

and they sell easily. We have sold over 150,000 in the last fourteen years. The 
are cheaper than ever. Catalogue Free. 

The Empire Washer Co., Jamestown, N.Y 



The Iowa 

Horticultural 

Paper. 

Monthly, 
50 cents 
per year. 

It is unique, 
planned on 
original lines. 

You cannot 
be up-to-date 
in fruit growing unless you read it. 
Balance of this year free to new 
subscribers. 

THE FRUITMAN, 

Mt. Vernon, Iowa. 




Tiie Nebraska Farm Jouraa 

A monthly journal devoted t 
agricultural interests. Larges 

circulation of any agricultural pa 
per in the west. It circulates i 
Missouri, Kansas, Nebrasl<a, low 
and Colorado. 

C. A. DOUGLASS, prop. 
Itf 1123 N St., Lincoln, Neb 



•te 




NA/E WANT 

ETcry reader of tke Americas Bee-K-'oer to 
write for a free lample copy of tkc 

ROCK! MOOSTAIN BEE JOUEWL 

Tells you about Western methods, co-opers 
tive honey selling and the treat bit cropi tkat 
have made the Alfalfa regions famous. Addresf 
the publisher, 

H. C. MOREHOUSE, 

Bouldef Colo. 

tf. 



P ROVIDENCE nUEEjS_ 
ROVE THEIR IJOALITIES 

to be unexcelled by any strain ol 
Italian bees on earth. A rare embodimem 
of all the desirable traits with the bat 
eliminated. A strain evolred by years o 
constant study and endeavor. I want ever; 
progressive bee-keeper to test this wv 
strain, and will be pleased to till orders fo 
untested at Si.OO each. Special price 
cheerfully quoted on special queens and oi 
quantities. Let me -send you my circulai 
It's ready now. 

LAWRENCE C. MILLER, 

p. O.Box 1113. Providence, R. I. 



SHINE! 

The Empire Washer Company, Jamestown. 
NY. rnXs a Shine Cabinet, furnished with 
foot stand, blacking, russet dressing, shoe 
rubber-in fact, all articles and materials need- 
ed to keep shoes looking their best-and it is 
made to be fastened to the wall of the toile 
room or kitchen, it does away with the jex- 
.tious searching after these articles w^'clj .* 
Jtogether too common. A postal w,ll bring 
yoti detafls of this and »th r good things. 



AUSTR ALIANS. 

NOTE the address— 

Pender Bros., 

WEST MAITLAND, 
New South Wales, Australia 

The largest manufacturers of Beekeepd 
SuDDlies in the Southern Hemisphere, 
and'^r^fblTslie'-'^ oi the. AUSTRALASIA 
BEEKEEPER, the leading bee journal so jl 
of the equator. i 

Sample copy and 64-page catalogue, FR|? 
6-tf 



es. 



rb»] 



3 and 5=BANDED ITALIAN 

and CARNIOLAN QUEENS. 



AY FRIENDS, you who have supportwl us during the past season, 
we desire to express our thanks for your patronage in the past, 
and res])ectfully solicit a continuance of your valued favors 
through the season of 1904. 

Our queens now stand upon their merits and former record. 
We are preparing for next season, and seelving the patronage of 
hirge apiarists and dealers. We do not claim that our queens are 
superior to all others, but that they are as good as the best. We 
will furnish from one to a thousand at the following prices: 
Tested of either race, $1; one untested. Toe, 5 for $3.25, 10 for $6, 
15 for $8.25, 25 for $12.50, 50 for $23.50, 100 for $45. 
descriptive circulars address. 



For 



JOHN W. PHARR, Prop., 

New Century Queen Rearing Co., Berclair, Qoliad Co., Texas. 



HOMESEEKERS 

AND INVESTORS, who are interest- 
ed in the Southern section of the 
Union, should subscribe for THE 
DIXIE HOMESEEKER, a handsome 
illustrated magazine, describing ttve 
industi'ial development of the South, 
and its many advantages to homeseek- 
ers and investors. Sent one year on 
trial for 15c. 

Address, 

THE DIXIE HOMESEEKER, 
West Appomattox, Va. 



Pineapples, Oranges, Grape Fruit 

Made a Specialty for Non-Resident Owners 
and Intending Settlers in the 

Lovely Lake Region of South Florida. 

20 per cent, annual return on investment. 

Pure air, pure water, no mosquitoes. Hik! 
pine and oak land, bordered by fresh water 
lakes, suited to all cirtus fruits and pineapples. 
Good title. Time payments. Address for de- 
scriptive matter, W. E. Pabor, Manager Pa- 
bor Lake Pineries, Avon Park, Fla. tf 

When writing to advertisers mention 
The American Bee-Keeper. 



To Sul>«crlbeni of 
THE AMERICAN BEE=KEEPER 

And Othem! 

Until Further Notice 

We WUl Send The 

Country 
Journal 

to any address in the U. S. A., one 
year for 10 cents, proTlding y©u 
mention American Bee-Keeper. 

The Country Journal treata on 
Farm, Orchard and Garden. Poul- 
try and Fashion. It's the beat pa- 
per printed for the price. 

Address, 

The Country Journal, 

Alleatown. Pa. 

2tf 



POULTRY NEWS. 

25 Ct.s. A Year. Ad. rate 70e. An Inch 
Circulation 10,000 Monthly. 

Bee Department in eharge of W. W. 
Fowler, of Ardslev, N. Y 

XEAV BRUNSWICK, NEW JERSEY. 



WE HAVE GROWN 

Too Big for Our Present Quarters* 

The rapid expansion of our business has driven us out, 
and on January 1st, we will be located at No. 51 Walnut 
Street. This forced change will remove us only half a 
block from our old home, but there we will have four 
floors with increased facilities, a tremendous new stock of 
bee supplies. 

WE HAVE TO DO THIS. WE LEAD. 

In the new place nothing: will be lacking-. You will 
find a complete line of everything in the bee line. 

The MUTH SPECIAL, the REGULAR STYLE OF 
DOVE TAILS, DANDANT'S FOUNDATION, etc. Special 
discounts fo early orders. 

COME AND SEE US. 

QUEEN BEES and Nuclei in season. Write for catalog. 

THE FRED W. flUTH CO., 

Front and Walnut. CINCINNATI, OHIO. 



Strawberries. 

Young, healthy, fresh, vigor- 
ous stock in prime condition for 
spring planting. 

All 

Leading 
V a r ieties 

Write lor prices and te^rns. 

MONROE STRAWBERRY CO., 

Box 66 MONROE, MICH. 

HARE, HUTCH AND HENNERY 

SAMPLE COPY FREE. 

The only paper in the U. ?. devoted 
to BELGIAN HARES. 

Leaves out all frills and fads and 
talks straight business. Sh »ws how 
profits five times as large as can be 
made on poultry is now being made 
raising Belgians. Address, 

a. H. CASSENS, Pub., Belfast, Maine 



National Bee^ Keepers' Associatioa, 

The largest bee-keepers' society in the 
world . 

Organized to protect and promote the 
interests of its members. 

Memb ership Pee, $1.00 « Year. 

N. E. FRANCE, Plattevillc, Wis., 

General Manager and Treasurer. 



Sunshine 



is gaining ad- 
miration as a 
popular litera- 

ry family 

~"^^^— ^^^^■■~"^~ MAGAZINE. 
It entertains its readers with good short stor- 
ies, sketches and poems by the most famous 
authors of the day and is a magazine of supe- 
rior merit. 

It is a welcome visitor in every home. 

Price 25 cents a year. 

We wish to haye our magazine in your 
vicinity and as a special offer for new readers 
we will send you 

Sunshine for I Year for lOc. 

Think of it. less than one cent a copy. Can't 
you act as our agent ? 

ADD. MAYES PUB. CO., 
LOUISVILLE, - KENTUCKY. 




Vol. XIV 



JANUARY, 1904 



No. I 



COMB BUILDING. 



An Analysis of Cause and Effect in Relation to the 
Construction of Drone and Worker Cells. 

By W. W. McXeal. 

NATURE has decreed that every 
colony of bees shall have a con- 
stituency of (1) a queen; (2) 
worker-bees; (3) drone bees. She has 
ordained each of a kind to a particular 
mission in life: the (lueen to populate 
the hive; the worker to gattJer honey 
and build the honey-comb; and the 
drone to beautify the young queen. To 
insure this order of insect life it is 
necessary for the bees to build comb 
suitable for all propagating purposes. 
That there are certain agencies whii Ji 
preclude the building of Avorker-comb 
and intensify intei'est in the produc- 
tion of drone comb, is beyond conjec- 
ture. A knowledge of those influences 
and the ability to avoid tlieiu, [jrac- 
ticaJly makes a master of bees. 

The building of v,'Oi"-ier-coinb signi- 
fies contentment, but drone-comb im- 
plies that there is a feeling of inse- 
curit.v or one of dissatisfaction; and, 
therefore, it often stands a monuiuent 
to iJu' caprices of a romantic <iueen. 
The mere presence of the oue<?n on 
t-ombs under jtrocess of construction 
docs not necessarily mean chat siie is 
in full symjiathy with home interests. 
The coachings of instinct mak'^ tlie 
workers alert in this matter, and as 
soon as they anticipate the probable 
loss of their (jueen, preparations for 
the rearing of drones are at once be- 
gun. 

A queenless colony will invariably 
build drone comb and nothing short 



of a good laying queen would ever 
make it think of building worker- 
comb. 

The same teachings are to be met 
with in a nucleus where the queen 
can easily keep pace with the comb- 
builders. Just as long as there is 
contentment within the hive, the little 
colony will build worker-comb. But 
when the leaven of discontent begins 
to work, and they contemplate swarm- 
ing, the wax-workers switch off onto 
drone comb, with the queen following 
in close pursuit. 

It is a well-known fact that black 
bees build more worker-comb, as a 
rule, than Italians, because they are 
less given to swarming. 

AVe have heard it said that a swarm 
builds drone comb for store purposes, 
the reason assigned being that it is 
more economical of time and wax to 
do so. But bees do not build comb 
simply for store puri)oses; that is a 
secondary matter with them. Di'one 
comb will not be used in the fall of 
the year for honey when there is 
worker-comb at hand; thus shibwing 
they do not have a preference for it at 
any time. If the production of drone- 
comb were true economy, why don't 
the bees of a swarm practice it right 
from the start? At no subsequent 
time is the demand for store-comb so 
urgent, nor could that doctrine of 
economics l>e more clearly demonstrat- 
ed. But. do the bees build drone-comb 
at that time? No. It is only when 
the hive has been partly filled with 
worker-comb that local conditions 
arise to divert, or, the desire to swarm 
again, causing a ferment among them, 
do they build drone-comb. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



January 



However, for the sake of science in 
bee-culture, we will grant that by a 
concentration of forces at a given 
^oint, so easily effected at time of 
hiving, places such a great amount 
of wax at the disposal of the little 
company of comb-builders, they feel 
justified in the expenditure of it for 
the more costly (?) worker-comb. As 
the work advances and the colony 
breaks up into groups of various sizes, 
some of these groups may be embar- 
rassed by a shortage of wax. Or, that 
on account of the desertions in the 
ranks of the builders as they attain 
the age for foraging, it becomes neces- 
sary for tliem to use a shorter cut, 
so to speak, to keep abreast of the 
field-gatherers. Now, upon a super- 
ficial view, that might be taken con- 
clusively; but please note that drone- 
9SBaojs :^Du:jsdj :^on saop poo.iq ajeq.M 
'j«:}sni.:) sqj }o J9:^u30 aqj niojj ai^otn 
-a.i soaq esoqj .^q paj.iB^s :jsjy st qmoo 
room. Those little companies of work- 
ers, being too busily engaged to ex- 
plore the combs of the hive, come to 
feel their isolation and deprivation of 
the com])anionship of tlie queen; then 
they build drone-comb. Look at it 
in this way: Bees will build queen 
cells in any part of the hive where 
brood, in any manner, is separated 
from the main brood nest. Now, it 
bees on old combs containing brood in 
all stages of development and these 
combs adjoining those wliere the 
queen holds forth, feel the isolation 
and loss of the queen to such an ex- 
tent that tlie.v seek to repair her loss, 
why doesn't the same hold true in tlie 
other case? The fact that the queen 
of a swarm often seeks drone-comb 
and occupies it with brood when there 
is unoccui)ied worker-comb awaiting 
her is significant, and, un(}uestional)l.y, 
it points back to the primitive purpose 
of drone-comb. 

There is a two-fold purpose, never- 
theless, in tlie laying of drone-eggs 
when the queen has calculations of her 
own. rile nurse bees are clamoring 
for l)rood and were the queen to at- 
temi»t to gratify their wishes by lay- 
ing none but worker-eggs she would 
be, conse(iuentl.v, in no fit condition 
to accomitany the swarm when it is- 
sutid from its newly-furnisiied home. 
By laying drone-eggs she can reduce 
her avoirdupois while maintaining a 



given demand for the food secretion* 
of the nurse bees. One drone larvae re- 
quires for its development, food suffi- 
cient to mature several worker larvae. 
In this manner the queen meets the ex- 
igencies of the case without any seri- 
ous inconvenience to herself. When the 
time arrives for the departure of the 
swarm, there is then every necessary 
means for tliose left behind, to renew 
their joys in another queen mother. 

How beautifully perfect are the 
combs built under the guidance of a 
home-loving queen in the bloom and 
vigor of youth! Her contented way 
sheds an influence through eveiy part 
of the hive; and, no matter how pres- 
sing are th,e needs of store-comb, the 
bees do not consider it an advantage 
to them to build anything but worker- 
comb. When their wax-secreting ma- 
chinery is running full blast they do 
not care for comb with fewer parti- 
tions in it. Their queen is Avilling to 
plod along with the use of the smaller 
cells, and why shoiddn't they continue 
to make them? Their mathematicians 
fail to figure that there will be any 
gain in time by making the larger and 
thiclvcr combs. 

There can be only so many bees, 
working on the knife-like edge of the 
comb at the same time, whether it be 
drone or worker-coml). The cell walls 
are brought up later by a different 
force of I)ees who must wait, patient- 
ly or otherwise, till tlie foundation of 
the coml) l»as been laid by a limited 
few. Why should tliose industrious 
toilers further retiird labor on tbe 
comb, in like manner, l)y framing it 
with fewer side walls — walls to fi^t 
those born idlers, the drones? 

Evidence one more example of this 
kind. In the crowded brood-chamber 
of an establislied colon.v, having no su- 
per-combs for the storage of hone.v, the 
bees will fill an empt,y frame given " 
them, with drone-comb and drone- 
brood tlv)ngli thousands of comb-build- 
ers are idle and storage room is sore- 
ly needed. Ah, there is no mistaking 
the motive in such action at any time* 
Drone-comb is the expression of a love 
of the assuring jiresence of those big 
gentlemen Avhenever a spirit of ad- 
venture pervades the ranks of the 
coinb-builders. Natural drone-comb i» 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEErER 



probably just as expensive to make as 
worker-comb. The cells are necessari- 
ly deeper and the greater distance be- 
tween cell-walls make it more diffi- 
cult for the bees to steady themselves 
while working on them. Taking all 
this in connection with the greater 
amount of wax tUley would drop to 
the floor of the hive, may offset the 
apparent gain to the bees by the more 
open construction of drone-comb. 

The more we come to know those 
things that are grievous to bees and 
tend to provoke them to acts of 
swarming; in short, when we learn 
hpw to win them from their wayward 
propensities, will we be able to sys- 
tematize the( production of worker- 
comb without the aid of comb founda- 
tion. I hope there are many persons 
among the hosts of Bee-Keeper read- 
ers who are willing to help the good 
work along. For, as the bees build 
the honey-comb, so may we move 
steadily onward by a concerted effort, 
till that grand achievement is recorded 
to the glory of honey-producers and 
the enduring good of apiculture. 

Wheelersburg, OMo, i_ ec. 3, 1903. 



QUEEN REARING. 



The Art as Practiced by a British Expert. 
By John Hewitt. 

DEAR MR. HILL: In all the 
American bee papers I see from 
time to time a lot of silly stuff 
about rearing queens. The so-called 
Doolittle system of making artificial 
cells and putting in royal food being 
about the favorite. All that Doolittle 
discovered ( ?) will be found in Huber's 
book, published over 100 years ago. 
Huber also showed that bees, in select- 
ing larvae to rear into queens always 
began on those two days old; this 
being so — and I know he is right — how 
•can any one expect to get bees to start 
on larvae just hatched from the egg? 

Thlere is another fact, which I soon 
found out, and that is, the bees quick- 
ly remove all the royal food Doolittle 
directs to be put in the cells, as they 
will anything else they have not stored; 
this led me to try putting in larvae 
without the food and I then found they 
developed almost every one into 
queens, instead of just a few. I now 
pared drone-comb down, cut it into 



strips and put a larvae in every alter- 
nate cell and these were all rearetl into 
queens, although tliei(> uas not a trace 
of royal food or the base of a queen 
cell. 

I did not. hoM-ever. feel satisfie^l as 
if I gave just hatched larvae, they at 
once dried up in the cells and veiy 
few would be developed. I then 
adopted the plan of giving the larvae 
two days old. which were all soon on 
their way to become queens; when the 
cells were half-built I remove these 
larvae and put in others just hatched 
from the egg. so that they tumbled 
as it were into a perfect bath of royal 
food; these queens invariably hatched 
out into splendid specimens. 

Always on the "mend," I now used 
drone larvae two days old, for the fol- 
lowing reasons; The bees start queen 
cells on them just as readily as on 
worker larvae, and should one get 
missed or overlooketl, it develops into 
a drone and not a small queen to play 
"old Harry" two days too soon, and 
when one has to depend on help, it 
does not do to take risks. 

I soon got tired of hunting out drone 
comb and cutting it into strips, so I 
made a machine to make 50 cell cups 
at once; these, held at exactly the right 
distances in a frame are dipped into 
molten wax and then immediately 
stuck on a stick, as soon as the wax 
gets cold the cells are all fastened to 
the stick and are ready for larvae. 

If all the queen rearing is done in 
full stocks, having the swarming fever 
on, no cell needs to be cut out, as the 
bees will protect the queens, and Avhat 
is more, so long as the swarming fe- 
ver is kept on, the bees will start and 
seal cells as fast as you give them no 
matter how many they may have seal- 
ed or queens already hatched and 
ripening. 

There is one very big advantage in 
this, as every queen is examined be- 
fore putting to a nucleus to mate and 
all that do not "come up to the mark" 
are destroyed, hence I have no second 
or third class queens. 

If queens are reared on these lines 
and given to good strong nuclei to 
mate, I'll guarantee — if good breeding 
queens are used as mothers — the bees 
produced by those queens will never 
spring dwindle or suffer from winter 
dysentery. I make this assertion after 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



Januaiy 



17 years experience, in which, I have 
sold thousands of queens guaranteed 
against this eomphiint with never a 
failure. 

Whatever may be said in favor of 
"Nature." it is the only plan I know 
of in which queens can be reared arti- 
ficially direct from the egg. and it cer- 
tainly" produces better queens than 
when left to natural development. 

Of course, there will be plenty 
of queen breeders who will swear by 
■their own methods, but where is there 
one who will guarantee his queens to 
produce bees proof against spring 
dwindling or winter dysentery like I 
have been doing ever since 1889? If I 
could not produce such bees, how is 
it people send to me for all their 
queens, and I have yet to receive the 
iirst report of such a lot of bees? 

I don't wish readers to infer that 
I use artificial cell cups in every in- 
stance, because I don't, for the bees 
will start cells of their own, which 
instead of removing, I remove the in- 
cluded larvae and put in one just 



hatched from the e^ 



Another fact 



some queen breeders will not swallow, 
is. the large number of queens I pro- 
duce on my system— 500 per week 
from one hive is nothing to wonder 
at, while anything under 100 leads me 
to' suspect something is wrong and 
more than this. I never cut a cell out, 
all being hatched in the stocks they 
are reared in, being naturally protect- 
ed and fed by the bees in their ceils 
for two days at least. 
Sheffield, England. 

BEESWAX. 



Something of Its Use in tlie Arts and Sciences'of 
Ancienl'and IModernJImes. 
By Dickson D. Alley. 

THE OTHI-m DAY, while looking 
at a beautiful piece of honey- 
comb and admiring the wonder- 
ful work of the bees, I began wonder- 
ing if the average bee-keeper knew 
what uses beeswax was put to, aftir 
he had disposed of it to the dealer. 
The apiarist is familiar with the man- 
ner in which his wife uses it to rub 
on her flat-iron or to draw her thread 
through, when engaged in heavy sew- 
ing. While he receives part of it 
back in the shape of foundation. 



Among the ancients it was an ex- 
tensive article of commerce. They 
used it largely in all their religious 
ceremonies, embalming their dead, and 
as an ingredient in precious ointments 
and salves. The Roman used it for 
coating his writing tablets on which 
he indicted his thoughts with the sty- 
lus, an instrument the prototype of our 
lead pencil. Combined with other re- 
sins the ancients calked the seams 
of their galleys to render them water- 
tight. The Romans bronze workers and 
silversmiths used beeswax extensively 
in their art. First making the model 
in beeswax and forming a mould over 
it of moulding sand. Then applying 
heat and melting out the wax, leav- 
ing the impression of the original in 
the mould, into which they poured the 
molten bronze. The Chinese also use 
this process in their bronze castings, 
it being applicable to the most com- 
plicated forms of the original model: 
such as the foliage of trees, etc. The 
whole casting being made in one piece; 
whereas, in modern bronze founding 
the original is covered with a mould 
which may consist of many pieces fit- 
ting together. In large castings neces- 
sitating the cutting of the model into 
several pieces to be cast separately 
and afterward braze<l together in the 
finishied product. 

The beautiful vases and other ob- 
jects of the silversmith's art. are all 
modeled in beeswax, to which has 
been added some fatty substance and 
powdered sulphur to keep it pliable. 
A great many of our public statues 
have been modeled in this material. 

I>angstroth says: "Wax candles were 
earlv introduced— with symbolical sig- 
nification—into Christian worship, and 
are still so employed in the Roman 
Catholic church." The Episcopal 
church also uses wax candles to .some 
extent. For this purpose the wax is 
bleached as white as snow. 

Wax is used by engravers for cov- 
ering copper plates with a thin coat, 
through which they scratch the design 
down to the copper; this is afterward 
submitted to an etching bath of weak 
acid which eats th/e exposed copper, 
leaving that part of the plate coated 
by the wax untouched. 

Who has not heard of Mr. Jarley's 
wax works? life-size and realistic fig- 
ures made famous by Mr. Dickens in 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



one of his stones. In Mme. Taussand's 
celebrated wax fi-ure show, of Lou- 
don, and the equally good show in the 
Eden Musee, New York City may be 
seen in wax, all the celebrated person- 
ages of history, in realistic attitudes 
and besides all these may be mention- 
ed the innumerable show figures used 
by tradesmen for the display of their 
goods. 

It is also used by electricians as an 
insulator; by dentists to obtain an im- 
pression of the patient's jaws; by 
chemists for dipping glass stoppers to 
bottles containing strong acids and 
alkalies; medicinally as an ingredient 
in many preparations. It is used in 
a photographic process for the produc- 
tion of carbon prints; for polishing 
hard-wood floors, and by decorative 
painters as a glaze. 

As the cold weather is hfere and the 
bees are temporarily out of business, 
why not start a discussion as to the 
uses of the products of our little 
friends the bees? 

Yonkers, N. Y., Xov. 17. 1903 



THE BEE IN THE GREEN HOUSE. 

By M. F. Reeve. 

THE CUCUMBER grower has no 
more useful ally than the honey 
bee, and the same industrious, 
unpaid laborer, will do good service 
among tomato and eggplant blossoms. 
Every New England gardener has one 
or more swarms of bees and a hive is 
carried into the forcing house soon 
after the cucumbers are planted so 
that the bees may be ready to visit 
the -first blossom. The cucumber, like 
other i^lants of its tribe, bears two 
kinds of blossoms on the same vine; 
one sort has stamens, the other pistils! 
It is necessary for the pollen of the 
former to be carried to the latter. This 
work was formerly done by hand, with 
a camel's hair brush, until it was 
found that the same result could be 
attained more easily and cheaply 
through the agency of bees. The little 
insects are also more certain to find 
and fertilize all the cucumber blossoms 
than even an expert human operator. 

Many tomato growers who carry on 
operations in winter under glass have 
found that a hive of bees in the forc- 
ing house adds to the certainty of 
pollenizing the blossoms. The New 



England growers nearly all employ 
bees for the purpose of fertilizing their 
under-glass crops. Fifty cents per 
pound has been a common New York 
quotation for winter tomatoes 

A green house man near by my place 
complained to me. "your bees have 
])layed the mischief with my carna- 
tions. I had a lot of plants which I 
had cross-fertilized with pollen for 
getting bigger blooms. The bees got 
in among them and mixed up the varie- 
ties everyhow and I got all kinds of 
variegated plants." 

I .suggested that thereafter he en- 
close the pollenized flowers with 
y-auze until they w^-nt to seed, seeing 
that the end he wanted was to get the 
seeds to determine the result of his 
experiment. He did so and informed 
me that things had turned out .just as 
he desired and that he had a'cania- 
tion that would make the famous 
Lawson .no.CK30 one look like thirty 
cents for size and color. 

The land grower who was experi- 
menting with growing winter tomatoes 
III one of the green houses and had 
had indifferent success, borrowed a 
hive of bees and was enthusiastic over 
the results. He said the tomatoes 
were in greater profusion and ripened 
much l)etter, and at a time Avheii they 
brought more money. Incidentally 
the bees having the run of the green 
house were of service in other fertiliz- 
ing work. 
Rutledge, Pa. 



BEE HUMBUG. 

"It is passing strange what a lot 
of freak idea,s exist about the bee 
and how, like a snowball, the rolling 
nonsense has gathered unto itself in 
its progress the vaporings of every 
idle dreamer, of eveiy 'emotional fic- 
tionist."— Arthur C. Miller, in Amer- 
ican Bee-Keeper. Mr. Miller follo'ws 
on Avith the startling assertion that 
"the bee is a thoroughly selfish ani- 
mal." He says that the manifold la- 
bors of the worker are only the ex- 
pression of the "parental instinct." 
But when did "parental instinct" come 
to spell selfishness? With such views 
A. C. Miller is likely to feel lomely.— 
Irish Bee Journal. 



Can you send us just one new sub- 
scriber? 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



January 



A MILK AND HONEY FARM. 

By Kev. C. M. Herring. 

SVVn A FARM is run successfully 
in Brunswick. Me., by Mr. 
Charles D. Winslow. who is a 
youns; man of broad intelligence and 
"agrt^§ive enterprise. At the age of 19 
lie conceived the idea of uniting the 
l)nsiness of milk and honey-raising. 
And looking forward to the possession 
of a farm that was destined soon to 
!)»' liis own. lie purchased of me a hive 
of bees, wliicli. up to now. has increas- 
ed to 40 strong colonies. 

With tliesc and lilt cows, largely Jer- 
sev. he has stocked his farm. 



and he is destined to make his mark 
as a milk and honey man. He is yet 
a single gentleman, but he is popular 
among the ladies, and he will, ere 
long, make an adventure for life. If 1 
should tie the knot, his "honey-moon," 
would be to me as the sun at noon. 
I think this example of push and en- 
terprise should attract the attention of 
all young men. And especially of all 
fanners, who would make the most of 
their noble calling. 

Brunswick. Me. Nov. 12. 19<)3. 




CH.\S. D. WINSLOW 



He thinks the best fodder he can 
raise for his cows is alsike clover, 
winch also affords the best supply of 
nectar for his bees. These two pro- 
ducts he brings to the city every <lay 
in liis milk cart, on which is written. 
in large letters-'Ture Honey and .ler- 
sev Milk." 

His charming white clover Ivmey 
connnands a quick sale at 2r> cents per 
pound, and his rich yellow milk joined 
witli his honey, make a commodity 
that pleases liis customers. Also, It 
not dnlv furnislies his table with at- 
tractive sweetness, but it keeps his 
I»ocket-book well lined with fives and 
tens. His work is brisk and groAving, 



WIRING BROOD FRAMES. 

The Way it is Done by a Bee-keeper of California. 
By H. M. Jameson. 

FRIEND HILL: Much has been 
written and printed in the bee- 
papers about wiring frames, in 
fact, a lot of "wire-pulling" to accom- 
plish little. They drive nails, etc.. for 
tension. Nothing but hard work comes 
of this. Then they hatch up some jig- 
ger to hold the frame to stand the hard 

pull. 

:Most bee-keepers have plenty ot room 
out of doors. Instead of causing the 
wire to kink ajid crawl by winding 
about something, unwind and sti-aight- 
en it out. I fasten the wire near the 
shop door, having the spool on a spin- 
dle. I walk out through the olive 
grove, now and then giving the wire 
a pull, walk on till tlie whole is run 
out, if so much is desired, giving it 
a final pull stretching it several rods 
if on a hot day. It will then be limp 
as a string. If it breaks in pulling out 
no harm is done. 

The frame is pierced for four wires 
and I get the best results by crossing 
the center wires; this leaves practical- 
ly three in the center with four at 
either end. The wire draws through 
the frame as would a string. With a 
little practice you can measure thfe 
amount you need for the frame when 
you pull through the upper holes, or 
the first pull, i. e., just enough to 
reve through the balance of the 
frame, having it come just long enough 
to engage the tack or nail to hold it. 
Now take a turn of wire around the 
fore-finger of right hand, with glove 
on. bracing the thumb against the 
frame, which you have loose. With 
the fingers of the left hand bear down 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



the thii'il wii-e from the top, then the 
second, taking: up the shack with thie 
right hand till the wires sing, and fast- 
en as usual. 

Fasten the foundation to top-bar and 
draw smooth. With the fore-finger 
nail of left hand draw the upper wire 
down in the center one-half inch and 
imbed there, keeping the sheet smooth, 
imbed the crossed wires by catching 
the lower one with thumb nail of left 
hand, push it up one-fourth inch and 
imbed there. The upper wire by being 
sagged will hold and not sag more, 
while the lower one will, if the founda- 
tion does, thereby keeping it smooth 
in center where it always sinks the 
most. There will be no occasio^ for 
getting the frame out of square in the 
operation. The bight of the wire will 
not cut through any ordinary cloth 
glove. 

I wish you a fine turkey dinner for 
Thanksgiving. 

Corona, Cal., Nov. IG, 1903. 



A MYSTERIOUS ACT. 



Peculiar Habit of Worker-bees Revealed by Obser- 
vstion, and Its Possible Bearing upon Current 
Subjects of Discussion. 

By Arthur C. Miller. 

^^T^EES do nothing invariably," 
£j quoth Mr. Hasty. Oh, go to 
the bee thou skeptic, and learn 
of her ways and be wise. In a broad 
sense bees do nothing invariably. Cer- 
tain general laws they are, by force of 
their nature, compelled to follow. 
When man interferes they adapt them- 
selves to the disturbance and changed 
conditions so far as they can. When 
they do some seemingly erratic th^ng. 
quite contrary to expectations we may 
be sure that the fault lies in our inter- 
pretation of the conditions, not in the 
bees. As yet we know very little of 
the laws of bee-life. Certain general 
habits we recognize, but the stimuli 
behind those habits are more than ob- 
scure. 

In the American Bee .lournal for 
October 1. Mr. Hasty, in commenting 
on my statements about bees' methods 
of obtaining food from each other, 
quotes an old legend as to the bee's 
manner of ripening nectar, gently pro- 
tr\iding a minute drop on thle end of 
the ligula and then drawing it in 



again." There is just enough truth in 
the legend to make it misleading. 

After an inflow of nectar or .syrup 
many workers will be found clustered 
quietly, and at first glance apparently 
for no purpose. A little closer scrutiny 
will reveal the motion of their mouths 
and the appearance there of a tiny drop 
of fluid. There it stays briefly and 
then is withdraAvn and the mouth clos- 
ed. This operation is repeated for a 




long time, how long I do not know, 
for my patience always gave out be- 
fore the bee's did. I assume the oi>e- 
ration has to do with the ripening or 
conversion of the nectar, but whatever 
it's purpose it is done entirely by the 
mouth, the ligula or tongue having 
nothing to do with it, being folded up 
back iinder the chin. A few diagrams 
may help to make it plain. 

Fig. I is the front view of a work- 
er's head as it appears during the 
operation; the dotted line N, showing 
where the drop of nectar (?) apr^eai-s. 




Fig. II is a sectional view of a work- 
er's head; Ibr is the labruni or upper 
lip. mt is the mentuni or chin to which 
the tongue is attached and bends or 
folds back at B, but is shown extend- 
ed and its parts separated. The man- 
dibles are not shown as when the 
tongue is not in use it, is folded up 
behind the chin In the same figure 
the dotted line N rei)resents the liquid. 



8 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER iaBnnBf 



In Fig. I the mandibles are shown 
open, which is the usual position when 
the bee is at work about the hive, ex- 
cept when she is carrying something or 
using them to push with as when 
packing pollen or working on the 
comb. 

Providence, R. I., Oct. 11, 1903. 



LARGE HONEY CROPS. 

By F. Greiner. 

MR. EDITOR: Allow me a few 
explanatory remarks on the 
above subject. The final report 
of Mr. .Johnson's large honey crop in 
December issue, sounds fishy and no 
mistake. Mr. .Johnson had not ought 
to expect but that such a report would 
be looked upon with some suspicion 
by a large number of bee-keepers. To 
my knowledge no such a crop with 
such increase has ever been secured 
in our Northern States. If, one year 
with another, I could do half as well 
I should go into "bees" on a large 
scale with the expectation of soon be- 
ing able to buy out Rockefeller or any 
other fellow; but unfortunately I have 
the reputation of securing very small 
yields generally, although I have 
reached the 100 pound mark three 
times in thirty years. 

The season of 1902 is still vividly 
in my recollection; it was one of the 
wettest I have ever experienced. It 
could not have been any worse, it 
would seem. Clover was present in 
great abundance, but the bees wei'e 
kei)t from visiting the blossoms for 
more than three-fourths of the time. 
I have never passed through a moi-e 
tantalizing time with my Ijees than 
that season. Abxindance of honey at 
the door, plenty of bees to take care 
of it, but no oi)i)ort unity for them to 
gather it in. Strange as it may seteni 
during this most luifavorable season 
I took from an outyard of 10 colonies 
over 1,800 pounds of honey, half ex- 
tra<-te<l and half in comb. As 1 recol- 
lect, I have had other hone.v .seasons 
when evei"j' condition seemed to be 
unfavorable. It is not unreasonable 
to expect thai at some time or other 
a season might come around with all 
conditions favorable, when a crop of 
four times as much as I secin-ed in 
1902 would not be impossible. 

Tlie past buckwheat season was in- 



terrupted in the midst of its glory 
by a cold and wet spell which ended 
it too soon to make a remarkable re- 
cord, yet some colonies, put in best 
possible shape at the beginning of the 
season, stored 50 pounds in sections. 
Seventy-five could have been easily 
obtained with favorable weather. 

The rule, as I have observed, seems 
to be unfavorable weather during the 
honey flow. Mr. Johnson has had a 
season with all conditions favorable 
and it is my opinion, he will not live 
long enough to see another season as 
good. 

Speaking of the different sources we 
in this part of Western New York may 
get honey from, I might say the fol- 
lowing, in order to show that a very 
large yield, like Mr. Johnson's is pos- 
sible. 

There have been seasons when I 
have seen my bees bring in quite a 
little honey of excellent flavor from 
sugar maple. It is the earliest honey 
we get here. Generally the weather is 
unfavorable during the few days the 
bloom lasts. The fruit bloom comes 
next. In some localities in this State 
yields of comb honey are sometimes 
secured. As high a yield as 100 
pounds extracted honey has been re- 
ported, although I have never even 
tried to have honey stored in sections 
from it. Raspberry bloom often gives 
us surplus, and if there were enough 
locust trees within reach of my bees 
locust bloom could bk? depended upon 
to somewhat swell the crop. Sumac 
also figures as a source of surplus 
honey in my localitj'. and my whole 
honey crop is often ruined by the addi- 
tion of this amber honey to the white 
honey we are getting. White clover 
I have known to yield honey abun- 
dantly some three or four times with- 
in the past 30 years, but 12 or 14 
miles north of me it yields very regu- 
larl.v, almost every year. Basswood 
usually yields honey when it blooms 
and the bloom is not destroyed by 
forest-tent caterpillar. Basswood 
and clover overlap each other, tlie 
flow commences with latter and ends 
with the former. 

I have recorded one season in 30 
when my bees continutnl to store 
honey all the way along during the 
usual interval between basswood and 
liuchwheat. Buckwheat is more re- 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



9 



liable here than is basswood, and 
yields well, but some: years there is 
not enough sown within easy reach 
of our bees. After buckwhieat, I have 
had a good run once in 30 years fi-oni 
honey dew. It is an undesirable ad- 
junct, still it is honey and we foimd 
willing buyers for it. There are two 
other plants which have the name 
of yielding honey, l)ut so far as I am 
concerned they might as well not ex- 
ist — "goldynrod and sweet clover." Un- 
doubtedly they yield honey in some 
sections of New York, but like catnip, 
the different mints, etc., they amount 
to nothing hiere. 

Summing up the matter it will be 
seen that with all conditions favorable 
we might have a continuous honey 
flow from early spring till September 
15. ^Vhieii this happens the avei'age 
bee-keeper could, without difficulty, in- 
crease from one colony and secure 500 
pounds of surplus from every good 
colony in the spring. Occasionally, a 
bee-keeper may be so favored so as to 
reach this maximum, but 1 shoidd con- 
sider it an historical event. From 
year to year I have looked forward 
with the hope to once be favored with 
one of those ideal honey seasons, but 
so far in vain. Last season was quite 
favorable, as compared with the aver- 
age, having secured an average yield 
of 45 pounds, mostly comb honey. At 
this rate bee-kee])ing pays pretty well. 
If bee-keepers all over our land aver- 
age more than that bee-keeping Avould 
pay too well and would soon be over- 
done. 

Naples, N. Y., Dec. 7, 1903. 



THE BEST HONEY GATHERERS. 

By (). :M. Hlanton. 

ALTHOTMUI it is very difficult to 
make a pertVct te.st of the capa- 
bilities of the different strains 
of bees, as to their capacity for gath- 
ering honey, I have from many tests 
in tvgard to them satisfietl myself that 
there is little or no difference. 

I placetl a Cypi'ian and black colony 
side l)y side, both (pieens of previous 
season, and both to all appearancvs 
equally strong. At the height of the 
honey flow remove<l the surplus combs 
of honey. The blacks had filled eleven 
"fombs completely full, and capped. 



honey, and the Cyprians ten combs 
with the eleventh comb filfed with the 
exception of .".(» per cent, of capped 
brood. 

I also tested colonies of three-band- 
'ed and golden Italians and Holy Lands 
with colonies of blacks and with about 
the same results. 

1 had them all in Langstroth hives, 
eleven frames in the upper stores and 
ten frames in lower brood-chamber. 
All the queens of the previous season. 
I also use 20-frame and one-stoi-y 
hives, and from one with black bees 
removed twelve solid combs of cap- 
ped honey, the brood confined to the 
remaining eight frames. 

It was my intention to weigh the 
honey separately from each hive, but 
being over crowded with work was 
unable to do so. Upon close inspection 
of my hives I could not see any 
marked differemce in the qualities of 
the different strains. My Camiolans 
I have not tested enough to form a 
correct opinion though they indicated 
as good results. 

The different strains showed their 
viciousness in the following order: 
The Cyprians almost intolerable; next 
the Holy Lands, then the Italians, with 
blacks and Carniolans of easy control. 
The Carniolans and blacks crossed on 
Cyprians were greatly modified. Ono 
colony of Cornio-Cyprians were quite 
gentle. 

I see no advantage in Cyprians at 
honey gathering, and it is the height 
of folly to suffer such torture from 
them without any remuneration. The 
Cyprians whipped me out on several 
occasions whilst I was endeavoring 
to remove the surjjlus honey. Tobac- 
co and even sui])hur could scarcely 
control them when the smoke was 
comparatively cool. On one occasion 
I went through 15 colonies of blacks 
and one Carnio-Cyprian without a 
sting; and next attempted to remove 
the surplus honey from an imported 
C.vprian, and was completely driven 
away, and next day made the attempt 
again with same results. 

There is no question as to the cross- 
ing of strains being of great benefit in 
preventing deterioration from in and 
in-breeding; and Avhile we are so en- 
gaged it is well to have in view gen- 
tleness, as we gain nothing except tor- 
ture in handling the vicious. 



10 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



January 



I prefer for crossinp; the thre<?-baud- 
ed Italians, Carniolans and blacks. If 
I was left to choose only one strain 
of bees I would he loath to give up 
the blacks; especially as they make 
the prettiest comb honey. 

Greenville, Miss.. Dec. 7, 1903. 



CHICAGO NORTHWESTERN 
CONVENTION. 



ARTIFICIAL POLLEN. 

By C. S. Harris. 

I WAS VERY much interested in the 
editorial concerning artificial pol- 
len in the November issne of the 
American Bee-Keeper. which was on 
a line with my own experience the 
pa.st season. 

I'suall,v after a good flow fi-om saw 
palmetto, the bees continue brood-rear- 
ing, Avhich keeps them in good shape 
for the cabbage palmetto, shortly to 
follow: but this year all colonies cur- 
tailed their brood and many queens 
cea.»*ed laying. 

In this i)articular instance, as re- 
•gai'ds full colonies, it turned out to be 
a piece of good hick, as cabbage pal- 
metto was a complete failure and the 
bees reared for it would have been 
merel.v consumers: but during the saw 
palmetto flow some queens in nuclei 
had been badly crowded and. wanting 
more brood. I end^eavored to get these 
queens to lay. but with little success, 
until pollen was obtained from some 
source. 

At the time, a friend suggested that 
a lack of pol](Mi might be the cause of 
the trouble and this seemed the more 
likely from the fact that the bees had 
stored little or no i)ollen from magnolia 
bloom when, generally, the combs wex'e 
crowded with it at this time. 

Unless nectar is coming in freely 
when magnolia is in iiloom the pollen 
from it is apt to become a nuisanr-e. 
as the bees will sometimes lill several 
combs in th^e middle of the brood nest 
with it and they are much slower in 
removing it for the queen than honey 
in a like i>osition. 

This locality is strong on pollen, or. 
always has been heretofore, and this 
is my first exjierience of a shortage. 
It dill not occur to me to try artificial 
pollen, but the hint furnished by Mr. 
Paries" experience may prove of great 
value upon some similar occasion in 
the future. 

Holly Hill, Fla., Nov. 26, 1903. 



Advancement in the Use of Formalin Gas in Treat- 
ing Foul Brood. 

(By .J. E. Johnson.) 

I ATTENDED the Chicago conven- 
tion December 2nd and 3rd, and 
I don't think a more profitable or 
harmonious bee-keepers' convention 
was ever held in the United States. 

On Thursday President York could 
hardly get the bee-keepers to stop talk- 
ing bees or get them to understand 
that they must satisfy the inner man 
with something to eat. Four or Ave 
members would man.v times arise to 
speak at once. Good natiu'e and har- 
mony prevailed through all the con- 
vention. There Avas a large attend- 
ance. Among those present were Dr. 
C. C. Miller, AV. Z. Hutchinson, E. T. 
Abbott, Hnber Root, N. E. France. D. 
K. Smith. Niver of New York and Fred 
W. Muth. of Cincinnati, and many 
other well-known bee-keeping experts. 
Best of all everyone seemed to agree 
that this was to be a harmonious and 
profitalile convention: and I want to 
say right here that I think all the un- 
kind feelings aroused at I^os Angeles 
were tied up in a bundle and sunk 
in Lake Michigan. Uet us hope never 
to rise again. Let us all practice for- 
bearance and patience with one an- 
other. We are not all built alike, and 
don't see alike. I belieAe we all want 
to do what is right and surely we afl 
want the National Association to pros- 
per. I don't expect to be able to do 
much good, but I do want to impress 
upon the minds of all that it is so 
ver.y easy to do harm. 

I believe the venerable Deacon is 
right in a certain sense about the two 
opposing parties, and that is this: 
When friends misunderstand each oth- 
er and are caused to utter bitter words 
against each other, when tiie light of 
forgiveness and forbearance shines iu 
upon them, the.v will know each oth- 
er's metal and be bound in closer 
friendship than ever. In the good book 
it sa.vK that in the day of .iudgment 
those that are to be clad in white robes 
have come up out of great tribulation. 
lA>t our motto be kind words and kind 
feelings toward one another, ami 5,000 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



11 



members before next National conven- 
tion will be the result. 

The National is doinj;- a good work. 
Every bee-keeper ought to belong to 
it All within reach ought to belong 
to the Chicago and Northwestern. I 
live 163 miles from Chicago. 

I talked with several old experi- 
enced bee-keepers who produce lots of 
both comb and extracted honey and 
they sell their honey both comb and 
extracted for 20 cents per pound. Just 
think of the help it is to talk with 
such men and get pointers not only 
on selling honey but how to produce 
it. I noticed in particular that these 
same men were at the convention last 
year, and if they live they will be there 
next year. 

There were samples of both comb 
and extracted honey in different pack- 
ages On exhibition from which we 
might gain many ' valuable pointers. 
Also there were sample combs of foul 
brood with Inspectors France, Smith 
and Hutchinson to kindly give us in- 
formation so that we might be enabled 
to detect it easily. President Geo. W. 
York, Vice-President Mrs. Stowe and 
Set'i'etary Herman F. Moore were re- 
elected. There were quite a number of 
lady bee-keejiers present. If you want 
to attend the best convention ever held, 
attend tlue next Chicago and North- 
western — ^eveiy member belongs to 
"the push." 

FORMALIN GAS FOR FOUL 
BROOD. 

The Deacon sa.vs in December issue 
that he wished T had shouted sooner 
and louder about formalin gas. I have 
met so man.v criticisms in the past in 
other things that I had not the cour- 
age of my convictions, but now I am 
going to .iust ask the editor to kindly 
move over and give me a little more 
room while I shout .iust one more 
shout. 

Next time I will try and cut my arti- 
cle short. As I have given chase to the 
formalin rabbit I intend tostick to his 
ti'ail until I either catch him or run 
him into his hole for some one else to 
catch. 

So many are on the wrong track and 
the longer they follow that track the 
farther they get from home. Many 
think that germs are of animal life. 



The foul brood germ is a plant, and 
it propagates by sporulating. which Is 
a sexual act. Bacteria like the pear 
blight germ, is a plant, but is non- 
sexual. Now don't forget this: For- 
malin gas will not of itself kill any 
germ at all, no matter how strong; liut 
when the gas and the air are combined 
those two elements together produce 
formic acid, and the formic acid is 
what kills the germs and spores. So 
many say, "Oh, your box was not 
tight enough, therefore you failed," 
when the truth of the matter was. the 
box was too tight. Remember that the 
air is .iust as necessary as the gas. 
You don't want your l)ox too tight. Let 
in lots of gas and lots of air. As long 
as you do that you will continue to 
produce formic acid. When the air 
stops coming in. .vou soon stop forming 
tlie acid. When you appl.y formalin 
gas to an air-tight chamlier you only 
produce formic acid so long as that 
air lasts, or until that air ceases to sup- 
ply the necessary element. After that, 
no matter how strong your gas is you 
get no acid. Hence it is not effective. 
Remember also that formic acid will 
hurt neither bees nor brood. Bee-sting 
poison is formic acid, the same ident- 
ical stuff that is produced by formalin 
gas and air. 

I made the statement some time ago 
that I hoped to see the time when this 
gas could be so applied that it would 
kill every gei"m and spore in a hive 
full of bees and not cause the l)ees to 
miss a meal; but in bee-journals I did 
not venture to go further, as I knew 
T was treading on dangerous ground, 
but now as others have had their 
say; tried and failed, perhaps the 
brick bats won't fly so thick around 
m.v head if I venture to offer a little 
belli for your own good. Next month, 
if I live, I will tr.v to tell you how you 
can. without an.v machineiy b.v only 
slight cost, apply formalin gas into 
.vour hive full of bees no matter liow 
rotten with foul l»rood and kill every 
germ and spore and not kill your bees. 
That is a prett>' broad statement, but 
I think I can j)rove it. But don't 
try it on a large scale till you know 
.iust how. 
"Williamsfield, Ills. Nov. 5, 1003. 



When writing to advertisers mention 
The American Bee-Keeper. 



12 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



January 




THE DEACON'S "PURPS" AXD OLD BRASH. 



Dear Brother Hill: For the land's 
sokes, why not let Mr. Johnson toll a 
big yarn if he Avants to — it may be 
true, which is more than it is safe to 
gamble on with the tales of somo of 
the boys. I be powerful sorry for John- 
son; think of the thonsands of colo- 
nies that'll be put in his bailiwick next 
season. 

Sutliin' sort of graspin" in that 
Small chap of New Zealand, when lie 
can't let pass a chance to talk. Must 
be I'elated to some of we uns. Nice 
mess he makes of figgei's; th(\v'll tw ist 
some of the boys. I'ut it in gocKl I'. S. 
values next time — but ])erhaps you 
couldn't. The hnmilit.v of his Humble 
bees reminds one of that of I'riah 
Heaji. The.v mu.st be kin to Florida 
dragon flies. Is that New Zealand 
Flora he is to write abont. his wife or 
some other fellow's? 

Whew!! How hot .McXeal is a gel- 
tin' under the collar. If .Aon don't be- 
lieve in deej) frames, sa.v it softl.v. 
Hobb.v he calls it. Not mucli — its a 
nightmare. "Bees build downwards 
far more readil.v than si<lewise," which 
means that give the little cusses a 
chance and they will build a coml) one 
cell wide and as long as Mac's theo- 
ries. Ah well, he's .voung yet: he'll 
learn bye and bye. He's made of the 
right stuff" and will com* out all right. 



Nary a bit of the "stand jiat" about 
I*at — always a ti-ottin' and 'tis back to 
P'lorida this time. 

"Bee-Keepers of Gotham.'' . None of 
it in mine, thank .vou. I perfer to be 
not quite so near Heaven. S'posiu' a 
feller should forget and dodge back- 
\\-;ir(ls when a mad bee got after him. 
He'd start for the nether regions sort 
(if suddint. 

Jimmy's did it! One piece sections 
not wuth a continental cuss — and yet 
millions of them in use. But Jeems 
is right— as usual. Doubt it? Wait 
and see. 

'Twixt you and Murnett and Popple- 
ton raw extracted honey is getting a 
black eye. Doubtless you will get dis- 
loved. but never mind a little tbing 
like that, so long as you are right. 

I must cut my letter short, as I'm 
a little bit busy, got to mail off" some 
(pieens. kill a couple of chickens and 
(Iress 'em. fix some gimcracks for 
Mary, clean my gun, repair my wagon 
and break a new dog. Guess I'll at- 
tend to the (log fust; the other things 
can wait till afternoon. This new pup 
of mine will be nigh as good os old ' 
Brash, and either on 'em has more 
sense than some humans. Why don't 
you i)rint that i)icture of my dogsV I 
believe it would please some of the 
Itovs and might bring out a lot of dog 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



13 



stories which you coukl run in when 
bee-news is scarce. 

All things are fish that come to the 
net — of some folks, anyWow. 
Yours as ever, 

John Hardscrabble. 



HAMILTON COUNTY (OHIO) BEE- 
KEEPERS* ASSOCIATION. 

By Wm. T. Gilliland. 

THE ANNUAL MEETING of the 
Hamilton County Bee-Keepers' 
Association took place Monday 
evening, September 14th, at the Grand 
Hotel, Cincinnati. 

The secretary, Mr. W. T. Gilliland, 
read the minutes of the meeting held 
September 1902. when the association 
was organized. The by-laws were next 
read, and together with the minutes, 
were approved as read. 

Upon roll-call of officers and mem- 
bers, it was learned that 47 members 
comprised the association. 

The secretary was then called ur»on 
to read the minutes of the various 
meetings, beginning from the first 
meeting, last September, up to the 
present time. This proved very inter- 
esting to all present, for in the mind's 
eye, one could see the gradual growth 
of the association, like unto a rose bud, 
about to cast its splendor upon the 
light of day, unfurls its tiny velvety 
petals, and in due time becomes radi- 
ant before the world. Kind readers, 
our association has just begun to un- 
furl its petals, of progress, but in a 
short time we will stand forth as an 
association of more than minor im- 
portance. 

Quite a treat was now in store for 
us, and 'twas the secretary's rei<o!t 
of the past .vear. Mr. Gilliland, who 
is an able bee-keeper, speaks of the 
as,sociatlon as having been successful 
in the past year. When the associa- 
tion was organized, 29 members were 
recorded and in the course of tAvelve 
months 18 new members were added, 
and we congratidate ourselves on our 
auspiciousness, for it is obvious we did 
not strive in vain. 

The question of foul brood prevailed 
throughout our monthly meetings. The 
formalin gas treatment, was brought 
to the foreground, and discussed pro 
and con time and again. A number 
of bee-keej>ers were enthusiavstic to 



have this treatment adopted by the so- 
ciety, ami lost no time in putting ite 
merits to a test, by fumr«,'ating the 
infecte<l combs. The result, in every 
instance, was a complete failure. 

The association thereupon adopted 
the McEvoy treatment, which is rec- 
ognized and acknowledged, in Ameri- 
ca., Canada, and Europe as the most 
successful remedy known, at the pres- 
ent time, for the permanent cure of 
foul brood. 

Cincinnati, being centrally located, 
the society is making an effort to bring 
the National Association of Bee-Keep- 
ers to Cincinnati in 1904. This should 
receive no little consideration, for 
without a doubt, should the association 
be successful in its efforts, it will 
prove beneficial both to commercial 
and business interests of the "Oueen 
City of the West." 

The editor of the American Bee- 
Keeper, a most valuable and reliable 
.iournal, has very kindly placed the 
columns and the inrluence of his pa- 
per at the disposal of this society. 
This favor conferred upon us by the 
American Bee-Keeper is fully ippre- 
ciated by all interested in apiculture 
in this vicinity. 

Having finally disposed of the foul 
brood question, it is now the duty and 
should be the ardent wish of every 
bee-keeper in Hamilton county and 
vicinity to become enei-getic in placing 
on the statute books of tire State of 
Ohio, suitable laws which will pi-otect 
the honey bee, as well as the various 
interests connected therewith. With 
this suggestion, the secretary's report 
was brought to a close and was accept- 
ed ais read. 

Those present at the annual meeting 
were afforded an exc-iellent ojiportunity 
to examine specimens of foul brood, 
a fine grade of hone.v, and an active 
frame of working bees in an observa- 
tion hive. 

The treasurer's report was read and 
accepted to be spread upon the min- 
utes. 

After the collection of the annual 
dues, the election of officers for the 
ensuing year took place and resulted 
as follows: 

President — Mr. Henr:« Shaffer. 

Vice-President — Mr. John C. Froh- 
liger. 



14 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



.Tanuai-y 



Secretary — Mr. Wm. J. Gilliland. 

Treasurer — Mr. C. H. W. Weber. 

It was then moved that an amend- 
ment he made to the constitution, viz.: 
that twelve nifembers serve on the 
executive committee instead of six, 
thereby i)romotiug a wider scope for 
enthusiasm and Increased interest 
amonjj the members. 

The following members were chosen 
to serve during the ensuing year: 

Fred W. Muth. R. L. Curry, A. E. 
Painter. C'has. Kuck, E. P. Rogers, 
E. H. Chidlaw, Wm. McClennan. W. 
R. Gould, G. Greene, E. H. Vaupel, 
Miss Can-ie Boehme, ■Mrs. J. C. Fx'oh- 
liger. 

Mr. A. E. Painter, an able lawyer 
and bee-keeper, favored the assembly 
with an eloquent address pertaining 
to the active interest which should be 
manifested among the bee-keeping 
fi'aternity, to interest the State Legis- 
lature in procuring a foul brood law, 
which would be an inexpressible ad- 
vantage to the association, and bee- 
keepers in general. Mi*. Painter deems 
it advisable to appoint a special com- 
mittee to go before the Tjegislature at 
Columbus, but before doing so, how- 
ever, he is of the opinion that it would 
be prudent to send a circular letter to 
each memlrer of the Legislative body, 
in order that they may have time for 
consideration and argument. This 
method would undoul)tedly pi'ove 
more effective to the interest and en- 
ergy displayetl by the committee. 

A few states have gained their point, 
and are now resting easy under the 
protection of a foul brood law. A 
commissioner is appointed to notify 
all bee-keepers, whose apiaries are in- 
fected with the malady, to destroy all 
such colonies, oi-, if possible, remedy 
the defect. This commissioner is paid 
out of the county's funds. Illinois, for 
instance, is allowed $(1,000.00 annually 
for this purpose. 

If some of the states have been suc- 
cessful, why can not we, in Ohio, who 
have so, many broad-minded, brainy 
men in our midst of practical bee-keep- 
er.s, why cannot we dwell under a like 
protection and advantage, which 
might cori'ectly be terme<i a necessity? 
There has been but one cause hereto- 
fore, and that cause, the lack of inter- 
est 'Tis true, we are all interested 
in a way, but we must show active 



interest, which, without a doubt, dur- 
ing the coming year will wend its way, 
and waft its breezes among the bee- 
keeping fraternity over our entire 
State. 

Short, but none the less interesting, 
addresses, pei-taining to the protection 
of the honey bee. were ably delivered 
by Messrs. E. H. Vaupel. Wm. McClen- 
nan, and Fred. W. Muth. 

A motion was made and seconded 
that the members of the e.xecutive 
committee should constitute the com- 
mittee to bring before the State Leg- 
islature this question of foul brood 
law, to be energetic and tireless in 
their efforts to render same effective 
and successful, for in this way only 
can our ambition be gratified. 

Mr. W. J. Gilliland suggested that 
a census be taken of the bee-keepers 
in the State of Ohio, as well as the 
number of hives each bee-keeper pos- 
sesses. 

Mr. Fred W. JNIuth again called the 
attention of the assembly to put forth 
all possible efforts in securing tlie 
National Association of Bee-Keepers 
in 1904. It was moved and seconded 
that the executive staff take up the 
matter immediatel.v. 

A motion was made and seconded to 
express our gratitude to the Grand 
Hotel for their miieh appreciated kind- 
ness in granting us the privilege tO' 
hold our meetings in their spaciousM 
and comfortable apartments. 

A word in behalf of the Associationn 
in general. We are proud of our asso- 
ciation, and we have the right to feelll 
so. When our little bod.v of bee-keep-, 
ers nestled in a group, to form an or- 
ganization, many predicted anythini 
but success, and were firm in their be- 
lief. Our little assembly, however, 
was not to be daunted. They knewf 
that they were entwined by the circle 
of succass, and were firm in their de- 
termination not to step 'behind the 
boinids of this brilliant circle. Their 
progress in so short a space of time,; 
is indeed greater than they themselvs 
anticipated. And now, since the 
American Bee-Iveeper has .so kindly 
volunteered to be our guide and friend, 
we can do naught but win. Unity and, 
harmony for the glory of the Hamil-j 
ton County Bee-Keepers' Association.L 
Wm. .r. Gilliland, Sec'y. 
Sllverton. Ohio. 



ir-- 

■w" 



i 



►-H-M-^-f- 



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THE 

Bee -Keeping World 


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♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦»♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦»♦»♦♦»♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦» 



GERMANY. 

By. F. Greiner, Naples, N. Y. 
It is a well-known fact that the 
honey-bee is endowed with two sets of 
eyes. Two larjre eyes at the sides, 
readily distinguishable, and th!e three 
eyes in the forehead, which are not 
so eonsi)ieiions. To find out something 
about the functions of the two sets of 
eyes Dr. Buttel, in the presence of 
two other well-known men, made the 
following experiments. First, he cov- 
ered the three eyes in the forehead of 
a l)<>e with black paint. The bee was 
not inconvenienced by this, but flew 
to the window. But when the large 
eyes were covered only, the bee so 
treated showed no inclination to fol- 
low the light. Dr. Buttel says this 
experiment does not prove that the 
three small eyes do not serve some 
purpose. He surmises they do at very 
close range, perhaps within a few cen- 
timeters of objects to be examined. — 
Centralblatt. 



Prof. Bachmetjew has lately discov- 
ere<l slight differences l)etween normal 
and abnormal drones. (The scientific 
terms used by the Professor have no 
meaning to the average bee-keeper and 
I abstain from using them.) 



Arndt makes the assertion in Preuss. 
Bztg. that it is not always owing to 
failure of queen when a colony is not 
breeding up properly, but tha,t very 
often lack of nurse-bees and pi'oper 
food are the principal causes. 



It is advised in "Neue Bztg." to use 
only rain-water in rendering or clari- 
fying beeswax. Well, or spring water 
is said to often contain iron, especially 
where there is red clay soil or sub- 
soil. The iron discolors the wax, no 
matter how careful one is in conduct- 
ing the work. 

According to Neuman, Sec. of Cen- 
tralverein, Germany is still far from 



having a foul brood law. He says, 
without the bee-keepers co-operate 
with the government, furnishing mate- 
rials for experiments, such as qu<?ens 
from badly diseased colonies, diseased 
brood, honey from foul-broody hives 
etc., also freely report and give thfeir 
experience with the disease, there is 
no telling when a law will be made and 
come in force 



Freudenstein resurrects the claim in 
Neue Bztg. that bees need no pollen 
for safe wintering, and that sugar is 
entirely sufficient. He also claims that 
nectar is nothing but pure sugar-water, 
and that bees change the one as well 
as the other into honey. Practically 
he advocates what Lizzie Cotton did 
about 30 years ago, viz.: That bee- 
keeping can be made very profitable 
by sugar-feeding. American red clover 
queens are also a hobby of Freuden- 
stein; he is keeping them for sale. 
The leading bee-keepers of Germany 
are in the opposition, perhaps rightly 
so. 



Dzierzon is opposed as much as ever 
to the Gertsung hive and all others ac- 
cessible from the top. It seems he has 
never operated such hives, still he con- 
demns them in the strongest terms, 
and says they will be the ruination of 
bee-keeping. 



Dickel has recently found a second 
in Dr. Albrecht Bethe, of Strassburg 
University. — BienenVater. 



TURKEY. 

The followers of Mohammed have 
singular customs as to bee-keeping. It 
is a great sin to buy or sell bees. They 
may be given away and one may ac- 
cei)t a gift in return. Decoy hives are 
placed about in bushes and trees to 
catch absconding swarms; said hives 
are rubbed over with certain herbs, 
the names of which are kept secret. 



16 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



January- 



Allah causes the swarms to take pos- 
session of such hives and they may be 
taken to the yard of the owner of the 
hives as soon as they are populated 
with bees. Clean hives is one of the es- 
sentials in keeping an apiary. In the 
absence of the owner only a good up- 
right man must represent him, not a 
woman, for she would cause the ruina- 
tion of the whole enterprise. When 
bees are owned in partnership these 
partners must live in perfect harmony. 
The least discord among them Avould 
cause a worm to take possession of the 
hive and after a while one would -find 
instead of combs only webs therein. 
It is believed that a large part of the 
occupants of the hive sleep outside on 
flowers and trees. When one wishes 
to move a hive it should be done 
Thursday evening, for this is said to 
be the only time when all the bees are 
foimd at home. Sometimes and by 
special order of the Almighty all bees 
gather in their hives Friday evening. — 
(Rhein Bztg.) 



AUSTRIA. 
In the questions and answeivs de- 
partment of Bienen-Vater it is asserted 
that the cappings may be removed 
from combs to be extracted by means 
of the uncapping-fork Jwithout any 
honey adhering to the cappings. 



BRITISH HONDURAS. 

Stann Creek, British Honduras, 

Oct. 20, 1903. 

Editor American Bee-Keeper: In 
February, 1902, I started with four 
colonies, and today I have 84 strong 
colonies, and roughly I can say I have 
drawn 25 to 30 kerosene tins full of 
honey. The locality is fair, but being 
in the town its hardly fair to say the 
best has been done. 

The bees gather honey all year 
round from cocoaniit and other local 
plants. No trouble to feed the bees, 
although to some extent I expex-ienced 
some dwindling last November and De- 
cember which I attribute mostly to the 
want of experience in the handli"g of 
the bees. Most of my hives are "dove- 
tail" from W. T. Falconer Manufactur- 
ing Co., and they work well, or rather, 
they suit this climate and tlie bees 
work well in them. Next year I hope 
to do well with honey and wax, al- 
though I regret to say the market is 



not very good locally, but a bee-keep- 
ers' society has been organized in 
Belize of which I am a member and 
through which in August last I ship- 
ped 11 kerosene tins of honey to Ger- 
many to Mr. Oswald who kindly of- 
fered to be our agent tliere. Before 
shipping he assured us of ,30, ($7.50) 
net per cwt.. but we have not yet re- 
ceived a return of the shipment. 

As I am an employee of the govern- 
ment I am afraid I will be overstocked 
with bees next year, but I mean to 
limit myself to 100 colonies. 

Dear Brother Hill: Can you tell 
me through the medium of your col- 
umns why it is my honey ferments? 
I noticed it badly on my 'first extract- 
ing. On inijuiry I was told that the 
honey Avas not ripe, and since I never 
extract any honey until the combs are 
three-fonrthiS sealed, but there is slight 
fermentation. 

I like bee-keeping, and will always 
feel thankful for your kind suggestions 
tending to help beginners. Hoping I 
will not weary you with my long epis- 
tles, and Avith liind regards, I remain, 
Very respectfull.v and fraternally yours 
G. A. Nunez. 

Fermentation may result from ex- 
tracting "green" honey, or from ex- 
posure to a humid atmosphere after 
extracting. It may also be an inherent 
quality characteristic of its kind. In 
the latter case, we would suggest a 
generous application of artificial heat 
before canning, or in the open can, 
then sealing air-tight. This ferment- 
ing propensity is a quality peculiar to 
nectar secreted by some members of 
the palm family. We shall be pleased 
to learn something of the future expe- 
riences of our correspondent in hand- 
ling such honey. — Editor. 



PENNSYLVANIA STATE BEE- 
KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 
All bee-keepers in the State of Penn- 
sylvania interested in forming a thor- 
ough State organization are requested 
to correspond with the undersigned. 
E. L. Pratt, Swathmore, Pa. 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



17 




PUBLISHED MONTHLY 
THE W. T. FALCONER MANFG. Co., 

PROPRIETORS. 
H. E. HILL, - EDITOR, 

FORT PIERCE, FLA. 



intercut in connection with iiis excel- 
lent tirticle on "The Rest Honey finth- 
eivrs" presented also in this issue of 
The Bee-Keeper. p^rom many sources 
w<^ set information corroborating our 
lonji-established icle^i that the blacks 
"are not to be sneezed at." This fact 
we believe to be especially truie where 
we are engaged in the pi-otluctiou of 
c-omb honey. 



Terms. 

Fifty cents a year in advance; 2 copies 85 
cents; 3 copies $1.20; all to be sent to one 
postoffice. 

Postage prepaid in the United States and 
Canada; 10 cents extra to all countries in the 
postal union, and 20 cents extra to all other 
countries. 

Advertisine: Rates. 

x'ifteen cents per line, y words; $2.00 per 
inch. Five per cent, discount for two iser- 
tions; seven per cent, for three insertions; 
twenty per cent, for twelve insertions. 

Advertisements must be received on or be- 
fore the 15th of each month to insure inser- 
tion the month following. 

Matters relating to business may be ad- 
dressed to 

THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 
Fort Pierce, Fla., or Jamestown, N. Y. 

Articles for publication or letters exclusjvely 
for the editorial department should be ad- 
dressed to the Florida office. 

Subscribers receiving their paper in blue 
wrapper will know that their subscription ex- 
pires with this number. We hope that you 
will not delay favoring us with a renewal. 

A red wrapper on your paper indicates that 
you owe for your subscription. Please give 
the matter your early attention. 



Mr. F. Danzenl)aker, the apiarian 
inventor of Washington, D. C, spent 
a few hours at The Bee-Keeper office 
recently. Mr. Danzenbaker is circu- 
lating among bee-keepers now with a 
new smoker of his own invention, for 
which many excellent qualities are 
claimed 



"Pacific States Bee Journal," is the 
name of a new IG-page monthly pub- 
lished at Ttilare. Calif., with P. F. 
.\delsbach at the editorial helm. The 
initial number presents a quantity of 
good readinc". and the editor greets his 
readers Avitb: "We are here. How 
do you like the 'holler' of the infant?" 
Should our esteemed contemporai'y 
fail to achieve great success in the 
realm of apicultural .iournalism. it will 
certainly not be because of any stilted 
dignity upon its own part. We wish 
it success. 




Our Correspondents Department this 
month contains two very interesting 
reports — those of Dr. Blanton and of 
Mr. Thos. Worthington. They are in- 
teresting from the fact that two-thirds 
of Mr. Worthington's bees are blacks, 
and Dr. Blanton's becomes of special 



Burr Stacey Mention, in Pacific 
States Bee .Tournal. says, "unsealed 
honey contains four to -five per cent, 
more water than sealed honey." We 
know nothing as to how this definite 
information was obtained, but we in- 
cline strongly to the belief that the 
statement is misleading in the ex- 
treme, even though a single test may 
have demonstrated its accuracy. The 
writer has many times extracted 
honey unsealed that was so thick as 
to render the operation extremely diffi- 
cult. On the other hand, he is quite 
familiar with varieties of honey which 
after uncapping could nearly all be 
thrown from the comb while held in 
the hands. Indeed, such honey some- 
times ferments after sealing, bursts 
the cappings and oozes from the combs 
while yet in the hives. It is, therefore, 
apparent that the statement above 
quoted should, at least, be supple- 
mented with a qualifying clause. 



18 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



January 



Leo F. Hanejran, of Glen wood, Wis., 
we learn, has sold his apiarian equip- 
ment to Mr. J. Gobeli, of Boyceville, 
who will take iip his residence at 
Glenwood at an early date. Mr. Han- 
egan's bee-keeping expei'ience has 
been a decided sticcess, and he still 
pins his faith to the honey bee as a 
source of livelihood; though it is yet 
uncertain as to where his next ven- 
ture Avill be launched. Both Messrs. 
Hanegan and Gobeli are Bee-Keeper 
subscribers, and our well-wishes are 
with them. 



It is said in the Pacific States Bee 
Journal that John Walker, near Tu- 
lare, Calif., has three hives of bees 
which prodiiced about .$00.00 worth of 
honey last season. The average "dol- 
lar's worth" per colony, where but a 
very few colonies are kept, frequently 
exceeds the record of the expert spe- 
cialist, for the reason that a special 
price may be obtained for such small 
lots in the local market, whereas the 
extensive producer is obliged to seek 
the usual channels of trade, and to 
accept the "market prices" for his 
goods. There is almost always an out- 
let for a very limited quantity of comb 
honey in the home market, at prices 
considerably above market quotations. 
At 20 cents a poiind, there is nothing 
very remarkable about this record — 
an average of 100 pounds per colony. 



BROOD FRAMES. 

In the American Bee Journal the 
question is asked: "If for some rea- 
son you Avere to start in anew to keep 
bees, and were obliged to get an en- 
tirely new outfit, what would be the 
dimensions of the brood frame?" 

The quei-y is answered by 27 practi- 
cal apiarists. Fifteen substantially fa- 
vor the Langstroth. Five would 
adopt a shallower frame and six of the 
number prefer one of greater depth. 
One "counsellor" fails to understand 
the question. Mrs. L. Harrison, one 
of the answerers, makes response 
thus: "The Langstroth frame. It is 
the only one I've ever had experience 
with, and the inventor made no mis- 
takes." While Mr. Langsti'oth, by 
reason of the great service rendered 
the bee-keeping fraternity, through his 
investigations and invention, has well 
earned the esteem everywhere be- 



stowed upon his name, it should be 
borne in mind that, after all, he was 
but human, and it is altogether im- 
probable that he succeeded in treading 
the pathway of terrestrial life for over 
four score years without having com- 
mitted any "mistakes." 



DON'T BURDEN YOUR BRAIN. 

The Bee-Keeper has upon its ex- 
change list 15 to 20 apiarian journals, 
many genei'al agricultural periodicals, 
and one hybrid afFair which purports 
to embrace both qualities. In its 
December issue it pays the following 
magnificent tribute to specialized bee 
.iournalism and the intelligence .of 
"farmers who keep but a few colonies 
of bees:" 

"Farmers who keep but a few colo- 
nies of bees need not bother them- 
selves about much that is discussed 
in bee journals. A large amount of 
what is found there has no excuse for 
being there, unless it be on the plea 
that the professional writers must 
have something to fill up space. Such 
subjects as "Mating in Confinement," 
"Formalin Gas for Foul Brood," "Do 
the Bees Kill the Drones or do They 
Die of Starvation?" may be passed 
over without much injury, by the 
farmer. Neither is it worth the farm- 
er's while to spend much time reading 
about honey exchanges or any kind of 
commercial organizations for the sale 
of his honey or wax. What he needs 
more than anything else is to know 
how to secure a good crop, and then 
to be told where he can find a market 
at a living price, and what, under the 
law of supply and demand, his honey 
is really worth." 



NEW APIARIAN INVENTION, 
In order that American Bee-Keeper 
readers may be kept well informed in 
regard to every detail of apiarian pro- 
gress, we begin this month a new de- 
partment in wliiich will be announced 
every new invention pertaining to bees 
patented in the United States and 
England. 

As we earnestly desire that the Bee- 
Keeper shall be complete in every way, 
we shall be pleased to consider siiggee- 
tions from our readers in regard to oth- 
er features not already embraced and 
which may be thought to be of value 
to bee-keepers. 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPBIH 



19 



Our esteemed contemporary evident- 
ly deems columns and pages of per- 
sonal, petty wranglings of more inter- 
eat and value to the "farmers who 
keep but a few colonies of bee^s," than 
a knowledge of methods whereby foul 
brood may be eradicated, or the mat- 
ing of queens controlled. He should 
know, it seems, "how to secure a good 
honey crop, and then to be told where 
he can find a market at a living price." 
We presume then, that, having been 
"told," the said "farmer" should forth- 
with proceed to sell where he is "told." 
What a calamity it would be, indeed, 
if the farmer bee-keeper .should, per- 
chance, have wasted sufficient time 
during the winter evenings to have ac- 
quired a fair knowledge of the pres- 
ent status of the whole world's apia- 
rian conditions; and possibly may 
have taken a slight hand at the woi'lv 
of shaping these conditions more to his 
liking than they would otherwise have 
been. And then, what if he were to 
have the audacity to exercise to some 
extent his own mental faculty in re- 
gard to the disposition of his own pro- 
duct. It would be bad. too, if he 
should persist in reading the bee jour- 
nals to the extent that he should learn 
that good stock have a tendency to in- 
crease tlie honey yields, and that the 
development of good stock depended 
largely upon his al)ility to control mat- 
ing. He might find out, too, that com- 
mercial organization is to be the pa- 
rent of "living prices," as well as 
to largely govern the "demand," and 
distribute the "supply;" and, tliere- 
fore, that his personal interests are 
directly influenced by any movement 
wliich sets in motion the wheels of 
"commercial organization." 

It is the honest opinion of The 
American Bee-Keeper that "farmers 
who keep but a few colonies of bees" 
are not liable to injure tliemselves 
either mentally or financially, by the 
acquisition of too much knowledge rel- 
ative to even those "few colonies," and 
their management. If any reader of 
the bee journals finds himself men- 
aced in such manner, if lie will for- 
ward to u,s a self-addressed postal 
card, we think we are (jualified to 
point him to one publication which 
may be freely perused without border- 
ing upon the danger line. 



EUCALYPTUS IIOBUSTA. 

We have to thank Mr. H. M. Jame- 
son, Corona, Galif.. for a generous 
package of seed of this nectar-yield- 
ing tree, and shall endeavor to test 
its adaptability to this section of the 
South. Mr. .Jameson states that E. 
Robusta is rich in honey and remains 
in bloom two or three months. He has 
several hundred of these trees, but 
owing to the fact that he has about 
as many colonies of bees as trees, does 
not, of course, get any eucalypt honey. 
Robusta. Mr. Jameson says, blooms 
in two or three years from the seed, 
and thrives best in moist land; though 
it does exceedinglj' well in some very 
dry locations in Southern California. 

Any of our readers who are inter- 
ested in the cultivation of the eucalypt 
may secure a splendid work upon the 
subject by addressing the Bureau of 
Forestry, Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. and asking for 
Bulletin No. .35, entitled "Eucalypts 
Cultivated in the United States." 



"EXTRACTED" HONEY. 

The following paragraph is from a 
letter recentlj' received from a well- 
known Northern apiarist: 

"Recently in looking over a book of 
honey labels I was forcibly struck 
with the word 'extracted.' It looked 
out of place, and I believe sliould be 
left oflf all labels. 'Comb honey' does 
not have to be lal)eled such, and why 
should extracted honey in glass have 
doubt thrown on it by hitching on the 
word 'extracted?' It add(S nothing, 
and very often arouses suspicion. 
Honey in cans is presupposed to be 
out of the comb. Help kick that word 
out of everything except the bee pa- 
pers and market quotations." 

Thei'e is no doubt that good, honest 
honey has been placed under the ban 
of suspicion as a result of the ambi- 
guity of the word "extracted" as dis- 
I)layed ui)on retail packages. Upon 
ca.snal notice the prospective buyer 
seems to acquire the idea that it is 
an "extract of honey." and not "real 
bees' honey." It becomes a question, 
however, whether it would be the part 
of wisdom for an infant industry to 
reliiKiuish so good and specific a word 
upon the ground that it had failed to- 
become thoroughly understood by the 
l)nblic. While it may be a fact that 



I 



20 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



January 



•'honey in cans is presupposed to be 
out of the comb," according to some of 
our Texas brethren no insignificant 
quantity of honey in the comb is now 
marketed in cans, and a wonderful 
degree of popuhirity is anticipated for 
this "bulk honey" in cans. 

Under existing conditions, we think 
the word "extracted" should not con- 
stitute a part of the leading line of a 
display label. "Pure Honey,'' or "Ab'- 
solutely Pure Honey,'' should be given 
the greater prominence, and some 
brief explanation accompany the "ex- 
tracted" part thereof. In this connec- 
tion we would state that the Southern 
Drug Journal now uses the word "ex- 
tracted" in its list of prices, instead 
of "strained.'' honey, as formerly. This 
is a result of our recent response to 
the Journal's request for information 
as to the difference in strained and 
■extracted honey. The following clip- 
ping is from the December number: 

"'IS HONEY STRAINED OR EX- 
TRACTED?" 
"In reply to this question propounded 
in the Journal for October, page 147, 
the American Bee-Keeper for Novem- 
ber says, in effect, "Both." The moss- 
"backs and fogies in the business strain 
their honey, but the up-to-date apicul- 
turist extracts his in a centrifugal ma- 
chine which does not destroy the comb 
(which may be used over and over 
again), and does not crush cocoons, 
pollen, dead bees and other foreign 
matter in such a way as to deteriorate 
the finished product. 

"Mrs. Sarah A. Smith, of Grant, 
Fla., writes us as follows: 

" 'I see by the American Bee-Keeper 
for this month, that you can not see 
the difference between strained and 
•extracted honc.v. I am sure of the tAvo 
were placed l)efore you, you would 
soon see. The old idea that honey 
made people sick, was caused b.v eat- 
ing this strained hone.v with pollen and 
bee larvae and other things which 
should not be tliere. A dentist ex- 
tracts teeth and we pull out the honey 
with the help of an extractor, from the 
•combs.' 

*' 'Strained hone.v' in our price list 
-started the discussion. We have made 
the change." 

Thus it will be se<»n how much good 
may be accomplished by a slight ef- 
fort along educational lines. But some 



effort is necessar.v. The public is will- 
ing to learn, if a teacher be provided. 
We see no reason why everyone may 
not become quite as familiar with and 
understand as fully the significance 
of "Extracted Honey" as they now 
do, "Boston Baked Beans." However, 
this joiu-nal has been accused of be- 
lieving that bee-keepers know better 
than anyone else what they want, and 
if they want the word "extracted," in 
connection w'th market packages, rel- 
egated to the background, or entirely 
expunged, let's hear from the bee-keep- 
ers. We are with them always for that 
which gives promise of advancing fra- 
ternal interests. 



BEEDOM AT HOME AND ABROAD. 

In its issue for October El Ck)lmen- 
ero Espanol (The Spanish Bee-Keep- 
er), simimarizes "The General State of 
Apiculture," briefly reviewing the sit- 
uation in the ITnited States. Ghili, 
Cuba, Santo Domingo, Argentine Re- 
public, Uruguay, Mexico, Germany, 
Austria, Russia. Belgium, Switzerland, 
England, France and Spain. 

Such a compendium of apiarian in- 
formation, if reliable, would be of the 
greatest interest, and we doubt not 
tliat, for the greater part, this compi- 
lation is quite so. However, after 
paying a very high compliment to 
American bee-keepers, and to the 
American peoi)le. our esteemed eon- 
temi)orar,v gives some statistical infor- 
mation relative to the apiarian situ- 
ation in the United States which is, 
obviously, based upon rumor rather 
than actual facts, wherein it is stated 
that Mr. A. I. Root employes 700 
workmen, and that Capt. Hethering- 
toii's 7.00O colonies of bees yiekl an- 
nually from fifty to sixty thousand 
dollars worth of honey. 

(rerniany is credited with having 
two million colonies in movable-comb 
hives, and given first place among 
Euro)teiui countries, in apiarian im- 
portance. The annual production of 
honey is given as 20,000 tons, which 
is of fine <iuaiity and very white. 
France, Belgium, Switzerland, Austria 
and England all come in for ver.v flaf- 
tering notices, apiculturally. 

Altogether, the epitome is a most 
interesting one. and bears evidence 
of commendable enterprise upon the 
part of the Colmenera. 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



. 21 




Leota, Miss., Nov. S, 1U03. 
Dear Sir: 

I begun last spring with 85 colonies 
of bees, five weak and 80 strong. I 
increased to 140 colonies. I bought 125 
pounds medium brood foundation and 
used the full sheets. I bought 20 
queens — ^Italians and Carniolans. They 
are beautiful bees but do not surpass 
the hybrids as honey gatherers or 
breeders. My honey record is phenom- 
enal. A hybrid colony gathered 74 
pounds extractetl in 17 days. My 85 
colonies (spring count) gathered 24,- 
000 pounds extracted honey and gave 
me 253 pounds of wax. I have ship- 
ped 22,000 pounds of honey and 253 
pounds of wax. I have on hand 2,000 
pounds of honey. 

Thes. Worthington. 

P. S. — Have kept an ficcurate ac- 
count of everything in my apiary, and 
can give any further data you may 
need. T. W. 

Naples, N. Y., Nov. 5. 1903. 
Dear Mr. Hill: My honey crop is 
about disposed of. We had no real 
fancy honey; received 13c. net for 
white, 10c. for dark. I had over 6,000 
pounds of comb, and about 1,500 ex- 
tracted. 

Freidemann Greiner. 
Greenville, :Miss., Dec. 7, 1903. 



Editor Bee-Keeper: 

I commenced the season of 1903 with 
190 colonies; increased to 240. Ex- 
tracted 16,200 pounds honey. Remov- 
ed 400 pounds comb, and wax 180 
pounds. 

April, May. .Tnne and July were not- 
ed for their remarkable honey flow, 
and until the 10th of August when 
h'esA'y rains set in, followed in Septem- 
ber with excessive' hvann weather 
and drought until the 20th, from 
thence until the close of October a 
large honey flow from goldenrod, bone- 
set and smart-weed enabled the bees 
to store abundant honey for winter. 
O. M. Blanton. 



AN AMATEUR'S QUESTIONS. 
Olean, N. Y., Dec. 11, '08. 
Editor American Ree-Keeper: 

Dear Sir: As an amateur in the bee 
business I find myself confronted witk 
a i>roblem that I am unable to solve. 
In stating my case, and to make it 
plain, it will be necessary to make a 
few quotations, not in view of criti- 
cism, but, on the other hand, in view 
of gaining knowledge. I will begin 
my tale of woe by saying that I am 
contemplating the raising of a few 
queens the coming season, using the 
Alley queen nursery-cage plan. Note — 
"The Honey Bee." pages 272-273 — 
"The cages are covered with wire clotk 
on each side and inserted in a frame, 
etc., etc." "The frame is inserted in a 
strong colony, not necessarily queen- 
less since these young queens are 
caged,'' etc., etc. I had my plans laid 
as I thought ver.v nicely upon these 
lines, and while searching for further 
knowledge I stumbled onto the follow- 
ing. Note — 35. American Bee-Keeper, 
under heading "Introducing Virgi* 
Queens." "The virgin to be introduced 
is caged with thte reigning queen over 
hatching brood, honey, etc. .Mr. 
A. says the virgin will kill her old rival 
invariably." 

In the first instance the (lueen is 
hatched in the cage. In the 2nd, the 
queen is hatched before caging, and 
in neither instjince have we passed 
the virgin point. 

Question No. 1. I do not want the 
reigning queen of a colony killed. Note 
—"The Honey Bee," page 265, para- 
graph 518. "It is very important t9 
have the queen well in or near the 
brood or the bees might neglect it." 

Question No. 2. Is it necessary that 
l)ees must have immediate access to 
the cells after they are sealed (or in 
other words 8 or 9 days old) up to 
within a day or so of the hatching 
point if the proper amount of heat can 
be procured otherwise. 

Question No. 3. Do the liees perform 
an.v functions relative to development 
during the above stated period by hav- 
ing immediate access that would not 
be attained if the cell was in a cage 
and the hive up to the proper tempera- 
ture? 

Will some one more clearly define 
these points? To the experienced bee- 
keeper they will, no doubt, be wholly 



I 



22 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



January 



rudimental, but to nie at present seem 
a hard lesson. 

A'ery respectfully yours, 

John J. Grant. 
Our correspondent's perplexity is, 
doubtless, the result of having con- 
fused two different problems, namely: 
queen-rearing and the introduction of 
virgin queens. These are entirely sep- 
arate matters, and need not, of neces- 
6it.y, haw any connection. The item 
quoted from our February issue, 1903, 
has reference simply to a method for 
the supersedure of failing queens, 
while the other quotation has to do 
with the matter of developing, or rear- 
ing the queen. It is not necessary that 
the bees have immediate access to the 
queen cells after having been capped, 
providing, as suggested, that a proper 
temperature is maintained. In reply to 
question No. 3, we should say, none 
whatever. Though suggestions upon 
this point are not solicited by our cor- 
respondent, in view of his inexperi- 
ence, and the supposition that he de- 
sires to rear but a few queens for 
his own use, we feel constrained to 
suggest that it would be better to dis- 
pense entirely with such things as 
nursery cages, etc., and simply insert 
ripe cells in queenless colonies or nu- 
clei prepared for their reception. — Ed- 
itor. 



RECENT APIARIAN PATENTS, 

741,7()4. Comb-frame for Bee Hives. 

James W. Brown, I.os Angeles, Cal. 

Filed May 7, 1903. Serial No. If));,- 

104. (No model.) 

Olaim.^ — ]. A reversible bee-comb 
frame, comprising a frame and Mire 
attached to the ends thereof, having 
their upi»er ends bent outward to form 
hangers, and their lower ends ))ent in- 
ward t(j form supportei's, said wires 
being rotable so that when the frame is 
reversed the wii-es can be turned and 
the hangers become supporters and the 
supporters become hangers, substan- 
tially as described. 




2. In combination with the frame, 
of the suspending devices extending 
through the sides thereof, and having 
their ends bent in opposite directions, 
so as to form frame-hangers at top, 
and frame-supportei's at thie bottom, 
substantially as descril>ed. 

3. Tlie lierein described rcAersible 
bee-comb frame, comprising a rect- 
angular frame, and wires extending 
through the frame at each end there- 
of, said wires having their i)ro.iecting 
ends above and below the frame, res- 
pectively bent at right angles in oppo- 
site directions, the upper bend project- 
ing beyond the sides of frame to form 
frame-hangei's, and the lower bends 
j)ro.iecting beneath the frame to sup- 
port the weight thereof, said wires be- 
ing rotal)]e so that the position of the 
bends may be reversed, and the frame 
suspended either side up, substantially 
as described. 



NEAV YORK STATE INSTITUTES. 

llomulus. N. Y., Dec. 14, 1903. 
Editor American Bee-Keeper. 

Mr. N. E. France, of Platteville, 
Wis., General Manager of the National 
Bee-Keepers' Association, has been se- 
cured l)y the Bureau of Farmers' In- 
stitutes to speak at a series of Bee- 
Iveeper Institutes in connection Avith 
the local B.-K. Societies as follows: 

Canandaigna, January, G-7. 

Romulus, Janujiry 8. 

Cortland, Januiiry 9. 

Auburn, .January 11. 

Oswego, January 12. 

.\msterdam, January 13. 

Syracuse, January 14-15. 

The meeting on the loth will be that 
of the N. Y. S. Asso. of B.-K. Societies. 
C. B. Howard, Sec. 



HONEY AND BEESWAX MARKET. 



WASHINGTON GRADING RULES 
Fiinuy: All sections ;to be well filled, combs 
straight, of even thickness and firmly attached to 
all fonr sides; both wood and comb unsoiled by 
travel staiu or otherwise; all the cells sealed ex- 
cept the row of cells next the wood. 

No. 1; All sections well tilled, bnt combs un- 
even or crooked, detached at the bottom, or with 
bnt few cells nnsealed; both wood and comb un- 
soiled by travel stain on otherwise. 

In addition to this the honey is to be clas.«iified 
according to color, usinp the terms white, amber 
and dark. That is, there will be "Fancy white," 
"No. 1 dark," etc. 



THE MARKETS. 



New York, Dec. 8. — The demand is 
good for faiic.v honey. Only fair for 
off grades. Supply equal to demand. 
We quote Fancy Avhite, 13 to 14c.; Am- 
ber, 12, dark, 10 to lie. ped pound. 
Extracted, white, G 1-2; light amber, 
6; amber, 5 3-4; dark, 5 1-2. Beeswax 
is in fair demand, with supply light at 
2ft to 29c.— Hildreth & Segelken. 



Boston, Dec. 7. — Owing to very large 
receipts from California we quote our 
market at present as follows: Fancy 
white in 1-pound sections, IG to 17c. ; 
A.No.l. 10c. ; No. 1. IHc. No call for No. 
2. Extracted. to 8c., according to 
quality. — Blake, Scott »& Lee. 



Buffalo, Dec. 7. — The demand is very 
good just now for fancy stock. The 
supply is moderate. We quote, fancy 
comb. 14 to 15c. per pound; extracted, 
5 to 7c. The demand for beeswax is 
always good. Price at this date, 30 to 
33c., for fancy.— Batterson & Co. 



Kansas City. Mo., Dec. 7. — The de- 
mand for honey is good, with large 
supply. Price of comb, 12 1-2 to 13c., 
darfe, 11 to 12c., extracted, 5 1-2 to 
l-2e Extracted honey is slow sale. 
Beeswax is in light supply at 30c. — 
Hamblin & Sappington. 



Chicago, Dec. 7. — At this season of 
the year there is not much trade in 
lioney, i-etailers having laid in their 
stock for the holidays. Fancy comb 
honey for the Christmas trade has 
brought 13 l-2c. No. 1 grades 12 1-2 
to 13 cents; amber 9 to 10; extracted 
white brings 6 to 7 cents; amber 5 to 
6 cents. All extracted honey is sold 
on its flavor, quality, kind and style 
of packing. Beeswax 28 to 30 cents. — 
R. A. Burnett & Co. 



Kansas City, Mo., Dec. 5. — Receipts 
of comb honey larger, demand fair, 
prices easier. We quote fancy 24-sec- 
tion cases $2.75 to $2.85; No. 1, 24-sec- 
tion cases $2.75; No. 2, 24-section cases 
$2.65; Extracted white, 7 to 7 l-2c.; 
Extracted amber, per pound, 6 to 6 1-2 
cents. — demons & Co. 



comb is Bold in single case lots at 14c. 
The supply of extracted honey is big, 
although the demand is good. We are 
selling amber extracted in barrels at 
5 3-4 to 6 l-2c. ; white clover in barrels 
and cans, 7 1-2 to 8 l-2c, according to 
quality. Beeswax, 30c. 

The Fred W. Muth CJo. 



I 



Cincinnati, Dec. 15. — The demand for 
comb honey is slower now than it was 
six weeks ago, owing to the enormous 
quantities offered on all sides. Fancy 



Cent»a=Word Column. 

The rate is uniformly one cent for each 
word, eacTi month; no advertisement however 
small will be accepted for less than twenty 
cents, and must be paid in advance. Count 
the words and remit with order accordingly. 



WANTED — To correspond with parties de- 
siring a bee-keeper to assist in care of bees; 
by an old bee-keeper. South preferred. J. W. 
Teflft, South Wales, N. Y. 



BIGGEST little book out. MODERN BEE 
CULTURE. New. 10c. silver. L. R. Kerr, 
Germania, Aik. 

FOR SALE — Farms, both large and small; 
also, houses and lots, everywhere. Send for 
free bulletins. W. H. Burke, Clifton 

Springs, N. Y. 1-3 

SPECIAL — From now to March 1st, six 
months' trial subscription to The Modern 
American for ten one-cent stamps. Address. 
American Pub. Co., Alexander, Ark. 1 -It 



WANTED— To exchange six-month trial aub- 
icription to The American Bee-Keeper for M 
cents in postage stamps. Address, Bee-Keeper. 
Falconer. N. Y. 



FOR SALE— A Hawkeye, Jr. Camera Com- 
plete. Uses both film and plates. Cost |8.M, 
will sell with leather case for $3.50 cash. A4 
dress Empire Washer Co., Falconer, N. Y. 

A TANDEM BICYCLE (for man and lady) 
cost $150, in first-class condition, was built 
to order for the owner. Tires new. Will sell 
for $25 cash. Satisfaction guaranteed. Ad- 
dress J. Clayborne Merrill, 130 Lakeview ave., 
Jamestown, N. Y. 



AGENTS WANTED to sell advertising novel- 
ties, good commission allowed. Send for cata- 
logue and terms. American Manufacturing 
Concern, Jamestown, N Y. 



"We have an awful appetite for order*." 

THE W. T. FALCONER MFG., CO., 

Bee-keepers' Supplies Jamestown, N. Y. 

Send us. your name and address for a ea*- 
logue. 

The more you advertise your busi- 
ness the more business you will have 
to advertise. — Printers Ink. 



When writing to advertisers mention 
The American Bee-Keeper. 




T 



HE A. I. ROOT CO., MEDINA, OHIO. 
Breeders of Italian bees and queens. 



GEO. J. VANDE VORD, DAYTONA, FLA. 
Breeds choice Italian queens early. AH 
queens warranted purely mated, and satisfaction 
guaranteed. 

CH. W. WEBER, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
• (Cor. Central and Freeman Aves.) Golden 
yellow, Red Clover and Carniolan queens, bred 
from select mothers in separate apiaries. 



THE HONEY AND BEE COMPANY, BEE- 
VILLE, TEXAS. Holy Land, Carniolan, 
Cyprian, Albino and 3 aiid 5-banded Italian 
queens. Write for our low prices. Satisfaction 
gnaranteed.. 



lOHN M. DAVIS, SPRING HILL, TENN.. sends 
•J out the choicest 3-banded and golden Italian 
queens that skill and experience can produce. 
Satisfaction guaranteed. No disea.se. 

PUNIC BEES. All other races are dis- 
carded after trial of these wonderful bees. 
Particulars post free. John Hewitt & Co., 
Sheffield, Eng. 4 



I B. CHASE, PORT ORANGE, FLA., has tine 
J» golden Itiilian queens early and late. Work- 
ers little inclined to swarm, and cap their honey 
very white. Hundreds of his old customers stick 
to him year after year. Circular free. 



CWARTHMORE APIARIES, SWARTHMORE, 
»^ PA. Our bees and queens are the brighest 
Italians procurable. Satisfaction guaranteed. 
Correspondence in English, French, German and 
Spanish. Shipments to all parts of the world. 



WZ. HUTCHINSON, FLINT, MICH. 
• Superior stock queens, 81. .30 each; queen 
and Bee-Keepers' Review one year for only S'2.00. 



NEW CENTURY QUEEN-REARING CO., (John 
W. Pharr, Prop.) BERCLAIR, TEXAS, is 
breeding fine golden and 3-banded Italian and 
Carniolan queens. Prices are low. Please write 
for special information desired. 



MOORE'S LONG-TONGUED STRAIN 
of Italians become more and more popu- 
lar each year. Those who have tested them 
know why. Descriptive circular free to all. 
Write T. P. iloore. L. Box 1, .Morgan, Ky. 4 



MAPS. 

A Test pocket Map of your State. 
New issue. These maps show all 
the Counties, ia seven colors, all 
railroads, postoflfices — and man\ 
towns not given in the postal guide 
— rivers, lakes and mountains, with 
index and population of counties, 
cities and towns. Census — it gives 
all official returns. We will send 
you postpaid any state map you 
wish for 

20 cents (sHver) 

JOHN W. HANN, 

^g Wauneta, Neb 



American 




BEE 



Journal 



16 -p. Weekly, 
Sample Free. 

flS" All about Bees and their 

profitable care. Best writers. 

Oldest bee-paper; iUustrated. 
Departments for beg-inners 

and for women bee-keepers. 

QEORQE W. YORK & CO.. 

144 & 146 Erie St. Chicago,Ill. 



CLUBBING LIST. 



We will send The American Bee 
Keeper with the — 

Price 
Rocky Mountain Bee Jour- 
nal $ .50 

What to Eeat 1.00 

Bee-Keepers' Review 1.00 

Canadian Bee Journal 1.00 

Gleanings in Bee Culture. . 1.00 

American Queen 50 

The American Boy 1.00 

Irish Bee Journal 36 

Poultry News 25 



Both 

$ .75 

1.00 

1.35 

1.35 

1.35 

.60 

1.00 

.65 

50 



THE ONLY GERMAN AGRICULTIRAL MONTH- 
LY IN THE UNITED STATES ^^^^^^^^ 

FARM UND HAUS 

The most carefully edited German 
Agricultural journal. It is brimful of 
practical information and useful hints 
for the up-to-date farmer; devoted to 
stock raising, general farming, garden- 
ing, poultry, bee-keeping, etc., and con- 
tains a department for the household, 
which many find valuable. Another de- 
partment giving valuable receipts and 
remedies called "Hasarzt," in fact every 
number contains articles of real prac- 
tical use. 

Price only 35 CENTS per year. Sam- 
ple copy free. 

Send subscriptions to, 

FARM UND HAUS 



& tf. 



BLUPFTON, OHIO. 



Attica Lithia Springs Hotel 

Lithia-Siilpfjur Water aud Mud Baths 
Nature's Own Great Cure for 

...RHEUMATISM.... 

and Kindred Diseases, such as Liver 
and Kidney Complaints, Skin and 
Blood Diseases. Constipation, Nervous 
Prostration, etc. 

A new and up-to-date hotel. Large, airy, 
light and finely furnished rooms, with Steam 
Heat, Slectric Lights, Hot and Cold Water 
on each floor. Rates including Room, Board, 
Mud Baths, Lithia-Sr.lphur Wiiter Baths and 
Medical Atteadanoe (no extras) $2.50 and 
$3.00 a dav, according to room. 

WRITE FOR BOOKLET. 

Address Box 3, 

tf Lithia Springs Hotel, Attica, Ind. 



Are You Looking for a Home? 

No farmer should tbiak of buy- 
ing land before seeing a copy at 
THE FARM AND REAL ESTATE 
JOURNAL. It contains the large«t 
list of lands for sale of any paper 
published in Iowa. Ref.ches 30,- 
000 readers each issue, and is one 
of the best advertising mediums to 
reach the farmers and the Home- 
Seekers that you can advertise in. 
For 75c we will mail you the Jour- 
nal for 1 yeer, or for ten cents in 
silver or stamps we will send you 
the Journal 2 months on triaL 
Address, 

Farm and Real Estate Journal, 

TRAER, TAMA CO., IOWA. 

10-lf. 



The subscription price of the ROCKY 
MOUNTAIN BEE JOURNAL is M cent*. 
W* will send it witk THE BEE-KEEPER 
snc year (or only 7i centi. 






Austral Culturist 

and Poultry Gazette. 



Also THE APlARISr. 



Horticulture. 
Special industries. 

(Established 10 years). 

20 pages monthly. Subscription .3s. Hd. per anaiiB. 

This journal circulates in all the Austral- 
asici. Colonies, including New Zealand aod 
Tasmania. A good medium to Amerieam 
firms desiring an Australian trade. 

Head oflfice for Australian Colonies, 

229 Collins St., Melbourne, Australia. 



WILL 



YOUR 



EXTRACTED HONEY 

if Quality and Price is Right, Quantity will make no dif- 
ference. Handle Several Carloads Every Month. Mail 
sample, with lowest price, delivered Cincinnati. I pay cash 
on delivery. Reference, Brighton German Banking Co. 

Cli ¥^7" W/CD CO Successor to 

• 11. W» WCr CK? CHAS. F. MUTH and A. MUTH. 

Office and Salesrooms, 2146-48 Ceil ral eoue, Cir%ntr%n«i-t O 
Warerooms, Freeman and dtUal A\ues, WllClIinoIl, I/. 



La Compania 
Manufacturera Americana 

ofrece los mas reducidos prccios en to- 
da clase de articulos para Apicultores. 
Nuestra Fabrica es una de las mas 
grandes y mas antiguas de America. 
Especialidad en Colmenas, Ahumadores 
para Colmenas, Extractores, etc. In- 
ventores y perfeccionadores de muchos 
articulos de suma utilidad en la Apicul- 
tura. Enviamos gratis nuestro catalogo 
y precios a quienes lo soliciten. Dirija- 
nse a. 

THE AMERICAN MFG. CO., 

Jamestown, N. Y., E. U. A. 



> 
-f 



REMEMBER 

IF YOU SUBSCRIBE NOW, YOU CAN 
HAVE THE 

American Bee=Keeper 

sent to your address regularly 

Three Full Years for One Dollar. X 

Of all offers in the line of bee literature, this 
caps the climax. Please tell your friends 
what we are offering. Send all subscriptions 
to the Falconer, N. Y., office. 



POOL IKY CULTUKE 

Poultry Culture is the oldest poul- 
try paper published in Kansas City. 
Full of poultry news and has a large 
circulation in Missouri, Kansas and 
Oklahoma. 
50 cents per year, Sample copies on 
request. 

Poultry Culture Pub. Co., 

KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI. 



FIGHTING ROOSTERS 

Mystify and amuse your 
f rieuds, These arc two gen- 
uine game roosters witl^ 
feathers, they fight to a 
finish, and are always ready 
to figlit. The secret of their 
movements is only known to 
flie operator. Will last a life- 
time. IHc per pair, 3 for 2jc, 
postpaid. Address 

ZH/VO SUPPLY CO., 

Box J., 
IND1AN\P0US, - INDIANA, 




The Kecord. 

The Oldest and Leading Belgiai 
Hare Journal of America and 
England. 

R. J. FiNLET, Editor and Publisher, 

The only journal having 
an English Belgian Hare 
Department. 

One copy worth the yearly 
subscription. 

If interestea, don't fail to 
send 2-cent stamp for sample 
copy at once. Address, 



tf. 



R. J. FINLEY, 

MACON , MO. 



ATHEJ^S, GA. 



Subscription, . . . . 50 Cents a Tear. 



Published the First of Every Month 

and Circulates in Every 

Southern State. 

ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLI- 
CATION. 

POULTRY NEW^S. 



25 Cts A Year.— AGENTS WANTED. 

Bf Department in charge of W. W. 
Fowler, of Ardsley, N. Y. 

NEW BRUNSWICK, NEW JERSEY. 



A BATH 



rMPIRE 

J^ Portable 



IS a 

wher 
taken in an 

Folding BATH TUB. 

Used in any room. 
Agents Wanted. 
Catalogue Free. 
. The empire 
WASHER CO., 

jAMESTOWN,N.r, 





H )ugli Hi(! r ^ 
gv t HP, " Cqi T 



R.OUgK R,ider strawberry 

Best shipper, b?st keener, best seller, latest and most 
product! vcstrawOerry in esisteuue. .'&n5J from 2!4 acres 
m TOtiO. Wasshipped to iMighiud successfully. Wecft'er 
\ ■) in gold for larj^ost berry produced in 1903. Agents 
^^ mted in all strawberry sections. We control the orig- 
in itor's plants. Buy at headquarters and get genuine 
plants. Catalogue free. 
L. J. FARMER. Introducer. Box PULASKI, OSWEGO CO., N.Y. 




THE NATIONAL SPORTSMAN. 

The handsomest, brightest, most mtcrestinc. 
illustrated monthly magarine deroted te all 
kinds of sports, games, and outdoor recreation 
iatfiple copy mailed to any address on receipt 
of Ift cents in stamps. Subscription price |1 ^m 
yr-ar. V'v hy pay more? Address, 

THE NATIONAL SPORTSMAN, 

tf. tf«MMI. U&W 



An ad. will bring returns. ' 
How does this strike you? 

The SOUTH OMAHA 

ftaily Times 

is the only general daily news- 
paper published in a city ('f 
2601 iuhabitants. It.s various 
features make it a welcomed 
visitor to every home in South 
Omaha, and to hundreds of 
farmers and stock shippers in 
Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakotn, 
Kansas, Colorado, and other 
cattle- and hog-raisit^g states. 

Advertising rates very low, 

SOUTH OMAHA, NEB. 

m 

50 YEARS' 
EXPERIENCE 




Trade Marks 

Designs 
Copyrights &c. 

Anyone sending a gketoh and deBcription may 
quickly ascertain our opinion fr'^a whether an 
inyention is probably patentable. Communica- 
tions strictly cone den tial. Handbook on Patents 
sent tree. Oldest agency for securinepatents. 

Patents taken throueh Munn & Co. recelre 
•p«c(a( notice, without c harg e, in the 

Scientific Jfmcrican. 

A handsomely illustrated weekly. Lardest cir- 
oalation of any scientific journal. Terms, $3 a 
rear ; four months, $1. Sold by all newsdealers. 

MUNN iCo.3«^ Broadway. New York 

Branch Office, 625 F St.. Washington, D. C. 



r 



CLUBBING 




OFFERS 

Nothing- like them ever 
betore offertd.' 

They will astonish you. 

Learn about them be- 
fore subscribing for 
any other paper. 

SAMPLE COPIES and PARTICULARS 
FREE. WRITE NOW. 

Modern Farmer, 

St. Joseph, Missouri. 



Beeswax 
Wanted 

We will pay 29 cents cash or 31 cents 
:n .GTOod.s for good quality of Beeswax, 
freight paid to Falconer, N. Y. If you 
have any, ship it to us at once. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 
THE W. T. FALCONER MFG. CO. 



T^ee Supplies from Lewis 

They are the finest. 
THOUSANDS OF BEE HIVES, 
MILLIONS OF SECTIONS. 

Ready for Pronmt Shipment. 

G. B. Lewis Co.^^ST?:a. 

KASTFRN AGENCIES. C. M. Scott & 
Co., 1004 Kast Washington St., Indianapolis, 
I nd. 

THE FRED \V. MUTH CO.. 
Front and Walnut Sts., 
CINCI.V.VATl. OIIK). 



Catalogue Free. 



tf. 



DOJ^'T RELAX YOUR EFFORTS 

after spending money for new hives and fixtures, valu; 




^i 



R^ iSHIlFclS'bl^ time in the preparation of these for new swarms, lea> 



-] ing other work at a convenient time (for the bees) to hiy 
■''^EYij them; and now that a good crop is ready the next step 
TJ^I Attractive packages. Our assortment of packages ft 
^^ comb honey we beheve woukl be "difficult to improve upc 
for the purpose designed. 



The special features of the No-Drip Cases for 

comb honey we have advertised for several years are 

the Paper Trays and Drip Sticks which provide for 

the collection of leaking honey in trays. Thcbe also 

prevent its oozing out at the cracks to gather dust Jj 

and dirt and present a very untidy appearance to say 

the least. A light frame is now used cl- ar mound 

the glass in front which hides any unsealed cells in 

the outer row, and exposes to view only the finished 

work in the center. The material is white basswood. 

The joints are perfect fitting, the work being done by machine-filed saws 

These No-Drip Cases are made i^ 
12, 1 6 and 24 lb. sizes for regular 47 ii 
sections, as well as intermediate weight 
for plain sections. These are supplie 





I 



\ 



I 



with 2 and 3 in. glass to meet the (U 
mands of bee-keepers. The Danzenlx 
dvcr and Ideal sections are also provide 
for with No-Drip Cases, but these ai 
furnished with 3 in. glass only. 

The value of attractive packages en 

not he overestimated, and wide-awal 

bee-keepers are beginning to reili; 

_„ this fact. In cartoons we supply tw 

kinds, the Dazenbaker and the Folding; these are furnished for th-e. rej2 

ular sizes of sections . Both of these are furnished with special printii-; 

at a nominal charge. 

Our packages for comb honey 

would be incomplete without ship- 
ping crates for shipping of honey. 

This one shown herewith is i1ie 

regular package we ship out the 

cases in the flat, We can furnish 

these in the flat for the different 

sizes of the section cases at 60c. 

each, or $5.00 for ten. 

For prices on any of the above or any other bee-keepers' supplies address any ot our agents, or 




MEDINA, OHIO. 




Entered at the Postomce, Fort i^iercc, Fia.. as second-class mail matter 



Webster's Ui\abrid§ed 
Dictioivary 



Send $1.00, the regular subscription price qI IHE HOUSlillULD KEALM, and you 
will receive the Kealni one full year and WEBSTER'S COMPLETE UNABRIDGED DIC- 
l|i)NAKY, full regular size, bound in cloth, 1282 pap-es, size of page 8Vfexl9^ inches, gilt 
letters, mottled edges. The dictionary is guaranteed to be exactly the same as retails in 
many stores for $5 and $6. We send both for only JL 

THE HOUSEHOLD REALM 

is a large, handsome, illustrated magazine, devoted to all that pertains to the home. Some of 

the Departments are. Household, Cooking, Chil drcn Garden, Fruit and Flower, House Plans, 

Fashion, Fancy Work, Stories, Poetry, Music. ,Mi>^cellaneous Articles, etc. Established in 1886. 

THE HOUSEHOLD REALM. 325 DEARBORN ST., CHICAGO, ILL. 




lenic 



COMMODE 



V/ATER- 

SEAL 

IN SUBURBAN HOMES, 



where modern baiiiroum iacilities are denied from lack of sewerage, 

the Hyeioiiic Wat er-Seai Comraode is an absolute necessity 

for comfort and saniiaiion. Mecded in all Hospitals Sanitarium* 
and Hotels. l.\ SICKNESS, especially in CONTAGIOUS DIS- 
E.\SES, the Commode is indispensable in every home, as the Water- 
Seal prevents the esca pe of all germs and odors. It is light and port- 
able — weighs 5 X'l lbs; made of best galvanized iron; will last a life- 
time Provided with disiniectant cup. Indnr-ed by leading physicians and nurses. Send fo-- 
lUustraied Circular. PRICE $3.00. PURCHASER PAYS EXPRKSS CHARGES. 
WV FURNISH DISIN FECTANT WHEN DESIRED, for 25 cents additional. 
HV<;il-NlC WAIEK-SEAI. COMMODE CO.. Como. Bldg., Chicago, 111. 



njf If, EINaSAM 
J-"*-5 has made all the im- 
5 provements in 

Bee Smokers and 
Honey Knives 

made in ilie last 20 years, undoubted!} 
he makes the best on earth. 

Smoke Engine, i inch stove, none too large sent 

postpaid, per mail fi.50 

3^ inch MO 

Knife, 80 cents. 3 inch 100 

2^ inch 90 

r. F.Bingham, LitUeWonder,'2in. !65 

Farwell, Wlich. 



10>OOOPIantsforl6c 

More gardens and famia are planted to 
Salzer'8 Seeils than any otiier in 
. -Vnierii'a. Tliere is reason for tl)i8. —— 
AVe own and operate over MX) acres for 
the i)roductioii of our warranted seeds. 
In order to induce you to try them, we 
iiiaKe you the following unpre-i 
_ oedented offer: 

Fof 16 Cents Postpaid 

Kino KnrI}, .Modiam and I.ate Cabbagea, . 
20()l» UcIleiuUH, Carrots, ' 

UOUU Blaocliine t'elerj, 
20)10 KIch Nutty Lrttuee, 
lUOO S|il«Ddld OnloDB, 
1000 Itarc Lusclouv ItadUhea, 
1000 (iloriuuHly ilrilllaut I'lowani. 
AtMjve seven packages contain suffl- 
cieiit seed to grovi' 1U,00(I plants, fur- 
nigliingbuahersorbrlllluiitfluwerB ' 
and lots and lots of clioi<'e vegeta- 
bles, togetlier with our Kreatca(ak)K, ( 
telling all about Klowers, I{o8e8, 
Small Fruits, etc., all for l6c in 
stamps and this notice. Jlain- 
nioth 140-page catalog alone, 4c. 
JOHN A. SALZER SEED CO., 
^' La Crosse, Wis. 




The only strictly agricultural 
paper published in this State. The 
only agricultural paper published 
every week. It goes to every post 
office in State of Tennessee and to 
many offices in Kentucky, Alabama, 
Georgia, Mississippi, Arkansas, 
Texas, Florida and Louisiana. It 
is the official organ of the Agricul- 
tural Department of Tennessee and 
Live Stock Commission. Subscrip- 
tion $1 per year in advance. 

Tennessee Farmer Pub. Co., 
stf Nashville, Tenn. 

Patent Wired Comb Fonndation 

has no sag in brood tTJin^r*. 

ThlD Flat Bottom Fomdatloa 

has no Fish-bone in Surplus ITnnev. 
Being llif cleanest is usually worWed the 
quickest of any foundation made. The talk 
ibciit wiring fnimes iieems absurd. VVe fnrni«h 
a Wired Foundation that is Better. Cheaper 
and not half the trouble to use that it is to 
wire brood frames. 
Circulars and samples free. 

J. VAN DEUSEN A SONS. 

Si>le Manufactur»rs 

.luin»jumer> (.uun>- Spr t Brook, N. V 



>^ 

Bee H i ves 



Sections 



EVERYTHING 

THAT IS USED BY BEE-KEEPERS CAN BE 
PROCURED OF US AS CHEAPLY AS ANY- 
WHERE, AND WE KNOW. 

Our Goods are Superior 

BOTH IN MATERIALS AND WORKMAN- 
SHIP TO THOSE OF ANY COMPETITOR. 

One Trial Will Convince You 

THAT'S ALL WE ASK. WE KNOW YOU 
WILL NEVER BUY OF ANYBODY ELSE. 

Our new illustrated catalog and price list is now 
ready. Send for one on a postal card. 

The W. T. 
FALCONER MANFG. CO., 

JMMETSTOWNi, N. Y. 



J 



IF YOU 

WANT TO GROW 

Vegetables, Fruits and Farm 
Products in Florida subscribe 
for the FLORIDA AGRICUL= 
JURIST. Sample copy sent 
on application. 

E.O. Painter Pub. Co. 

JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA. 



BEGINNERS. 

shon.d hare a copy of 

The Amateur Bee-keeper, 

a 70 page book, by Prof. J. W. Rouse; writtea ei- 
pecially for amateurs. Second edition just on' 
First edition of 1,000 sold in less than two years 
Editor York says: "It is the Enest little book pub- 
lished at the present time." Price 21 cents; by 
Kail 28 cents. The little book and 

The Progressive Bee-keeper, 

(a liTe, proeressiye, 23 page monthly journal,) one 
year for ti.ic. Apply to any first-class dealer, •T 
address 

LEAHY MFG. CO., HisfiHSTiu,, m.. 



iTHISflSm^PIPE* 



The only Pipe made 

thnt cannot be told 

from a cigar. Holds 

a larpe'pifte full of 

tobacco and lasts for years. Agents" outfit and a 25-cent sample 

by mail for lOe., and our Big Bargain Catalog Free. Addresi, 

ZGNO SUPPLY CO., Indianapolis, Ind. 



PATENTS 



promptly ohtainrd OR NO FEE. Trade-Marks, 
Caveata. CopvriRhts and Lahels reffistered. 
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00 YOUR HENS PAY? 

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tf. 

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QUEEN BEES AND NUCLEI IN SEASON. 
THE FRED W. flUTH CO., 

51 Walnut Street - = = CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

I. J. STRINGHAM, 

105 Park Place, 
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Furnishes everything a bee-keeper uses. We endeavor to have 
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Special Notice to Bee=keepers! 

BOSTON 

Money in Bees for You. 
Catalog Price on 

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Catalog for the Asking. 

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Boston, Mass. 

Up First Flight. 



IS-r-i/S/^ 




iRlVE THEIR yUALlTlES 

'JO BE 

UNEXCELLED 

Head your colonies with them. 
Use them to invigorate your stock. 
They will iucrease your profits. ! 
rroduced by many years of careful | 
breeding. A circular will be sent 
on request. 

LAWRENCE C. MILLER, 

P. O.BOX 1113. I'ROVIDENCK. R. 

Put Your Trust in Providence Queens 



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Say friends, you who have support- 
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Our queens now stand upon their 
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the best. "We will furnish from one 
to a thousand at the following 
prices: ^^sted of either race. $1; 
one unte d, 75c., 5 for !F3.2i5, 10 
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for $23.50. 100 for $45. 
For descriptive circulars address, 

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J 

J 
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can Bee-Keeper may be entered © 

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anui, New Zealand. S 

H. H. Robin.son. Independencia © 
IG, Matanzas, Cuba. ® 



3©C5©?5©©<5<!^©©0©©©0©©© ©©OOO©© 




Vol. XIV 



FEBRUARY, 1904 



No. 2 



Minter in (^olora^o. 

BY EUGENE FIELD. 

(f/^ HE snow lies deep upon the ground, 
\W The birds sing sweetly in tne trets, 
^ — -^ The scent of roses all around 
Is borne upon the icy breeze. 

Upon each irrigating stream 

The skating youth indulge in play, 

While women folk, like fairies, beam 
In summer hats and white pekay. 

The plumber taps the pipe that's froze, 
And tears up ceiling, side and floor; 

While round about the ice man goes, 
And leaves his chattels at our door. 

The man with frozen hands and feet 
Is hurried off and put to bed ; 

Another, prostrate with the heat, 
Wears cabbage leaves upon his head. 

Thus speeds the weather in our State, 
A batch of contradictions rude, 

And we assign our varying fate 
To this peculiar altitude. 



24 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



February 



FOUL BRO OD IN TH E APIARY, 

Prevention, Not Cure, a Solution of the Problem. An Exhaustive Discussion of the 
Subject by a Pioneer in the Formalin Treatment. 

BY C. H. W. WEBER. 



IN 3875 Hilbert discovered that bac- 
teria are the originators of many 
iufpctious diseases. 

In 1S54 Cohn proved the vegetable 
nature of bacteria, and showed that 
foul brood was caused by those bac- 
teria. 

Dr. Kolbe advocated salicylic acid 
for curing foul brood. Since then, it 
has been proven, that the treatment of 
foul brood colonies 
' with antisceptics is 
insufficient, and 
that a successful 
cure is only to be 
expected of the col- 
onies of bees them- 
selves and of their 
natural treatment 
and development. 

In 1883 the crea- 
tor of foul brood 
was described by 
Cheshire & Cheyne 
as a thin bacillus, 
slightly rounded on 
each end, having a 
length of 3-5 to 4 
ihousandths milli- 
meter, and only col- 
ored with difficulty, 
they named it "Ba- 
cillus Alvei." The 
temperature most 
favorable for its de- 
velopment is 37, 5 
degrees R. or 115 degrees F. (Maxi- 
mum 47 degrees R., minimum 16 de- 
grees R.). The spores, which are thick- 
er than the actual bacillus are formed 
on the ends of the bacillus which as- 
sume the form of a spindle during the 
formation of spores, they can be killed 
on being boiled for three hours. 

Professor Harrison discovered, that 
development of the bacillus alvei is 
stopped by betanaphtol, also by formic 
acid, formaldehyde and thymol. On 
adding 10 per cent, of forrnic acid to 
the food in the cells for the larvae the 
formation of the bacillus alvei is pre- 
vented. 



By my own experiments and trials 
with the foul brood germ 1 learned that 
the fumes of formaline will kill the 
bacteria and spores on coming in con- 
tact with them. Thus far it was 
thought, that bacillus alvei was a par- 
ticular variety of bacterium only found 
in colonies of bees, but September, 
1902, Dr. Lambotte, of the Uni- 
versity of Leige published that by 
careful examina- 
tion he found, that 
the bacillus alvei is 
identical with the 
bacillus mesenteri- 
cus vulgaris, so 
plentifully found in 
Nature. 

From Fluegge 
and Migula we 
know, that, first, 
the biclllus mesen- 
tericus vulgatus is 
found on potatoes 
and milk, especially 
in the ground. Sec- 
ond, that the bacil- 
lus mesentericus 
fuscus is found on 
potato pealing and 
in the air. Third, 
that according to 
Globig, the bacillus 
mesentericus ruber 
is usually found on 
potatoes. To these 
three varieties Dr. 
Lambotte adds as a fourth the bacillus 
mesentericus vulgaris,whiich specie ap- 
pears especially upon ill-kept bread, 
and which is said to be identical with 
the originator of the foul brood. It Is 
expected that other bacteriologists will 
confirm Dr. Lambotte's statement. 

The observations of Lambotte ex- 
plain why so many bee-colonies be- 
come affected with foul brood, where 
any contagion from other colonies is 
ex<?luded or absolutely impossible. 
They also prove, that the destrnction 
or burning of the affected colonies Is 
insufficient for the successful exter- 
mination of the foul brood. Of what 




1!)04 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



25 



avail will the destmction of afPected 
colonies be, wben the cause of the 
dispnse is sprend ovov tho entire uni- 
verse, in the Rronnd, in the air, on the 
plants and fruits? 

Mehrin.e- writes in his book, that foul 
brood of the worst form can be pro- 
duced by feeding a colony with the 
.iuife of dried fruit, wliich bad been 
cooked and sweetened with sugar. 
This shows that the bacteria must be 
on fruits. 

PhTl. Reidenbach says: "The foul 
brood iTPc^pr'n have not siT^h (lestrnc- 
tive peculiarities that a larvae, com- 
ing in contact with it must get sick 
and die." Then he says, that he made 
an one per cent, solution of foul In'-^od 
combs in water; this he added to the 
food for the larvae of difFerent ages, 
in the cells by means of a eamel's 
hair brush. In spite of this, all larvae 
developed into bees in due time, only 
when he introduced the pure foul brood 
to the food in the cells, the larvae died, 
but the colony did not become affected 
with foul brood on that account, for 
the dead larvae were removed by the 
bees and the colony had been primarily 
a sti'ong one. 

Some bee-keepers claim, that they 
gave frames affected Avith foul brood 
to strong, healthy colonies in order to 
reclean them, without any sign of sick- 
ness or disease being perceptible later 
on. Formerly it AA'as customary to 
fiirht against the foul brood by means 
of disinfectants, however, without any 
satisfactory results being obtained; 
finally, the bacteriologists came to the 
conclusion, that the bacillus were 
merely killed but not the spores, for 
whose extermination the disinfectants 
would have to be so highly concen- 
trated that the bees were unable to 
endure it. If weaker substances, for 
instance a solution of formaldehyde 
were used the malady was checked for 
the time being, but reapneared when 
the treatment was discontinued. These 
failui-es created a feeling of disponr- 
agement, and it was considered as 
foolish to tr.v to cure the malady on 
these principles. But it is not quite 
so bad as it seems to be, for the hard 
work, the bee-keeper undertakes by 
trying to disinfect his bees, the bees 
themselves willingly relieve him of, 
because Nature has fitted them out to 
best perform this work themselves. 
The bees are best adapted to free 



themselves most rapidly of foul broody 
nymphs and larvae; for this purpose 
they produce special substances, for 
preventing the development of the bac- 
cillus and spores and for keeping them 
in a latent condition. 

We are encountering a new miracle 
of the apiary. The keeping of the 
bacillus from further doing harm. In 
other words, the disinfection of their 
homes, is executed by the bees them- 
selves by application of substances, 
which the human intellect first discov- 
ered after many years of research and 
which at present are accepted as the 
most effective disinfectants for our 
homes. First, the secretion of the 
salivary glands and the foodchyle of 
the bees contain abundant vinous acid, 
which is analogous with the acid in 
grapes and wine. 

Second. A long time after the newly 
hatched bee has left the cell the brood 
cells still produce gasious formic acid. 
Third. The larvae contain plenty of 
concentrated formic acid, which as a 
free acid from the vinous acid of the 
food chyle oxidation. Fourth. The 
etherial oils, which the bees gather 
with the nectar and pollen, serve as 
disinfectants and act as a stimulant 
or spjpe for their food. 

Phil. Reidenbach claims, that on 
chemical analysis of thymolatic Ajo- 
Avan oil he found it to be a first -class 
stimulant and antiseptic, nearly as 
effective as sublimate. This. Dr. Lam- 
botte endorses emphatically, saying, 
that he arrived at the same results by 
microscopic investigations. That the 
larvae contain substances of an anti- 
septic nature which prevent the de- 
velopment of bacillus, for which rea- 
son bacteria may appear in healthy 
larvae. The transsubstantiation in the 
bees and larvae, the formation of 
formic acid from vinous acid of the 
food-chyle by means of oxydation is 
of great value for keeping foul brood 
out of the colon.v. If the bees are to 
be energetic and ambitious, so that 
they clean up their brood frames and 
carry out all their dead larvae and 
nymphs; if they are to produce anti- 
septic substances in abundance, and if 
they shall be healthy and resistible 
against foul brood the following con- 
ditions must be complied with under 
all circumstances: 

1st. A good ventilation of the hives. 

2nd. Good food, honey and pollen. 



26 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



February 



3rd. A normal queen which produces 
strong, healthy population. 

The results of poor ventilation of the 
hives are known: in winter a wet 
colony, moldy combs which are unable 
to produce formic acid, scarcity of air, 
increased wants for food, setting on 
brood in unreasonable season, scarcity 
of water, dysentery, chilled brood, foul 
brood. In summer, overheating, dull- 
ness, poor quality and scarcity of food, 
dying of the brood and again foul 
brood. 

Experience teaches us that foul 
brood is easily produced in those colo- 
nies, where there is poor ventilation. 
Honey is the only food for bees, sugar 
containing hardly any albumen will 
not have the desired effect. Whoever 
had the opportunity to see how bees 
prefer honey when sugar is set next to 
it; whoever has not observed, that in 
spring the swarms fed in winter with 
honey are in advance of those raised 
on sugar, will have to learn from physi- 
ology, that the development of all 
animals and formation of nitrogenous 
organic substances depends on the al- 
bumen in the food; hence the energetic 
active spirit of the bees depends on 
their food. This shows, that the bees 
need honey and pollen in order to be 
able to take up the fight against foul 
brood. What has a colony of bees 
got to nourish its brood in spring, witu 
a solution of sugar which contains 
scarcely any albumen? Nothing, not 
even what they need to keep up the 
energetic spirit to throw out the dead 
larvae and nymphs. How valuable the 
albumen is in the food, we can readily 
observe in the wild animals. Without 
albumen where would their energetic 
spirit be? A foul brood colony never 
shows life. Pollen is the food for bees, 
which contains the most albumen. 
What pollen amounts to we can learn 
from the Heide bee-keepers. Mr. 
Lehrzen, of Lueneburg, writes: The 
bee-keepers claim that if the bees are 
left in one place for three years, they 
will all be infected with foul brood, 
caused as the bee-keepers claim, by 
the lack of pollen until late in tne sea- 
son. This also shows, that the origin- 
ator of foul brood must be widely dif- 
fused, for if foul lirood appears in con- 
sequence of missing pollen, the foul 
brood bacteria must be very plen- 
tiful. When pollen is missing the 
bees will keep themselves for some- 



time as the honey contains about from 
1 to 3 per cent, of albumen. The most 
of this in digested form called peptone, 
which does not melt on cooking. The 
presence of peptone in honey I have 
found on analysis. Out of the salivary 
glands, the peptone is more or less 
transformed into a sugar solution, but 
in quantities too small. Often the 
queen is at fault, that the colony be- 
comes sick, if she produces more or 
less degenerated bees. Degeneration 
shows itself on the creatures by organ- 
ic defects, insufficient development, 
small resistability against contagious 
diseases, short life, especially by lazi- 
ness and lack of energy. The degen- 
eration is a consequence of abnormal 
conditions, especially copulation of 
near relation. Look for good ventila- 
tion, good food for fresh blood and for 
queens not related to your stock. 

Other precautions for the prevention 
of the malady, which, however, are of 
secondary importance, must be taken 
into consideration. Under all circum- 
stances keep away contagious combs 
and honey as much as possible. When 
buying honey for feeding, we should 
be very careful to place no foul brood 
combs into healthy colonies; watch the 
brood cells at all times, in order to de- 
tect the presence of the disease in the 
beginning. Disinfect all used hives, 
which come from other apiaries, fumi-- 
gate them with formaline. All bacillus 
and spores are positively killed by the 
formaldehyde fumes under the follow- 
ing conditions: They must be so ex- 
posed that the fumes can come in con- 
tact with them, they may only be cov- 
ered with thin materials, for instance, 
paper, one cubimeter of air must at 
least contain eight grains of formalde- 
hyde, the air of the respective depart- 
ment must be very moist and warm 
and the fumigation must be continued 
for at least seven hours. 

Formaldehyde is highly recommeded, 
because it leaves no odor or residue in 
the hives or combs. For fumigation, 
pastilles in a retorte may be used, the 
fumes out of the retorte to be led into 
the hive, into which a vessel with boil- ' 
ing water had been previously placed. 
After ten hours all foul brood, bacillus 
and spores will be dead. Or, the lamp, 
which I described about a year ago, 
may be used. 

A 40 per cent solution of formalde- 
hyde is called formaline. One pastille 



1904 



THE ,\.]fERrCAN liEE-KEEPER 



27 



produces one grain formaldehyde. 
First, it acts as formaldehyde, then as 
formic acid into which it was trans- 
formed by oxydation. C.H.20 (formal- 
dehyde + 20 (oxygon )=C H20 formic 
acid). Formaldehyde readily oxydizes 
into formic acid in the air. It is not 
imi)nssil)le that the escaping formic 
acid, which is generated in the brood 
cells, originates from formaldehyde. 

Is it not interesting to know that 
science has found the way of Nature, 
and that the antiseptics we now use 
and which are acknowledged to be the 
best are the same, which Nature has 
forever used in the bee hive? We no 
longer place all our hopes upon the ap- 
plication of one remedy, but rather 
upon the colony itself, upon the con- 
ditions prevailing in the hives, upon 
the conditions of the colon^, so that 
it is able to produce the substance 
which it needs for the prevention of the 
evil, uiion the energetic spirit which 
will make the bees throw out the dead 
larvae and nymphs. 

The strength of the colony which has 
to be treated must be talven into con- 
sideration. When the disease is no- 
ticed in a weak colony, I would not 
try to cure it, but would unite it with 
another one of the same condition, as 
the value of time thus employed would 
re])av the trouble. The sickness iiasses 
through various stages, we may there- 
fore make two divisions, calling the 
one the first or harmless stage, and 
when it is further advanced, the sec- 
ond or dangerous stage. A strong col- 
ony throws out the nymphs and larvae 
when dead at once and cannot become 
foul broody. 

If the colony suffers, however, under 
the depression of unhealthy conditions 
by not having enough supply of 
healthy food or from exposure to the 
cold, or from overlTeating, then we 
notice dullness and laziness on the 
part of the bees and they no longer 
throw the dead larvae and nymphs out 
of the cells. These suffering bees 
may malce an attemjit to do so, or may 
gnaw at the dead larvae and nymphs, 
removing the cappings of the cells in 
which they had died two days after 
being capped. In such combs, we see 
uncapped cells among the perfectly 
capped brood, these uncapped cells 
contain white and brownish nymphs 
which had died two days after being 
capped. This can be seen plainly on 



the pointed head. Such a colony, which 
has uncapped foul brood cells, suffers 
from the harmless stage. If the bees 
notice the foul brood, they gnaw the 
hirvae, nymphs and cappings, but can 
not resolve to clean the cells. If, how- 
ever, better weather and food sets in, 
they often awake to new life; they 
clean the cells and by so doing de- 
stroy the harmless foul brood. The 
same result may also be obtained by 
artificial means. If such a colony, 
where there is no flow of honey, be 
daily supplied with prepared honey 
pollen, at the same time placing a 
piece of blotting paper, on which from 
40 to 50 drops of Ajowan oil, rosemary 
oil, melissen oil, or anis oil had been 
poured, on the bottom board of the 
hive you will be astonished at the 
stimulating effect the oil will have 
upon the colony, how it will bring out 
new life and how the colony will re- 
commence to clean up and cast out the 
dead larvae and nymphs. It occurs 
that a colony becomes affected with 
the harmless foul brood and is again 
cured without the owner noticing it. 

On longer duration of the disease it 
becomes more and more contagious, 
the number of dead larvae and nymphs 
grow together with the depression of 
the colony. The bees no longer un- 
cap the cells, but leave the most un- 
touched, they bite a small hole in 
the capping and then the dead nymphs 
begin to putrefy and transform into 
the well known bad-smelling brood 
mass. This is the dangerous stage of 
foul brood. It now declines from step 
to step. But even this dangerous stage 
is not always so bad, but that the 
colony may become re-encouraged if 
fed for some time or treated with the 
above mentioned remedy. There are 
several cases known, that affected colo- 
nies were cured by a honey flow. In 
such cases in which the colony was 
treated with stimulating food and 
etheric oil. without the desired effects 
having been obtained a better queen 
mnst be substituted for the old one. 
Disinfecting and changing the hives 
is only necessary, when the malady 
has developed to a high degree. 

Whosoever treats his colony careful- 
ly and takes care that his colonies are 
supplied with good and plentiful food, 
fresh blood, good ventilation, and good 
queens, will be safe from the bad or 
dangerous stage of foul brood. If foul 



28 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



February 



brood ever aj^pears, the careful bee- 
keeper will surely cure It in the de- 
scribed maimer, he will constantly 
watch his brood and if he notices any 
gnawed cells, he will attend to them 
at once, so that the evil does not gain 
the upper stage. Last summer, after 
the honey flow was over, I had the 
opportunity to witness a party using 
the McEvoy treatment. For a while 
we thought that it had cured, but after 
some time the sickness reappeared, al- 
though the treatment had been care- 
fully performed. But as only sugar 
syrnp was fed. the energetic, a<•ti^■e, 
ambitious spirit of the bees Ava.s miss- 
ing. This I also noticed, when formal- 
dehyde fumigation was used exclusive- 
ly. This leads me to the conc^lusion 
that if healthy honey and pollen in 
oils had been used the cure would have 
been perfect. There always will be 
bee-keepers who will not take proper 
care of their bees. For such, a foul 
brood law, compelling them to disin- 
fect hives and colonies is necessary. 

The prevention of disease and the 
natural care of colonies are the main 
thing, but not the destruction and the 
curing of the malady. The enemy is 
only to be kept out of the apiary by 
natural ways. Keep them so, that 
when spring reappears and revives all 
nature, your bees awake from their 
slumbers strong and healthy, not weak, 
perhaps so weak they are beyond re- 
covery. 
Cincinnati. Ohio, .Tan. 16, 1904. 
•*-t~^ 

BEES AND ANTS. 



Some of the Obstacles with Which the Fbrrda Bee 

Keeper Has to Contend. 

By C. S. Harris. 

A FRIEND a few miles distant re- 
cently wrote me that on visit- 
ing an out-yard a day or two 
before he had found it in an uproar, 
with a big (-luster of bees about five 
hives in different parts of the yard, 
three of which had been cleaned out 
by the robbers. He thought ants were 
at the botloni of the trouble, which was 
■very likely the case, as they had begun 
ito show themselves in my apiary, al- 
tibbough a month earlier than I usually 
have trouble with them. 

We' have many branches of the ant 
family hei-e, but only two of them I 
find especially troublesome in the api- 



ary, one being a small black ant that 
nests about the hives and is, I .some- 
times think, more annoying to the apia- 
rist than to the bees, as they crawl 
upon the person and inflict their sharp 
stinging bites while he is engaged 
about the hives. They will occasion- 
ally over-run and destroy a very weak 
nucleus. 

The other, and only one to be feared, 
is a large red ant, the workers of which 
are about three-eights of an inch in 
length, while the soldier ants are often 
a half-inch long, and provided with 
strong, sharp jaws capable of cutting 
even the human skin. These ants are 
great foragers and will travel long dis- 
tances for food. While they will eat 
honey and other sweets, they seeni 
particularly fond of meat diet, and at- 
tack the bt^es in order to feast upon the 
brood. They work only at night as 
a rule. They are very round-a-bout in 
their attacks at times, passing a long 
row of hives to select one farthest from 
their nest: sometimes going up one 
tree and down another many feet from 
their starting point, making it diiflcult 
to line them home, which is the best 
way to deal Avith them. 

They nest in rotten stumps and 
roots, or trash of any kind and some- 
times, though I think not often, in the 
open ground. They frequently have a 
series of colonies radiating from the 
old nest and these various colonies 
seem to live in harmony and unite in 
securing food supplies. 

The queen is about the size of the 
soldier ants or jierhaps a trifle larger, 
^vith a more tapering abdomen. The 
(lueens and drones, or male ants, are 
provided with wings, which are either 
shed naturally or bitten off by the 
v.-orkers after the mating period. 

I have tried various poisons upon 
tliem, giving it on finely-chopped meat 
or drone brood, and I think that Faris 
green is effectual, if you can get them 
to take the n)eat which for some rea- 
son they sometimes refuse to do. They 
will usually take any of the phospho- 
rus i>rei>aratioiis just as they come 
from the can or bottle, but while it 
seems to reduce their numbers, it does 
not appear to destroy the colony en- 
tirely. The oidy sure way is to line 
them to their nests at night by the 
light of a good lantern or bicycle lamp 
and then kill them by burning, or the 
use of bi-sulphide of carbon. 



30 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEl'ER 



February 



Tbeir manner of attack upon the 
bees is peculiar and most effective. 
They first capture tlie guards and then, 
entering the hive, bite a wing from any 
bee that opposes them. The bees so 
maimed seem to i-eaUze at once that 
their days are numbered and crawl 
from the hive to die. 

A friend has just reported to me 
having Avitnessed the mating of num- 
bers of queen ants and drones, which 
while resembling in some respects the 
connection of queen bees and drones, 
differs very materially in others. Al- 
though the drone ant survives several 
■meetings with queens, his end is only 
for a little time delayed for he is not 
allowed to return to the nest, the work- 
ers driving him away whenever he at- 
tempts to enter. 

Holly Hill, Fla., Aug. 5th, 1903. 



SHALLOW^ OR DEEP FRAMES. 



W. 



The Man and Management, Nat the Depth of Frame 
Alone, Responsible for Results. 

By Arthur C. Miller. 

W. IMcNEAL seems to be of 
the stuff from which eiythusi- 
asts are made, and a^such 
he is a welcome member of the guild 
of beecrofters. His zeal in the advoca- 
cy of deep combs has led him into 
troubled waters. For evidence in su])- 
port of his belief in such frames he has 
accepted without questioning several 
fallacies. Let us consider them. 

But first I Avould call attention to 
possible differences in climate between 
Wheelersburg, Ohio, and Providence, 
R. I. Wheelersburg is over two de- 
grees further south than Providence, 
and the climate, as I chance to know, 
less .severe than here, so what will suf- 
fice the bees here should cerl:ainly do so 
there. 

Mr. McNeal says "the little shallow 
combs do not afford that protection 
to the colony so essential to good win- 
tering and early breeding." To which 
I would say: It depends on the man 
who handles them. Under right condi- 
tions l)ees will winter in anything 
which will keep rain and snow off of 
them. I have wintered colonies in un- 
protected, sii:gl(»-walled liives only 4" 
3-4 inches deep; and I constantly win- 
ter most of my bees in two chambers 
of 5 1-2 inches depth each. He says: 
"The shallow frames are designed ex- 



pressly to over-come the protective 
habits of the bees in the storage of 
honey." Certainly, to overcome that 
habit diu'ing the honey flow for man's 
especial benefit. And where he has 
interfered for his own advantage and 
deprived the bees of superior stores of 
higli commercial value, he must in his 
own interest use his intelligence in 
supplying the bees with some less val- 
uable food or permit them to retain 
for their own use less desirable (to 
him) honey gathered at some other 
time. 

If we use the divisible brood cham- 
ber hl\'e we must do so intelligently. 
So used it becomes a valuable ally; 
abused, it is a two-edged sword. 

Mr. ]McNc;!l bases his argument for 
deep frames on the assertion that "the 
depth of a wholly natural comb ex- 
ceeds its width." It all depends on the 
shape of the domicile Nature has sup- 
plied. I have seen a single comb a 
yard wide, and three to four inches 
dee]). .lust one comb stretched out 
in a long narrow cavity. Nature must 
have played a scurvy trick on those 
l)ees. 

"Bees build downwai'ds far more 
readily than sidewise, etc.'' On the 
contrary bees build sidewise twice as 
fast as downwards and under some 
conditions increase that ratio. True, a 
small, spherical cluster of bees will 
start one comb and build downwards 
twice as fast as they build sidewise, 
but multiply that cluster by foiu* and 
string them along the top bar of a 
frame, and we at once have four combs 
building. When each coml> has gone 
(h)wn two inches, each will have gone 
sidewise one inch, and the aggregate 
sidewise gi'owth is four inches, which 
is twice the downward growth. The- 
ory? Not a bit of it. Go to the bees 
and study the ways of various sized 
clusters in variously shaped domiciles. 
Bees clustered in L frames start from 
two to five combs and the.v meet and 
extended along the whole 17 inches of 
the to)) bar before they are within an 
inch of the bottom bar at any point. 
This is two inches of lateral growth 
to one of vertii'al I'or one frame, but 
the work is progressing simultaneous- 
ly in ten frames and we have an ag- 
gregate lateral growth of 170 inches to 
S inches vertical, a ratio of 21 to 1. If 
Mr. McNeal is going to depend on the 
bees for his evidence I fear he will 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



31 



have to revise his theories or lose his 
case. If he cares to try he can so 
build that whole 170 lateral inches of 
comb in a straight line and no matter 
what the vertical room the downAvard 
ration will remain about as above. 

I think it will be seen that "shallow 
chambered" hives are quite as well 
adapted to the bees' natural desires as 
are "deep chambered." 

Mr. McNeal says "the advocates of 
shallow chambers are very reticent 
about extreme pi'ecautionary measures 
necessary against the inroads of frost 
and ice." Again the personal element 
enters. If he will treat colonies in his 
deep hives the same as they are often 
treated in the shallow ones, just as 
poor results in wintering will be se- 
cured. When we have run a colony 
under high pressure for several mouths 
it is unreasonable to expect it to be 
as good as one which has jogged along. 
If, by our manipulations, the queen 
has found lots of room for eggs and the 
nurses have done their part in supply- 
ing stimulating food, she is ere many 
weeks ready to slack up work. Tnen 
we get a declining colony and by the 
time fall arrives it is comparatively 
small in numbers and its population is 
mostly old bees. Now if a good fall 
flow sets in early the colony will re- 
cuperate before cold Aveather and go 
into winter quarters with a goodly lot 
of strong young bees and an abundance 
of sound, well-placed stores. But their 
keeper is aA'aricious and must have 
that honey, so during the fall flow 
"high pressure'' is again brought to 
bear with the result that when cool 
weather arrives, the colony is not in 
the best of physical shape and is vir- 
tually out of food. Again their discern- 
ing master steps in and gives them a 
lot of raw food (sugar syrup) to be 
converted and stored. The labor in- 
volved costs valuable bee life and en- 
ergy, at a time when they can ill spare 
it and also at a time when the work is 
doubly difficult from lack of external 
heat. 

What is the result? The bees go into 
winter quarters half worn out, with 
Imperfect food imperfectly placed, and 
if they come out in the spring" at all, 
it is in poor condition. And the hive 
is to blame! 

Yes, a deep framed hive does help 
protect the bees from an avaricious 



master. But wouldn't it be better to 
hasten his exit from the craft? 

Mr. McNeal seems to think big col- 
onies cannot be brought through the 
winter in shallow chambered hives. 
Also that bees in such hives need dif- 
ferent protection than those in deep 
hives. Perhaps he can explain why 
I have no trouble in wintering bees 
either with or without protection 
(Chaff packing) with no upward ven- 
tilation and in very shallow or deep 
hives. Perhaps he can explain why 
bees will winter well in a box a foot 
cube without a bottom, set on two 
blocks and with the cluster hanging 
in sight below the combs and within 
an inch of the snow and the tempera- 
ture frisking but little above zero. The 
only ventilation that cofcny had was at 
the bottom and there seemed enough 
there certainly. The only protection 
it had was the half-inch pine box. 

I will save him the trouble of guess- 
ing. 

Given a good queen, an abundance of 
healthy, vigorous bees, plenty of stores 
given early enough so the bees can 
readily "ripen" them and store them 
where their instincts dictate, and such 
a colony will winter in any old recep- 
tacle which will keep snow and rain 
off of them and come out in the spring 
in the best condition. 

A hive is big or small not entirely 
by its cubical dimensions but also by 
the race or strain of bees housed with- 
in it. That which is too big to be 
profitable with one strain may be alto- 
gether too small with another. Its 
shape, however, is a matter merely of 
man's convenience. 

There are good and bad shallow- 
chambered hives and when not proper- 
ly constructed (as to bee-spaces, thick- 
ness of top and bottom bars, etc.,), 
they undoubtedly will make trouble. 
But the principle should not be sweep- 
ingly condemned on account of illy 
made hives. 

For Mr. McNeal's comfort let me 
say that there are conditions under 
which just as good results can be ob- 
tained with deep-chambered hives — 
perhaps better, from some points of 
view. The only way to determine 
which hive is best in one's locality is 
to test both types side by side, giving 
both equally intelligent care. 

When in doubt go to the bee and 
learn of her. Providence, R. I., Jan. 7. 



32 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



February 



THE VALUE OF APICULTURE IN 
AMERICA. 

By "Swarthmore." 

ALTHOUGH there are thousands 
of doUars invested in bees in 
this country, and even though 
hundreds of tons of honey are pro- 
duced each yeai", the industry of api- 
culture is yet in its infancy. 

It is only recently that any serious 
thought has been given to organization 
with a view to systematic and agres- 
sive marketing at a profit. 

Even by the crude methods employed 
by producers in past years apiculture 
has paid large returns from the capital 
invested^what wonders can be ex- 
pected from o'i'ganized force has been 
proven time and time again. Take 
for instance the fruit product of Cali- 
fornia. There was a time when quite 
al.l the luscious fruit of the Paciiic 
slope were left to rot on the ground 
for the simple reason that organized 
effort had not been directed to thor- 
ough distribution of the product in 
marketable form. 

The fruit growers of California or- 
ganized and there is now hardly a city, 
town or hamlet in the United States 
where the fruits of the Pacific slope 
cannot be purchased at a reasonable, 
pro/fitable figure— all due to thorough 
organization and consequent adequate 
marketing facilities together with care- 
ful packing and selected grades. The 
fruit industry under the management 
of consolidated interests has redeemed 
the State of California. 

Honey is largely used in the manu- 
facture of many articles of food be- 
cause of its wondrous preserving qual- 
ities; cakes, for instance, will never 
become hard or dry if honey enters 
into the mixture; beer is more quickly 
fermented and tobacco is better packed 
in plugs when honey is used. 

Aside from that used in packing 
food products and in the preserving of 
fruits and confections, there are food 
qualities in honey pure and simple 
which have l)oen acknowledged the 
world over for centuries. 

What seems to be most lacking in 
the handling of honey is its proper 
placing before the consumer in neat, 
inexpensive jiackages and the pushing 
of sales through judicious advertising. 
If such a sweet as corn syrup can be 



proifitably moved in this manner sure- 
ly honey has a most brilliant future. 
Swarthmore, Pa. 



Ohio's New Foul Brood BilL 

The young bee-keepers' association 
recently organized in Hamilton county, 
Ohio, has been "stirring up the ani- 
mals" in the Buckeye State, and its 
latest move in the direction of improv- 
ing apicultural conditions in Ohio has 
been the drafting of a foul brood bill, 
which is now before the Ohio legisla- 
ture. We have received a copy of the 
bill from Secretary Gilliland, and have 
pleasure in presenting the full text 
thereof, as follows: 

70th General Assembly, Regular Ses- 
sion. 

Mr. Herrick. 
A BILL. 
To provide for county inspectors of 
apiaries and defining their duties 
and providing for their compensa- 
tion, for the purpose of curing and 
avoiding foul brood, or other dis- 
eases, among bees and their hives. 

Be it enacted by the General Assem- 
bly of the State of Ohio: 

Section 1. That, whenever a petition 
is presented to the "board of county 
commissioners, of any county in the 
State of Ohio, signed by three or more 
persons, all of whom are residents of 
the said county, and possessor of an 
apiary or place where bees are kept, 
stating that certain apiaries within 
said county, are infected with the dis- 
ease known as foul brood, or any other 
disease, which is injurious to bees 
or their larvae, praying that an inspec- 
tor be appointed by said board of coun- 
ty commissioners, said board of coun- 
ty commissioners, shall within five 
days, after the presentation of said 
petition, appoint a person, as bee in- 
spector, who is a resident of said coun- 
ty who shall be a skilled bee-keeper, 
having thorough knowledge of foul 
brood and other diseases injurious to 
bees and their larvae and the treat- 
ment of same. 

Section 2. The person so appointed 
shall within five days after his appoint- 
ment file with the said board his writ- 
ten acceptance of the office, or, in de- 
fault thereof, or in case of vacancy, 
the board shall in the same manner 
make new appointments until the said 
office is filled. The inspector shall 
hold his office for two years and until 



1904 



THE AMETiTCA'N BEE-KEEPER 



33 



his sncressor if? appointed and qnali- 
fied, except when upon petition of ten 
I)ersoiis, (oacli of wliom is a resident 
of said county and jtossessor of an 
ai>ijiry). to the hoard of county com- 
missioners of said county, may remove 
said inspector for cause after a hearing 
of petitioners. 

Section 3. Any bee-ljeeper, or other 
person who shall have cause to believe 
that any apiary in his county is affect- 
ed with foul brood or other disease, 
either in his own apiary or elsewhere, 
shall make affidavit statinjr. that on in- 
formation or belief, he believes that 
certain apiaries, describing the loca- 
tion, naming the owner or keejier, is 
affected with foul brood or other dis- 
ease, and his ground for such belief. 
On receiving said affidavit from any 
source of the existence, in any apiary 
in his county, of the disease known as 
foul brood, or any other infectious or 
contagious disease of bees, the r-mu'ty 
inspector of bees, shall forthwith in- 
spect each colony of bees and all hives, 
implements and apparatus, honey and 
supplies on hand or used in connection 
"uith such apiary and distinctly desig- 
nate each colony or apiary Avhich is 
infected, and notify the owner, or 
person in charge of said bees thereof, 
in writing or otherwise, and the own- 
ers of said bees, or the persons in 
charge thereof to practically and in 
goo-d faith apply, and thereafter fully 
and effectually carry out, to and iipon 
such diseased colonies, such treatment 
as may have been prescribed by the 
said inspector for sucli cases; also 
thoroughly disinfect to the satisfaction 
of the inspector, all hives, bee-houses, 
combs, honey and apparatus that have 
been used in connection with any such 
diseased colonies; or, at his election, 
the said owner or person in charge 
of such bees may, within the same 
time, utterly and completely destroy 
said bees, hives, houses, comb-horses, 
honey and apparatus, by first killing 
the bees, (by the use of sulphur fumes 
when the bees are in the hives for the 
night) by fire, or bury the same in the 
ground with a covering of not less than 
two feet of earth. 

Section 4. The county inspector of 
bees, shall have the right to enter the 
premises of any bee-keeper, where the 
bees are liept and inspect such bees, 
and any person resisting or refusing 
to allow said inspection, by said bee 



inspector, shall be guilty of a misde- 
meanor, and may be then and there 
arrested by said bee inspector or per- 
son deputized by him, afid brought be- 
fore a .Justice of the Peace and upon 
conviction, shall be fined not less than 
ten dollars, nor more thiin twenty-five 
dollars. 

Section .5. After inspecting, working 
with, or handling infected hives, or 
fixtures, or handling di.seased bees, the 
inspector, or other person shall, before 
leaving the premises or proceeding to 
any other apiary, thorouchly disinfect 
his own person and clothing, and shall 
see that any assistant or assistants 
with him have also thoroughly disin- 
fepted their clothing and person. 

Section (5. The inspector shall have 
full power in his discretion to order 
any owner or possessor of bees, dwell- 
ing in box-hives in apiaries where the 
disease exists (being mere lioxes with- 
out frames) to transfer such bees to 
movable frame hives within a specified 
time, and in default of such transfer, 
the same shall become unlawful and 
the inspector may destroy, or order for 
destruction of such box-hives and the 
bees dwelling therein as a public nui- 
sance. 

Section 7. Should any owner of, or 
keeper of, or other person having dis- 
eased bees, or their larvae, or of any 
affected hives or combs, appliances or 
utensils for bee-keeping, sell or barter, 
or give away the same, or allow the 
same or any part thereof to be moved, 
such person shall be guilty of a mis- 
demeanor and upon conviction, such 
person shall be fined not less than ten 
dollars, nor more than tw^enty-five dol- 
lars. 

Section 8. Should any person, whose 
bees have been destroyed or treated for 
foul brood, sell, or offer for sale, any 
bees, hives or appurtenances of any 
kind, after such destruction or treat- 
ment, and before being authorized by 
the inspector to do so, or should he ex- 
pose in his bee-yard or elsewhere, any 
infected comb, or other infected thing, 
or conceal the fact that such disease 
exists among his bees, such person 
shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and 
upon conviction such person shall be 
fined not less than ten dollars, nor 
more than twent.v-five dollars. 

Section 9. If any owner or keeper 
of bees knows of, or after being noti- 
fied by the county bee inspector, that 



34 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



February 



foul brood or other infectious or con- 
tagious disease exists in any of the 
hives in the apiaries owned or in 
charge of said persons, and shall fail 
to comply within ten days from re- 
ceiving said knoAvledge and the date 
of receiving instructions from the 
county inspector, to cure or destroy 
the bees or hives, or their appliances, 
such person shall be guilty of a mis- 
demeanor, and upon conviction thereof, 
such person shall be fined not less than 
ten dollars, nor more than twenty-five 
dollars. 

Section 10. When the owner or pos- 
sessor of bees, shall disobey the direc- 
tions of said bee inspector, in curing or 
destroying any diseased bee, honey, 
hives or appliances shall become un- 
lawful and a public nuisance, and the 
said bee inspector shall at once de- 
sti-oy said bees, honey, hives or appli- 
ances, and may deputize such addition- 
al persons as he may find uecessaiy 
to effect said destruction. 

Section 11. The county inspector 
shall make a monthly report in writ- 
ing, under oath, to the board of county 
commissioners, in which report he 
shall state the number of days and 
number of hours in the preceding 
month spent by him in the actual dis- 
charge of his duties, and shall in said 
report state the name of the owner 
or keeper, and the location of the api- 
ary upon which such time was spent 
in curing or destroying said bees, to- 
gether with an itemized account, shoAV- 
ing the dates and amounts, for what 
incurred, money spent for any dis- 
charge of his duties, and to whom 
the same was paid, and for what ser- 
vices and considerations such indebt- 
edness was incurred, and accompany 
said report with the aflfidavits given 
him under and in pursuance of Section 
3 of this act, and make full and com- 
plete report of all he did, and results 
of his treatment of any apiary. 

Section 12. After the county inspec- 
tor of bees in any county shall make 
report, as provided in the preceding 
section, said county commissioners 
shall allow and pay to said county in- 
spector of bees two dollars for a full 
day and one dollar for each half day, 
necessarily and actually employed in 
the discharge of his duties under this 
act, together with his necessary and 
actual expenses while so employed, to 



be audited, allowed and paid by the 
county officers. 

Section 13. This act shall take effect 
and be in force from and after its pas- 
sage. 



^ * »■ 



THE DICKEL THEORY. 



By Henry E. Horn. 

ON PAGE 272, December number 
American Bee-Keeper, Mr. Adri- 
an Getaz reports Mr.Arnt Belief, 
of Spain, as insisting that the Dickel 
theory is false, on the ground that, if 
correct, "laying workers and virgin 
queens should produce workers like 
regular queens." Mr. Getaz adds, initi- 
ating the readers into Dickel's claims, 
that the latter's theory po-stulates that 
"all eggs laid by the queen are the 
same, and that the difference of sex is 
due to manipulation (?) of the work- 
ers." 

Mr. Getaz" statement of Dickel's the- 
ory is not incorrect, but insufficient, 
and, read in connection with Mr. Bel- 
let's objections, misleading. 

Ferd Dickel. of Darmstadt, teaches 
that all eggs laid by a normal, fertil- 
ized queen are fecundated eggs, that 
they become impregnated by the male 
spermatozoa at the moment they pass 
down through the oviduct into the cell 
— all alike, without exception, and that 
the difference of sex in the later on 
hatching insect is due to the actions 
of the nurse bees;, be it, that the only 
just attached sperm-fibre of the egg 
is either removed altogether or neutral- 
ized by some particular gland secretion 
of the nurses, or be it, that the quality 
and quantity of food given to the lar- 
vae in earliest stages determines the 
change. Certain it is that sex-differen- 
tiation rests with them. 

In contradiction, Dr. Dzierzon, who, 
as is so well known, holds that the 
queen immediately before depositing 
the egg determines at will whether it 
shall hatch worker or drone. F. Dickel 
furnishes the following proof-data to 
the bee-keeper: During the ^summer 
supply yourself with a full set of 
■drone-comb. In the early fall shake 
or brush your selected colony, queen 
and all, into this drone-comb hive, af- 
terwards feed up for winter, any way 
suitable. In the spring after brood 
raising has well started (bees will read- 
ily raise workers in these drone-combs) 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



35 



but before drones are raised normally, 
remove the queen, and in the course 
of time this colony will show queen- 
cells, worker-brood and ronnd-cai)ped 
drones. 

Someone has said that the female 
is Nature's darling, for in the repro- 
tlnction of the forms of animal life 
abundance and richness of food sup- 
plied in earliest stages favors the pro- 
duction of females, while the contrary 
treatment favors the production of 
males a principle with which, accord- 
ing to Dickel. the as yet thickly-veiled 
life within the bee hive is in entire 
accorvl. 

For the practical 1)ee-keeper the im- 
portance of Dickers theory lies per- 
haps mainly in the fact that true and 
absolute in-breeding becomes an easy 
possibility, no matter by what ,stock 
one may be surrounded, or how large 
and varied one's own apiary may be. 
Other things being equal good honey 
crops depend principally on good 
queens and pretty nearly every bee- 
keeper would be able to double his crop 
if all his queens came up to his best. 

Riverside, Cal., Dec. 18, 1903. 



The National Bee-Keepers' Associ- 
ation. 

Chicago, 111., Dec. 31, 1903. 
To W. F. Marks, Chairman Board of 

Directors N. B.-K. A.: 

We the committee selected to count 
the ballots cast at the annual election 
for General ^Manager and three Direc- 
tors of the National Bee-Keepers' As- 
sociation, also on Amendments to its 
Constitution, have duly counted the 
same, and report as follows: 

Total number of A'otes cast, 552; 
necessary to elect, 277. 

Result of the Ballot. 

For General Manager. — N. E. 
France, 518; George W. York, 8; Em- 
erson T. Abbott, 5; W. L. Coggshall, 
4; Dr. C. C. Miller, 2; and the follow- 
ing 1 each: C. A. Hatch, O. L. 
HershLser, J. F. Mclntyre, E. S. Love- 
sy. Louis Scholl and W. Z. Hutchinson. 

For Directors.— R. C. Aikin. 444; P. 
H. Elwood, 404; Wm. McEvoy, 268; E. 
R.Root, 195; George W. York,"20; Prof, 
A. J. Cook, 19; Emerson T. Abbott, 19; 
W. D. Coggshall, 10; G. M. Doolittle, 9; 
J. F. Mclntyre, 9; Wm. Rohrig, 9; E. 
S. Lovesy, 8; H. H. Hyde, 7; H. C. 
Morehouse, 6; Dr. C. C. Miller, G; D. 
W. Working, 5; Frank Benton, 4; N, 



E. France, 4; M. A. Gill, 4; C. H. W. 
Weber, 4; Frank Rauchfuss. 4; C. P. 
Dadant, 3; L. Stacholhausen, 3; O. L. 
Hershiser, 3; W. Z. Hutchinson, 3; M. 
H. Mendleson, 3; W. O. Victor, 3; the 
following, 2 each: .T. J. Cosby, .T. T. 
Calvert, Fred W. Muth, W. F. Marks, 
A. C. .Miller, F. Wilcox, Chalon Fowls, 

F. E. Brown. J. A. Stone, J. T.. Strong, 
W. S. Ponder, J. T. Moore, W. A. Sel- 
ser. .T. E. Crane, ,.T. B. Rick: and the 
following 1 each: John Rick, J. H. 
Hunter, Wm. StoUey, J. W. Johnson, 
W. Z. Hutchinson, Ude Toepiierwein, 
Arthur Stanley, Harry McCombe, C. A. 
Hatch. G. W. Brodbeck. J. P. West. H. 
W. Coley. Mrs. H. C. Acklin. Mrs. N. 
L. Stow. W. J. Craig, J. S. Bruce. E. 
E. Hasty, C. M. ^Morris, E. C Atkin, J. 
M. Hambaugh, Huber Root, E. B. Tyr- 
rel, N. L. Stevens, W. D. Wright, J. A. 
Green, F. F. Jansen, J. Q. Smith. Gus 
Dittmer, J. E. Chambers, J. E. Hether- 
ington, H. G. Quirin, K. H. Keeler. I. 
J. Stringham, F. Greiner, J. C. Harris, 

N. C. Acklin, Wm. Russell, Frank 
Moeser. A. B. Mullen. Chas. W. Yoight, 
John Torens. F. O. Hallisbury. J. M. 
Jenkins. R. B. Herron. H. E. Wilder. S. 
C. Ferguson, W. A. Hlckox. A. A. 
French, J. F. Flory, Wm. Couse, M. 
V. Facey, M. Hart, J. W. Ferree, Hen- 
ry Alley, J. C. Corey, J. C. Morrison, 
Geo. E. Hilton. John Myers, Chas. 
Stewart, C. P. Gillette, Edwin Bevins, 
N. B. West, and C. H. Pierce. 

For amendments, 491; against 
amendments, 10. 

(Signed) George W. York. 

Secretary. 
C. C. Miller. Dir. 

Whereas. N. E. France, having re- 
ceived "a majority vote of the mem- 
bers voting,'' for General INIanaTer, is 
elected General INIanager of the Nation- 
al Bee-Keepers' Association. 

R. C. Aikin and P. H. Elwood. hav- 
ing received "a ma.iority vote of the 
members voting," for Directors, are 
elected Directors to succeed them- 
selves. No one having received "a ma- 
jority vote of the members voting." for 
a Director to succeed E. R. Root, B. 
R. Root will hold over as provided in 
the Constitution under which this elec- 
tion was held. 

The Amendments to the Constitu- 
tion, having received "a majoritv vote 
of the members voting," are adopted. 
W. F. IMarks, 

Chm. Bd. of Directors N. B.-K. A. 



36 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



February 



HARDSCRABBLE LETTER. 



Dear Brother Hill: I've just been a- 
lookiii' over the January Bee-Keeper. 
Don't look nateral; what's happened? 
Hully gee! If that little Miller ever 
gets after McNeal you'll see fireworks; 
why Mac is just a-tranipin' all over his 
preserves. Listen. — "How beautifully 
perfect and the combs built under the 
guidance of a home-loving queen in the 
bloom of her youth!" Whoop! John 
Hewitt is fixing trouble for himself 
just about as fast as the law will al- 
low him. Hear this. — "I see a lot of 
silly stuff about rearing queens. The 
so-called Doolittle system of making 
artificial cells and putting in royal food 
being about the favorite. All that 
Doolittle discovered (?) will be found 
in Huber's book published over 100 
years ago." Poor Doolittle. But say 
it is kind of ruff to take away the only 
thing left of his system that had been 
allowed as his own. Moral: Don't 
"bori-ow." Hewitt is 'bout like the 
rest of us; his baby is the only one 
wuth a farthing. And like we-uns — 
or like some of us — he speaks loosely, 
calls using larvae two days old, rear- 
ing queens from the egg. Its gol- 
durne strange how blamed hard it is 
to say things exact when it spoils our 
story. 

"Beeswax" D — D — Alley soars on 
lacy wings to realms of fancy on the 
uses of the sticky yaller gum of the 
festive bee. Huh! Why the whole 
world's output wouldn't go quarter 
round for the work he's laid out for it. 
He's got another guess a-comin'. But 
it does enter into the arts pretty well, 
tho' the cheaper mineral waxes have 
crowded it out of most places. 

Bees in a green house for producin' 
colic, which is to say cucumbers. 
Ruther interesting is that account by 
Reeve. If 'twant for the cold I'd like 
to go see some of them greeneries, but 
as 'tis I'll stay where I'm comfortable. 

Bee Humbug. Who said a bee wasn't 
a hum-l)ug? Bully, the Irishman has 
got after Miller. St'boy! Sic him! 

"A Milk and Honey Farm" by Her- 
ring. What's a herrin' got to do with 
a milk farm anyhow? 

Jameson tells a nice tale about how 
to wire brood frames. I can beat him 
all holler. It's DON'T. 

A mysterious Act. Nothin' mysteri- 



ous about it; the bee is just takin' an 
afternoon chaw of tobacco. 

"Large Honey Crops." Greiner 
comes to Johnson's rescue in swell 
shape. Not always swift, is G, but 
most always sure and sound. 

"Best Honey Gatherers." No best 
ones, only some more cussed than 
others. 

"Artificial Pollen." I wish Harris 
would tell us of some ere way to keep 
it out of the hives, leastways what 
part we don't want. 

"Johnson's Say." So he lacked the 
coui'age of his convictions, did he. 
Didn't sound so, but the human speecn 
do be a queer thing. 

I like that picture of Old Brash. She 
had her suspicions of you when you 
snapped that camera. 

The Round World and Editorials 
seem ruther biled down. 

Harry, my boy, will you never learn 
discretion? A department for new 
apiarian inventions forsooth. Why 
b'gosh man ye'U be swamped with 
stuff from every scatter-brained chap 
in the country; yes, and out of it, 
too. 

A nephew of mine from Colorado 
di'opped in on me a few days ago and 
as we talked over climates I was re- 
minded of what Eugene Fild said about 
that of Colorado. 

Yours as ever, 

John Hardscrabble. 

"What Eugene Field said about that 
of Colorado," will be found on the title 
page of this number of the Bee-Keeper. 
—Editor. 



Dartmoor Honey. 



From the blossoms of the furze the 
bees derive their aromatic honey, 
which makes that of Dartmoor 
supreme. Yet bee-keeping is a difficul- 
ty there, owing to the gales that sweep 
the busy insects awa.v, so that they 
fail to find their direction home. Only 
in sheltered combs can they be kept. 
The much-relished Swiss honey is a 
manufactured product of glycerine and 
pearjuice, but Dartmoor honey is the 
sul)h'mated essence of ambrosial 
sweetness in taste and savor, drawn 
from no other source than the chalices 
of the golden furze, and compounded 
with no adventitious matter. — S. Bar- 
ing Gould. — A Book of Dartmoor. 



y.^^^^^.^^.^^^^^^^^ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦»♦♦»♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦» 




THE 



Bee = Keeping World 



•♦♦♦♦♦ »-M-^ 



GERMANY. 



The reply jjiven in Pvaxisdei* Bzcht. 
as to how best to treat after-swarms 
strikes me quite favorably. It says: 
It is advisable to give them full combs; 
if such are not at hand give frames 
completely filled with foundation. 
Then have no brood to take care of 
for some time and are particularly in 
good shape to store honey. The drawn 
combs given them places the colony 
in the best possible shape for storing. 



The same paper reports of an un- 
capping machine exhibited at a bee- 
keepers" meeting in Alsass-Lovain. 
The machine was operated and uncap- 
ped a comb in a minute on both sides. 
The inventor, Ollinger, was urged to 
Lave his invention patented. 



Ruberoid for covering bee-houses and 
hives is recommended in 111. Deutsche 
B7tg. The claim is made that repair- 
ing is not necessary. It is odorless 
and weax's well. 



Professor Bachmetjew, and before 
him Professor Koschewnikow have as- 
certained that there is a slight differ- 
ence in drones originating from a nor- 
mal queen and such as originated from 
unfertile queen and workers. The dues- 
tion is, however, not fully proven 
whether or not drones of latter origin 
are virile. 



Editor Reidenbach (Thai/,. Bztir.) 
prefers to take the renewal of queens 
into his own hands. He prefers 
swarming cells from his most produc- 
tive swarms. He allows these colo- 
nies to swarm, and when the first 
after-swarm issues he ciits out all cells, 
cages them and the emerged queen 
in separate cages. With the bees of 
the after-swarm and those of the 
prime swarm he stocks up as many 
nucleus hives as he has queens and 



cells, giving each a brood-comb and 
queen or cell; the hives are placed as 
far from each other as convenient, and 
the entrances are close with grass. 
At night of the same day or next 
morning early he opens these up. To 
prevent iidireeding he thinks it of ad- 
vantage to take these nuclei to out- 
yards. In a discussion of the bee- 
keepers at Kleinbockenheim conven- 
tion, it was pointed out that when con- 
stantly breeding in the above manner a 
swarming race of bees might result, 
and it was the general opinion that by 
using post-constructed cells over very 
young larva a better non-swarming 
race might be produced. However, it 
was conceded that greater care should 
be exercised in thus rearing queens. 



As coming from Germany, very sin- 
gular advice is given in Imkerschule, 
by Weggandt., as follows: In hnndling 
bees I want to caution the bee-keepers 
as to the use of the tobacco pipe or 
cigar. G. M. Doolittle, the celebrated 
American bee-keeper, calculates that 
frequent use of tobacco among the 
bees costs the bee-keeper about 25 per 
cent, of his honey. 



It is reported by two German bee- 
keepers, one an editor of a bee-journal, 
that they have observed drones work- 
ing on Phacelia and other blossoms. 
One drone was caught in the act and 
showed pollen packed on the legs. I 
omit the names of the observers to 
deliver them from an undue amount of 
correspondence of prosjiective purchas- 
ers of new strains of bees. 



It is estimated in Centralblatt that 
there are 3.000 colonies of wild bees 
occupying trees, cavities, etc., in North 
America. The reporter, continuing, 
sa.vs that it is still one of the privileges 
and pleasures of farmers in America 
to hunt these bees and appropriate the 
honey they have stored. (The latter is 



38 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



February 



correct; about the correctness of the 
former I entertain .some doubts, i. e., 
I think the number of wild bees is 
much greater). 

The Dickel theory ought by this time 
to be dead for good. A few months 
ago Professor Fleischmann, after some 
extensive investigations, declared it 
false. Lately Professor Weissmann 
and his helpers after Studying the mat- 
ter during the last three years, have 
arrived at the same conclusion. 

Some vears ago Professor Joseph 
Langer undertook a thorough study of 
the venom of the bee. Up to that 
time it was generally thought that the 
formic acid contained in it, though a 
number of able men did think that it 
must be an alkaloid, but nothing had 
been proven. Dr. Langer in the four 
years during which he experimented 
used about 120,000 bees to obtain the 
venom desired. The experiments were 
made on men and beasts, chiefly rab- 
bits. Sometimes with the bee-stings, 
sometimes by introducing the venom 
under the skin with a syringe. The 
formic acid has a slight eft'eet, as was 
proven by using it directly instead of 
venom. A poisonous substance, of the 
class called by chemists, alcaloids, is 
really the active principle of the bee- 
venom. 

Other scientists have lately added to 
Dr. Langer's researches. The bee-ven- 
om does not proceed out of a single 
gland, but from several, so minute that 
they are almost impossible to separate. 
The one producing the alcaloid is ex- 
tremely small and had so far escaped 
observation. 

Among the 164 bee-keepers exam- 
ined, 11 were not hurt much when 
stung, 12G became used to the stings, 
that is, became immune, and 21 did not 
become immune. Among the HH, 2S 
were at the beginning, exceedingly 
sensible and subject to seriois sickness 
when badly stung. 

As to the remedies, the only really 
useful are the permanganate of potash 
and chloroform. They should be intro- 
duced under the skin at the point 
stung, with hypodermic syringe, other- 
wise they have but little effect. 

It is also stated that the venom of 
snakes, wasps, scorpions, etc., Is of the 
same nature, so far as the alcaloid or 
active principle is concerned. 



Aside from the pain and swelling» 
the effect— we might say the deadly 
effect — is on the nervous system, and, 
in cases of snake bite or excessive bee 
stinging, the nervous action ceases and 
the heart fails altogether. In spite 
of all that temperance writers may 
have said to tiie contrary, alcohol is 
the remedy indicated, as it stimulates 
the nervous system and enables it to 
counteract the effects of the alcaloid 
poison. 

It would be interesting to know 
whether one immune to bee stings 
would be also immune to snake bites, 
but nobody seems to have experi- 
mented in that direction, undoubtedly 
for very good reasons. 



SWITZERLAND. 

M. Fenoillet is of the opinion that 
honey ripens in the hive within five 
or six days days. — B. Vater. 



A year ago, or about, the bee-keep- 
ing world was almost startled by the 
supposed discovery of Dr. Lambotte 
that the much dreaded foul brood is 
nothing more or less than a form of 
putrefaction frequently met in Nature, 
especially in decayed milk or cream, 
wet bread and potatoes. In a word 
that foul brood was produced by the 
well-known bacillus mesentericus. 

Recently two articles have appeared 
in the Revue Internationale showing 
that Dr. Lambotte was mistaken, and 
that the bacillus mesentericus produc- 
ing putrefaction and the bacillus alvei 
which produces foul brood are two dis- 
tinct beings, though so near alike in 
every respect that they cannot be dis- 
tinquished except by exceptionally del- 
icate means of investigation. 

One of these articles is by Professor 
F. C. Harrison, of Guelph, (Ontario), 
and the other by Mr. Th. W. Cowan, 
the editor of the British Bee Journal. 
Both are well known and undoubtedly 
competent to handle the question. 
Their articles are too long to take place 
here. Those of the readers of this pa- 
per who Avould like to know more 
about Dr. Lambotte's ideas will find 
them explained in the January, 190S 
number of this paper. 



ITALY. 

Mention is made in L'Apicoltore of 

two wasp nests found Infected with 

foul brood. If wasps, bumblebees, 

wild bees of all sorts and perhaps other 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



39 



insects are liable to take the disease, 

we may understand why it is so diflli- 
cult to get rid of it in certain localities. 
Mr. Baucbenfels, the editor of L'- 
Apicoltore, does- not think that bees 
can carry their eggs. He says if it 
were so, when they are queenless, they 
would build queen cells and transfer 
some eggs to them rather than build 
around the egg, tearing down the ad- 
jacent cells. The same says that dur- 
ing the spring of the year, it is the 
brood that gives off most of the vapor 
expelled. When using hives with a 
glass window, the amount of water 
condensed upon the glass is almost in 
proportion to the amount of brood 
raised. 



1900, viz., 93 1-2 pounds per hive. (Aver- 
age summer count.) I still hope to 
do better, as I have started an out- 
apiary, (see photo), in which I am 
using the Bolton hive. This hive Las 
a devisible brood chamber, and the 
bodies, which are the same size as 
your "Ideal super," permit of inver- 
sion. Unlike the Heddon hive it is 
fitted with hanging frames. 

I should like to know something 
about Mr. H. J. Shrock's hive protec- 
tor mentioned in the September num- 
ber of The American Bee-Keeper (page 
215), but not described there, if it will 
not inconvenience you. 

Yours sincerely, 

N. E. Loane. 




^^me^ftt^-n 



^e*"^ 



MR. LOANE'S APIARY IN TASMANIA. 



TASMANIA. 

Kindred, Tasmania, Nov. 17, 1903. 

Editor American Bee- Keeper: It was 
with great pleasure that I read your 
well-informed paper for September. 
The bee-keeping industry is not carried 
on extensively in our little island state, 
though it can, I feel sure, be made to 
pay well. Now that we are in the 
commonwealth, we have to compete 
with the continental states, where big 
yields of honey are often recorded. 
One bee-keeper in Victoria last season 
cleared $4,400.00 from 200 colonies; but 
that is unusual. We have no droughts 
to contend with here, and have mild 
winters. I have kept bees for nine 
years, and the best yield I had was in 



AUSTRALIA. 

Harrison says that one warm night 
will accomplish the ripening of nectar. 
(The experience of the writer of this 
is, that honey is not usually ripe till 
sealed. Such honey extracted when 
sealed will keep years without mate- 
rially deteriorating, while honey ex- 
tracted when unsealed will quite com- 
monly turn sour in course of time. We 
have just opened several cans of two 
and three years ago, which was fully 
sealed when extracted, and it is fine.) 



ENGLAND. 
BienenVater tells of a bee-keeper In 
England who fed his bees on sugar 
which contained sufficient poison to 



40 



THE AMERTCAN liEE-KKEPER 



February 



kill many of the young bees. The su- 
gar was said to be imported from Ger- 
many. 

F. Greiner. 



BELGIUM. 
In July, 1901, a correspondent found 
in one of his colonies two nueeiis. 
daughter and mother. lie left both. 
The old one was almost hairless, with 
the abdomen very small. He often 
examined them and found them al- 
ways together. Only the young one 
was laying. The first of August, 1902. 
over a year later, he found them for 
the first time separated, the old one 
too weak to follow the other. She died 
shortly after. (Le Rucher Beige.) 



The Rucher Beige has an article (by 
M. Leger) concerning winter feediJig, 
in which the use of honey is strongly 
advocated. But if honey cannot be 
had, sugar must be used. He advo- 
cates boiling the sugar until it becomes 
syrup and add tartaric acid. The boil- 
ing and the addition of tartaric acid 
have the effect of inverting (chemical- 
ly) the sugar, making it thus similar 
to the honey itself and more easily di- 
gested by the bees. He disapproves 
of using vinegar instead of tartaric 
acid. Often the vinegar is adulterated. 
If pure it has little inverting power. 
Several other writers advise adding a 
little salt to the syrup. 

Adrian Getaz. 




Worcester, Mass., Jan. 11, 1904. 
Mr. Editor: I presume you have 
looked many times among obituary no- 
tices for the death of the Worcester 
County Bee-Keepers' Associiition. 
This society was born April, 1900. It 
was not a very strong child and dur- 
ing that year it did not accomplish 
very much. In 1901 it gained a little, 
but in 1902 a decline set in which al- 
most finished the weakling. In 1903 
its strength M^as renewed, and when 
the year closed we found we had had 
a full year. No meeting was missed, 
and to close up the year we had as 



speaker Arthur C. Miller, of Provi- 
dence, R. I. Many hnve lieconie ac- 
quainted with Mr. :Miller through the 
pages of The American Bee-Keeper, 
but to hear him speak is a much richer 
treat. That Mr. Miller is thoroughly 
posted uiion all mntters pertaining to 
bees was shown by the answer he gave 
to the many questions that were hurled 
at him from all sides. 

We had a very large attendance, and 
it wns "the voice of the multitude" 
we have ]\Ir. Miller again. 

Our Worcester County Association 
now has a membership of 59. We are 
endeavoring to work up a list of bee- 
keepers of the county, and when this 
is completed we hope it will hnve a 
tendency to increase our membership. 
We had only one outing during 1903, 
but that Wiis so enjoyable it will not 
be soon forgotten. 

Yours truly, 

C. R. Russell. 



Blnck River. N. Y., .Tan. 8, 1904. 

Mr. Editor: We hnve formed a Jef- 
ferson County Bee-Keepers' Society 
with the following officers: 

President, M. C. Harrington, Water- 
tOM-n. 

1st Vice-President, A. A. French, 
Black River. 

2nd Vice-President, Pearl Symonds. 
Rodman. 

Secretary, Geo. B. Howe, Black 
River. 

Trensurer. D. R. Hardy Watertown. 

All bee-keepers are invited to join. 
Dues ."fl.OO T)er annum. 

Very truly yours, 

Geo. B. Howe, Sec. 



South Wales, N. Y. Dec. 11, 1903. 
Editor Bee-Keeper: My report for 
Inst season, with (iO colonies, is as fol- 
lows: 4.0S0 pounds white, and 710 
pounds dnrk. extracted honey and in- 
creased to 98. I distribute every copy 
of the Bee-Keeper that comes to me, 
among bee-keeping acquaintances. 
Respectfully yours. 

J. W. Tefft. 



I greatly enjoy The American Bee- 
Keeper, and think it the equal, if not 
superior to the high-priced journals. I 
for one, cannot afford to be without it 
— L. B. Smith. 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



41 




At this writing, January 19, an abun- 
dance of pollen and some honey are 
coming in, in the South Florida apiary, 
bearing evidence of the approach of 
another honey season, which always 
carries to the apiarist a fresh supply of 
enthusiasm and good resolutions. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY 
THE W. T. FALCONER MANFG. Co., 

PROPRIETORS. 
H. E. HILL, - EDITOR, 

FORT FIERCE, FLA- 



Terms. 

Fifty cents a year in advance; 2 copies 85 
cents; 3 copies $1.20; all to be sent to one 
postoiTice. 

Postage prepaid in the United States and 
Canada; 10 cents extra to all countries in the 
postal union, and 20 cents extra to all other 
countries. 

Advertising: Bates. 

i'ifteen cents per line, 9 words; $2.00 per 
inch. Five per cent, discount for two iser- 
tions; seven per cent, for three insertions; 
twenty per cent, for twelve insertions. 

Advertisements must be received on or be- 
fore the loth of each month to insure inser- 
tion the month following. 

Matters relating to business may be ad- 
dressed to 

THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 
Fort I'ierce, Fla., or Jamestown, N. Y. 

Articles for publication or letters exclusively 
for the editorial department should be ad- 
dressed to the Florida office. 

Subscribers receiving their paper in blue 
wrapper will know that their subscription ex- 
pires with this number. We hope that you 
will not delay favoring us with a renewal. 

A red wrapper on your paper indicates that 
you owe for your subscription. Please give 
the matter your early attention. 




We are entering upon the last month 
of winter, and soon the flowers of 
spring will usher in tlie reason of 1904. 
In many instances success will depend 
upon the scope and thoroughness of our 
plans now formulated. It's a good 
time to think, and think seriously. 
♦-•-♦ 

Cuba is ^aid to have, this year, the 
first failure of the honey crop within 
the history of bee culture upon the is- 
land. However, the reports we have 
received were issued rather early. It 
is possible that more favorable condi- 
tions may develop later in the season, 
and afford a degree of relief to •the 
disappointed multitude of bee-keepers. 
♦-•-♦ 

El Apicultor is a new bee journal 
published at Barcelona, Spain, under 
the management of Miguel Pons Fa- 
bregues. El Apicultor, we believe, is 
to succeed El Colmenero Espanol, the 
editor of which, D. E. Mercader-Bel- 
loch, died on December 9th last, at the 
age of 73 years. The new journal 
makes a very creditable and promising 
start. •-*"* 

We are in receipt of a copy of the 
annual report of the general manager 
of the National Bee-Keepers' Associa- 
tion for 190.*^. The compilation presents 
a resume of the cases handled during 
the year — in all, 3.5 — the results bearing 
evidenc of the efliciency of organized 
efforts in this direction. The list of 
members approximates 1,700, and the 
treasury balance is $1,115.08. 



The American Bee-Keeper is al- 
ways in the market to buy for cash, 
good articles treating upon apiarian 
subjects. Illustrated material is espe- 
cially desired, and we should be 
pleased to have the privilege of ex- 
amining manuscripts from the pens of 
our readers at all times. 



The Bee-Keeper acknowledges with 
thanks the receipt of a number of pho- 
tographs from the following subscrib- 
ers: Messrs. John M. Hooker, Dr. O. 
M. Blanton and N. E. Loane. The col- 
lection sent by the former, comprises 
nearly 150 interesting subjects, from 
the British Isles, and are well executed, 
indeed. Those sent by Mr. Loane rep- 
resent the scenic beauties of far-off 
Tasmania; while Dr. Blanton's contri- 
butions are characteristic of our own 
country. We deeply appreciate these 
evidences of kind regard. 



42 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



February 



The Southland Queen, of Texas, 
warns its readers that when bulk comb 
honey is candied, the market price falls 
to the level of extracted quotations, 
and advises that this class of honey 
should be allowed to remain upon 
the hive until orders for delivery are 
in. Such being the case, the rosy hue 
which appeared upon the face of this 
recent departure in honey production 
has a tendency to fade into a more 
sombre shade; for it is impracticable 
to restore bulk comb honey to its 
former more desirable condition, and 
the thous'ht of marketing the wax con- 
tained at about one-sixth its market 
value is not pleasant. 

The editor desires to say to readers 
of The Bee-Keeper that if those who 
wish the paper discontinued at the ex- 
pimtlon of the time for which it is 
paid, will drop us a postal card to that 
efPect, their request will have prompt 
and careful attention. With the ex- 
ception of a few sample copies mailed 
to bee-keepers not already subscribers, 
we never mail a single copy to anyone 
who has not paid in advance or else 
hns subscribed for an indefinite pe- 
riod. New subscribers are constantly 
coming in. and it is our aim to so place 
every edition that each copy will fall 
into the hands of someone expecting it, 
and who has made or will make pay- 
ment in advance at his earliest conven- 
ience. 



Mnst Honey "Take a Back Seat." 

Considerable alarm is manifested in 
certain quarters at the possible result 
of a moInss!Ps advertisement now be- 
coming fnmiliar everywhere, which 
clnims superiority over honey. "Better 
thnn honey for less money," makes a 
cntchy hendline that will divert thou- 
sands of dollars from the pockets of 
honey producers to those whose enter- 
prise and business sagacity prompts 
them to make such generous use of 
magazine space. 

This is essentially an age of public- 
ity, and business success is markedly 
proportionate to the extent and qual- 
ity of publicity employed by the pro- 
moters of any enterprise. Bee-keepers 
have, obviously, failed to appreciate 
the possibilities which their business 
affords, through united effort in mar- 
keting and the utilization of modem 



methods as applied to publicity. The 
competitor's goods may be unwhole- 
some and unpalatable, as compared 
with honey, yet his persistent advertis- 
ing will take them into thousands of 
homes where pure honey is unknown, 
and the consumer, by reason of the 
wily advertisement, will feel that in 
providing such a commodity for house- 
hold use he is actually performing a 
sacred duty to those for whom he pro- 
vides. Thus the consumption goes on, 
and the manufacturer continues to 
grow wealthy. -<ot because of any 
special merit of the commodity, but 
because of shrewd advertising. 

The bee-keeper's product is unques- 
tionably the most wholesome and de- 
licious of table sweets. Does he not 
recognize in the advertising methods 
of the cheap molasses man a lesson 
worthy of application to his own busi- 
ness? 

Since the foregoing was written, The 
Bee-Keeper has received a short arti- 
cle from "Swarthmore," which is pre- 
sented in this number, bearing upon 
the same subject. It should be "learned 
by heart" by every bee-keeper in the 
land who is interested in the profitable 
development of our pursuit. 



Death of Captain Hetherington. 

Capt. J. E. Hetherington, who has 
borne the distinction of being the most 
extensive bee-keeper in the world, died 
at his home in Cherry Valley, New 
York, December 31, 1903. This mea- 
gre announcement comes from Capt.- 
Hetherington's son, Hubert B. Hether- 
ington, of Cherry Valley, and The Bee- 
Keeper extends to the bereaved family 
its sincere condolence. Capt. Hether- 
ington would have reached his 64th 
birthday on January 7th. 



The National Election. 

The official report af the December 
elections of the National Bee-Keepers' 
Association will be fonnJ in this num- 
ber of The Bee-Keeper. The popular- 
ity of General Manager France is in- 
deed strongly attested by the result 
of this contest, he having received 518 
of the total 552 votes cast. 

The widely scattered vote for direc- 
tors will, doubtless, tend to revive In- 
terest in the matter of formally nom- 
inating candidates for this office. 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



43 



I 



A Dread Enemy of the Florida Bee. 

In this number of The Bee-Keeper 
C. S. Harris tells something of the 
large red ant which terrorizes the bees 
and annoys the bee-keeper of Florida. 
Though we have had considerable to 
say in regard to this destroyer in the 
past, onr^-eaders may find interest in 
the picture also presented in this num- 
ber, as it shows a worker bee and fight- 
ing ant engaged in mortal combat, tak- 
en from life by the editor of The Bee- 
Keeper. This nocturnal marauder is 
known locally a.s the "bulldog ant," 
and the appellation appears to have 
been suitably chosen, as it attacks its 
victims with true bulldog visciousness, 
savagely biting off wings and legs of 
the terrified workers, or crushing be- 
tween its powerful jaws any other ex- 
tremity with which they come in con- 
tact. In the illustration is shown a 
conflict in which a portion of the head 
and the compound eye of the bee were 
mashed and partly torn away. 

It is no extraordinary event in the 
South Florida apiary to 'find with the 
coming of the day a writhing mass of 
dismembered bodies of bees, drabbled 
in honey, where stood the previous 
evening a prosperous nucleus or prom- 
ising colony of valuable stock. 

^-♦-^ ■ 

WTiat are "Legitimate Lines of 
Work?" 
Alfred Atherton, in the American 
Bee Journal, says: "When I was pre- 
paring my honey for market this fall, 
if I could have had some sort of stamp 
bearing the letters. 'N. B.-K. A.,' per- 
haps it might give the commission 
man a little more respect for the rights 
of the shipper." Editor York com- 
ments upon the suggestion as follows: 
"We should very strongly oppose the 
use of such a stamp until some sort 
of provision is made to prevent frauds 
getting into the membership of the 
association. I'nless such a stamp 
were rigidly safe-guarded, it would be 
of no value to any one. The fact is, 
the association is not organized for the 
purpose of doing all kinds of business. 
We think it has enough to do when it 
I simply keeps within its legitimate lines 
of work." 

The indiscriminate issuing of such 
stamps to the membership of the Na- 
tional Association would, of course, 
be imprudent, as suggested by Mr. 



York. However, when it comes to de- 
fining the "legitimate lines of work" 
of the National Association a broader 
proposition is involved. According to 
its constitution the primary object of 
the Association "shall be to promote 
the interests of boe-keepers." It would 
therefore appear that the scope of work 
heretofore undertaken by the associa- 
tion might be materially expanded and 
yet adhere strictly to constitutional lim- 
its. 

If the interests of the members 
would be "promoted" by the use of a 
mark authorized by the Association, is 
it not possible that these interests 
might be served without jeopardizing 
the honor or prestige of the Associa- 
tion? Specific requirements could be 
formulated by the association, and the 
filing of an adequate bond therewith, 
would, it would seem, provide the nec- 
essarv safeguard. 

Such an extension of the associa- 
tion's work could be made at slight 
expense and, perhaps, greatly to the 
advantage of its membership. 



Treatment of Fonl Brood. 

Some time ago The Bee-Keeper an- 
nounced the receipt of an article from 
C. H. W. Weber treating very thor- 
oughly upon the subject of curing foul 
brood^ with formalin gas. Later we 
were requested to defer publication of 
the article until further instructions. 
The following, recently received from 
Mr. Weber, will explain the reasons 
for delay; while the latest develop- 
ments in this line will be found fully 
discussed elsewhere in this number: 

"When stating last spring that I had 
been successful in killing the foul 
brood bacillus and spores by fumiga- 
tion of formaldehyde, I ft^lt quite sure 
of what I claimed, and will bring for- 
ward one fact: Mr. H. Shafeer. Presi- 
dent of the Hamilton County Bee- 
Keepers Association had been troubled 
with the disease, had declared himself 
willing to furnish me with foul broody 
combs to experiment with. He brought 
in all the combs of an effected colony. 
These I fumigated in a box about 20 
feet square, and then took two of the 
frames on which the disease was most- 
ly developed to the University of Cin- 
cinnati, for Dr. Guyer to see whether 
he could make the bacillus and spores 
grow again. Dr. Guyer made several 
tests and pronounced the germ killed. 



44 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



February 



To be quite sure, and to see whether 
the doctor knew what he was talking 
about. :SIr. Shaffer brought in one 
other diseased foul broody frame, this 
one I did not fumigate, and it was cul- 
tivated to develop the disease by Dr. 
Guyer. After thorough testing the 
doctor declared that this last one flour- 
ished with living bacillus and spores. 
The results of the test by Dr. Guyer 
and the ones I had made on colonies 
the fall before and upon which at that 
time, no signs of the disease could be 
noticed, made me express myself as I 
did. that fumes of formaldehyde would 
kill the foul brood bacillus and spores, 
and it to be a sure cure of the disease. 
Then later on, when It had become 
warm, somebody came in and reported 
the disease had shown up again. I 
went right along with the party and 
I convinced myself he had told the 
truth. The next day I went out to H. 
Shaffer, and had to learn there that the 
disease had shown up again. Some 
other cases, which I had treated result- 
ed in perfect success, and some not. 
The result of the experiment stunned 
me. At that time I had no explanation 
to offer as to what caused the re-ap- 
pearance. Trying to learn, and to find 
an explanation, I commenced to hunt 
and read a good many discussions in 
German papers, and what I learned I 
wrote down in the article. It seems to 
me that what is in this article clears 
up a good many points as to why the 
disease so easily reappears." 



BEE NOTES. 

By H. G. Sammis. 

AP'IXE QUEEN for breeding pur- 
poses should not be allowed to 
expend her force by too much 
egg-laying, but should be kept in a 
nucleus and only allowed to keep that 
up moderately strong. 



When hiving swarms on hot days 
if the bees cluster on front of the 
hive and hesitate to go in, do not hurry 
them too much, they are excited and 
hot and want plenty of air. Raise up 
the front of the hive an inch or two 
and shade them with a board, and 
when they get cooled off they will go 
in all right. Always make it comfort- 
able for swarms; it is the only 
holiday they take in the whole year. 
In this locality the linden or basswood 



honey flow comes to an end about July 
12th. Sumac continues to bloom about 
a week longer, after which we have a 
honey dearth until about August lOth, 
when boneset and goldenrod begin to 
yield nectar. Last year during this ' 
interval of scarcity I left on the hive 
some supers which contained sections 
in all stages of completion. The re- 
sult was the sections were all badly 
punctured, the bees carrying the honey 
down into the brood nest again, using 
it in rearing brood. I mention this 
fact for the benefit of those who may 
be similarly situated, and I advise that 
all sections be taken off the hives after 
the summer honey flow has ended, and 
all partly filled ones be replaced in 
time to catch the fall flow, providing, 
of course, you are fortunate enough 
to have one. After one has produced 
a case of nice, fancy grade honey it 
is important to know how to take it 
from the hive and not have the bees 
puncture the nice white cappings, 
which is often done, and the honey is 
then rated as second-grade. AYhen 
ready to take off honey, approach the 
hive and with the smoker well going, 
send in a few puffs of smoke at the 
entrance, then raise the back end of 
the super and puff in a little more 
smoke very gently. Do not frighten 
the bees by rough handling or jarring 
the hive in any way, for then they will 
run to the boxes and puncture the cap- 
pings and fill themselves with honey. 
Aftrr raising the super about siK in lies 
on the back end with one hand, slip 
the bee escape under it with the other 
hand and adjust everything in its 
place. The bees will all make their 
exit through the escape in the board 
one by one, and your super will be 
ready to come off the next day. It is 
best to put on escapes towards evening, 
so the bees in the super will not be too 
hot. Now if you have been judicious 
and expeditious in all your manipula- 
tions you may carry off your super of 
nice comb honey the next morning 
without a puncture or a scratch. 



The cheapest and best way to pro- 
tect the bees in winter is by using good 
chaff hives. 



A good way to keep the extra combs 
is to hang them in a rack in a dry- 
room. 

Centreport, N. Y., Nov. 21, 1903. , 



HONEY AND BEESWAX MARKET. 

WASHINGTON GRADING RULES 
Fniicv AH set-lions to be w. 11 filled, combs 
str»ii;h't of even thickness and flruily attached to 
nil lour sides; both wood and comb unsoiled b\ 
travel saiu or otherwise; all the cells sealed ex- 
cept the row of cells next the wood. 

No 1- Allsections well tilled, but combs un- 
even or crooked, detached at the bottom, or witl, 
but few cells unsealed; both wood and comb un- 
soiled bv travel stain on otherwise. , ■« ^ 
lu uddiiiou to ihisthehoney isto be classified 
acconliuK to color, using the terms while, !'™Uer 
ami dark. That is, there will be "Fancy white, 
"No. 1 dark," etc. 



about Ic. less. Especially weak are 
those lacking iu flavor and body. 
Beeswax steady at 28c. to 30c. — R. A. 
Burnett & Co. 



HONEY MARKET. 

Cincinnati, Jan. 25.— The demand for 
honey shows little life at the present | 
moment. Have an ample supply, al- 1 
though we look for a revival of trade j 
in the near future in this country. We [ 
are selUns amber extracted in barrels,] 
at 5 1-4 to (ic. White clover (> 1-2 to j 
Sc. accorolin.a- to quality. Fancy comb ; 
honey selling slow at 14 to 15c. Bees- 1 
wa.x: 'good demand at 30c.— Fred W. j 
Muth Co. I 

New York, .Tan. S.— The sipply of! 
honey is good with limited demand.; 
We quote, comb, white, 13 to 14c., j 
amber, lie, dark, lOc, extracted, 5 to j 
T) l-2c. Beeswax in good demand, with 
light supply at 28 to 29c.— Hildreth & 
Segelkin. 

Boston. Jan. 11.— There is but little 
new to note in our honey market. 
Stocks are ample and prices as follows: 
Fancy white. lOc, A No. 1, 15c., No. 1, 
14c., extracted, G to Sc, according to 
quality.— Blake, Scott & Co. 



Cent=a=Word Column. 

The rate is uniformly one cent for each 
word, each month; no advertisement however 
small will be accepted for less than twenty 
cents, and must be paid in advance. Count 
the words and remit with order accordingly. 

FOR. S.^LE — Farms, both large and small; 
also, houses and lots, everywhere. Send for 
free bulletins. W. H. Burke, Cliftoa 
Springs. N. Y. 1-3 

U'ANTKI) — To exchange six-month trial tub- 
scription to The American fSee- Keeper for M 
cents m postage stamps. Address, Lice-Keeper, 
Falconer, N. Y. 

FOR SALE— A Hawkeye, Jr. Camera Cora- 
plete. L'se.'* both film and plates. Cost $9.04, 
will sell with leather case for $3.50 cash. Ad 
drcs'; I'.mpire \Va>her Co.. Falconer. N. Y. 

A TA.NDKM HICYCLE (for man and lady) 
cost $150, in first-class condition, was built 
to order for the owner. Tires new. Will sell 
for $25 cash. Satisfaction guaranteed. Ad- 
dress J. C'layborne Merrill, 130 Lakeview ave., 
Jamestown, N. Y. 

AGEXTS WANTED to sell advertising novel- 
ties, good commission allowed. Send for cata- 
logue and terms. American Manufacturing 
Concern, Jamestown, N Y. 



"W c have an awful appetite for order*." 

THE W. T FALCONER MFG., CO.. 

r.ee keepers' Supplies Jamestown, N. Y. 

Send us your name and address for m eat- 
logue. 



The more you advertise your busi- 
ness the more business you will have 
to ndvcrtisf'.— Printers Ink. 



Kansas City, Mo., .Tan. 9,-The de- THE DIXIE HOME MAGAZINE 



mand for comb honey is fair. Demand 
for extracted, light. We quote, $2.25 
to .$2.no per case of 24 sections. E.x-j 
trafted f! to 7 l-2c. per pound. Bees-j 
Avax is in good demand at 25 to 28c. 
We do not look for much improvement 
in i)rices before February, if then. — 
C. C. Clemons & Co. 



Chicago, Jan. 8.— The new year 
opens with a quiet trade in honey, re- 
tailers usually having a supply from 
the stock laid in to make a good show 
at the holiday trade. Prices are with- 
out essential change in No. 1 to fancy 
comb, which brings about 13c. Very 
little doing in off grades at from one 
to three cents less. Extracted white 
grades bring from 6c. to 7c., according 
to flavor and other qualities; amWrs 



10c a year. Largest.Briqhtest and Finest Illustrated 
M^aaz'ne in the World for 10c a year, to Intro- 
duce it only. 
It is bright and up-to-date. Tells 
all about Southern Home Life. It is 
full of fine engravings of grand scen- 
ery, buildings and famous people. 
Send at once. 10c. a year postpaid 
anywhere in the U. S., Canada and 
Mexico. 3 years 50c. Or, clubs of 6 
names 50c., 12 for $1. Send us a club. 
Money back if not delighted. Stamps 
taken Cut this out. Send today. 
THE DIXIE HOME, 
[ Birmingham, Ala. 

! When writing, mention the Am. BeeKeeper. 



The subscription price of the ROCKY 
\|(.IKTAIN BEE JOURNAL is 60 cenU. 
W> will send it with THE BEE-KEEPER 
.ne Tear (or only 7S cents. 




THE A. I. ROOT CO., MEDINA, OHIO. 
1 Breeders of Italian bees and queens. 



GEO. J. VANDE VORD, DAYTONA, FLA. 
Breeds choice Italian queens earlv. All 
queens warranted purely mated, and satisfaction 
guaranteed. 



p H. W. WEBER, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
^^' (Cor Central and Freeman Aves.) Golden 
yellow, Red Clover and Carniolan queens, bred 
from select motliersin separate apiaries. 

THE HONEY AND BEE COMPANY, BEE- 
I VILLE, TEXAS. Holy Land, Carniolan, 
Cyprian, Albino and 3 and 5-banded Italian 
queens. Write for our low prices. Satisfaction 
guaranteed.. 



TOHN M. DAVIS, SPRING HILL, TENN.. sends 
^ out the choicest 3-banded and golden Italian 
queens that skill and experience can produce. 
Satisfaction guaranteed. No disease. 



I B. CHASE, PORT ORANGE, FLA., has fine 
J • golden Italian queens early and late. Work- 
ers little inclined to swarm, ami cap their honey 
very white. Hundreds of his old customers stick 
to him year after year. Circular free. 



CWARTHMORE APIARIES, SWARTHMORE, 
'-' PA. Our bees and queens are the brighest 
Italian.s procurable. Satisfaction guaranteed. 
Correspondence in English, French, German and 
Spanish. Shipments to all parts of the world. 



WZ. HUTCHINSON, FLINT, MICH. 
• Superior stock queens, 51.50 each; queen 
and Bee-Keepers' Review one year for only J2. 00. 



ME.W CENTURY QUEEN-REARING CO., (John 
i> W. Pharr, Prop.) BERCLAIR, TEXAS, is 
breeding line golden and 3-banded Italian and 
Carniolan queens. Prices are low. Please write 
for special information desired. 



pUNIC BEES. All other races are dis- 
* carded after trial of these wonderful bees 
Particulars post free. John Hewitt & Co., 
Sheffield, Eng. 4 



fj\ 6oRE'S LONG-TONGUED STRAIN 
of Italians become more and more popu- 
lar each year. Those who have tested them 
know why. Descriptive circular free to all. 
Write J. P. Moore, L. Box 1, Morgan, Ky. 4 



MAPS. 

A vest pocket Map of your State. 
New issue. These maps show all 
the Counties, ia seven colors, all 
railroads, postofifices — • and inan\ 
towns not given in the postal guide 
— rivers, lakes and mountains, with 
index and population of counties, 
cities and towns. Census — it gives 
all official returns. We will send 
you postpaid any state map you 
wish for 

20 cents (sHver) 

JOHN W. HANN, | 
gn Wauneta, Neb 



American 




BEE 



Journal 



16 -p. Weekly, 

^ Sample Free. 

MS" All about Bees and their 

profitable care. Best writers. 

Oldest beepaper; illustrated. 

Departments for beginners 

and for women bee-keepers. 

Address, 

GEORGE W. YORK & CO., 

144 & 146 Erie St. Chicago,Ili,. 



CLUBBING LIST. 



We will send The American Bec- 
Keeper with the — 

Price Both 
Rocky Mountain Bee Jour- 
nal $ .50 $ .75 

What to Eeat l.OO 1.00 

Bee-Keepers' Review 1.00 1.35 

Canadian Bee Journal 1.00 1.35 

Gleanings in Bee Culture. . 1.00 1.35, 

American Queen 50 .60 

The American Boy 1.00 1.00 

Irish Bee Journal 36 .65 

Poultry News 25 5a 



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FARM UND HAUS 

The most carefully edited German 
Agricultural journal. It is brimful of 
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for the up-to-date farmer; devoted to 
stock raising, general farming, garden- 
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tains a department for the household, 
which many find valuable. Another de- 
partment giving valuable receipts and 
remedies called "Hasarzt," in fact every 
number contains articles of real prac- 
tical use. 

Price only 35 CENTS per year. Sam- 
ple copy free. 

Send subscriptions to, 

FARM UND HAUS 

6 tf. BLUFFTON, OHIO. 



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THE FARM AND irEAL ESTATE 
JOURNAL. It contQins the large«t 
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For 75c we will mail you the Jour- 
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10-tf. 



Strawberries. 

Young, healthy, fresh, vigor- 
ous stock in prime condition for 
spring planting. 

All 

Leading 
V a r ieties 

wnie lor prices and terns. 
MONROE STRAWBERRY CO., 

Box 66 MONROE, MICH. 



Hesdquarters for Bee-Supplies 

ROOT'S GOODS AT ROOT'S FACTORY PRICES. 

Complete stock for 1904 now on hand. Freight rates from Cincinnati are 
the lowest. Prompt service is what I practice. Satisfaction guaranteed. 
Langstroth Portico Hives and Standard Honey- Jars at lowest pricis. 

You will save money buying from me. Catalog mailed free. Send for 
same. 

Book orders for Golden Italians, Red Clover and Camiolan Queens-, for 
prices refer to my catalog. 

C. H. V^. V^EBER, 



OfBce and Salesrooms 2146-48 Central Ave. 
Warehouses— Freeman and Central Aves. 



CINCINNATI, OHIO. 



La Compania 
Manutacturera Americana 

oirccc lus mas reducidos precios en to- 
da clase dc arliculos para Apicultorcs 
Nucbira Fabrica cs una de las mas 
grandcs y mas antiguas de America. 
Espccialidad en Colmenas, Ahumadorcs 
para Colmenas, Extractores, etc. in 
ventorcs y perfeccionadores de mucho? 
articulos de suma utilidad en la Apicul- 
tura. Enviamos gratis nuestro catalogo 
y precios a quienes lo solicitcn. Dirija- 

nse a. 

THE AMERICAN MFG. CO., 

Jamestown, N. Y., E. U. A. 



REMEMBER 

IFJYOU:SUBSCRIBE NOW, YOUCAN^ 
' ^ HAVE THE " _ 

American Bee=Keeper 

1 " .;U sent to your address regularly 

Three Full Years for One Dollar. 



"^ Of all offers in the line of bee literauue, uus ^^ 
"♦•caps tlie eliinix;. Please tell your friends _^^ 
"^ wtiat we are offering. Send all subscriptions ^ 



to the Falconer, N. Y., office. 



A BATH 



IS a 
luiuc*' 



PNIPIRE , 
" Portable 



taken in an 

Folding BATH TUB 

Used in any room. 
AoEN'Ts Wanted. 
Catalogue Free. 
^Ths^ empire 
)NASHER CO., 
Jamestown,N.Y. 





FIGHTING ROOSTER 

Mystify and amuse your 
f rieiids, These are two gen- 
xiine game roosters with 
J-eathers. they fight to a 
finish, and are always ready 
to fight. The secret of their 
movements is only known to 
the operator. Will last a life- <J( 
time. IHc per pair, 3 for 25c, 
postpaid. Address 

ZBNO SUPPLY CO., 

Box J., 

When writing to advertisers mention 
The American Bee-Keeper. 



The Kecord. 

The Oldest and Leading Belgian 
Hare Journal of America and 
England. 

R. J. FiNLEY, Editor and Publisher, 

Tl\e only journal having 
an English Belgian Hare 
Department. 

One copy worth the yearly 
subscription. 

If interestea, aon't fail to 
send 2-cent stamp for sample 
copy at once. Address, 

R. J. FINLEY, 

^^ MACON , MO. 



^m 



To Subucrlber* of 
rHE AMERICAN BEE=KEEPER 

And Others! 

Until Further Notice 

We Will Send The 

Country 
I Journal 

to any address in the U. S. A., one 
year for 10 cents, prorldlne you 
mention American Bee-Keei>er. 
I The Country .Journal treats Ott 
' Farm. Orchard and (Jarden. Poul- 
:try and Fashion. It's the beat pjl- 
\>er printed for the price. 
; A'i'lrcss. 

! The Country Journal, 

AUentown, Pa. 

2tf 



POULTRY NEWS. 

25 Cts. A Year. Ad. rate 70c. An Inch 
Circulation 10,000 Monthly. 

Bee Department in charge of W. W. 
Fowler, of Ardsley, N. Y. 

NEW BRUNSWICK, NEW JERSEY. 



Sunshine 



is gaining ad- 
miration as a 
popular litera- 

ry family 

■"~~"™""~~~"^~'~"— " MAGAZINE. 
It entertains its readers with good short stor- 
ies, sketches and poems by the most famous 
authors of the day and is a magazine of supe- 
rior merit. 

It is a welcome visitor in every home. 

Price 25 cents a year. 

We wish to haye our magazine in your 
vicinity and as a special offer for new readers 
we will send you 

Sunshine for 1 Year for lOc. 

Think of it. less than one cent a copy. Can't 
you act as our agent ? 

ADD. MAYES PUB. CO., 
LOUISVILLE, - KENTUCKY. 



in 



ATHENS, GA, 



Subscription, 



50 Cents a Tear. 



Published the First of Every Month 

and Circulates in Every 

Southern State. 



ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLI- 
CATION. 



50 YEARS' 
EXPERIENCE 



ATENTS 



Trade Marks 
Designs 
, , , , Copyrights Ac. 

Anvone sending a slcetrb and description may 
oulckly ascertain our opinion free whetcer an 
invention is probably patentable. Communica^ 
tions strictly confidential. Handbook on PatenU 
sent tree. Oldest aRcncy for securing patents. 

Patents taken through Munn & Co. receive 
special notice, without charge, in the 

clentlfic Jltnerkan. 

A handsomely illustrated weekly. Largest cir- 
culation of any scientific Journa . Terms, f3 a 
year ; four months, *!. Sold ty all newsdealers. 

MUNN &Co.3«^«^°»''*'»^' New York 

Branch Office. 625 F St.. Washington, X>. C. 



National Beei-Keepers' Association, 

The largest bee-keepers' society in the 
world . 

Organized to protect and promote the 
interests of its menibers. 

Memb erghlp Fee, $1.00 ■ Year. 

N.e. FRANCE, Platteville, Wis., 

General Manager and Treasurer. 



Clubbing Offers^ 

Here Is a Sample: 

Modern Farmer $ .50 

Western Fruit Grower...... .50 

Poultry Gazette 25 

Gleanings in Bee Culture 1.00 

$2.25 
All One Year for only $1.00. 

Write for others just as good, or bet- 
ter. 

SAMPLE FREE. 

New subscribers can have the Amer- 
can Bee Journal in place of Gleanings, 
if they wish, or all for $1.60. Renew- 
als to A. B. J. add 40c. more. 

MODERN FARMER, 

The Clean Farm Paper 

St. Joseph, Mo. 



Beeswax 
Wanted 



We will pay 29 cents cash or 31 cents 
in goods for good quality of Beeswax, 
freight paid to Falconer, N, Y. If you 
have any, ship it to us at once. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 
THE W. T. FALCONER MFG. CO. 



When writing to advertisers mention 
The American Bee-Keeper. 



IJee Suppltes from tiewfs 

They are the finest. 
THOUSANDS OF BEE HIVES, 
MILLIONS OF SECTIONS, 

Ready for Promnt Shipment. 

G. B. LewisCo.^^5^IT?:A. 

EASTERN AGENCIES, C M. Scott & 
Co., 1004 East Washington St., Indianapolis, 
Ind. 

THE FRED W. MUTH CO.. 
Front and Walnut Sts., 
CINCINNATI, OHIO. 



Catalogtie Free. 



tf. 





DON'T RELAX YOUR EFFORTS 



after spending money for new hives and fixtures, valua- 
jle time in the preparation of these for new swarms, leav- 
ing other work at a convenient time (for the bees) to hive 
Lhem ; and now that a good ci op is ready the next step is 
Attractive packages. Our assortment of packages for 
:omb honey we beheve vvoukl be difficult to improve upon 
for the purpose designed. 
The special features of the No-Drip Cases for 
comb honey we have advertised for several years are 
the Paper Trays and Drip Sticks which provide, for 
the collection of leaking honey in trays. Thc^e also 
prevent its oozing out at the cracks to gather dust 
and dirt and present a very untidy appearance to say 
the least. A light frame is now used cl ar around 
die glass in front which hides any unsealed cells in 
the outer row, and exposes to view only the finished 
work in the center. The material is white basswood. 
The joints are perfect fitting, the work being done by machine-filed saws. 

These No-Drip Cases are made in 
12, 16 and 24 lb. sizes for regular 4I in. 
sections, as well as intermediate weights 
for pkain sections. These are supplied 
with 2 and 3 in. glass to meet the de- 
mands of bee-keepers. The Danzenba- 
kker and Ideal sections are also provided 
for with No-Drip Cases, but these are 
furnished with 3 in. glass only. 

The value of attractive pa<:kages can 
not be overestimated, and wide-awake 
bee-keepers are beginning to realize 
this fact. In cartoons we supply two 
kinds, the Dazenbaker and the Fokling: these are furnished for the reg- 
ular sizes of sections . Both of these are furnished with special printmg 
at a nominal charge. 

Our packages for comb honey 
would be incomplete without ship- 
ping crates for shipping of honey. 
This one shown herewith is the 
regular package we ship out the 
cases in the flat. We can fitrnish 
these in the flat for the different 
sizes of the section cases at 60c. 
each, or $5.00 for ten. 

For prices on any of the abave or any other boe-kccpers' supplies address any of our ag-ents, or 





MEDINA, OHIO. 



•9 







Entered at the Postoftice. Fort Pierce, Fla.. as second-class mail matter. 



CASH FOR YOl 



The American Bee-Keeper is in the market to buy arti- 
cles on bee-keeping- subjects. Articles with photographs 
to illustrate are especially desired. We will pay well for 
good work. We want reporters in all parts of the world. 
Give us an opportunity to bid on your pen productions 
and the results of your photographic skill. Address, 

THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 

Fort Pierce, Fla. 



.oAl3 



&< 



SAllER^SEEDNOVEUIES 



SALZER*S NATIONAL OATS. 

Yea, taimersoi America, lend me your ears, while I chant I 
the merits ot this new Oat Novelty 

Editors, Agricultural Writers, Institute Orators, all talk 
and write about this new Oat. It yielded in Wis. 156 bu., in 
Ohio 187 bu., in Mich, 231 bu., in Mo. 'J55 bu. and In N. D. 
310 bu. per acre, during 1903, and in 190-1 you can grow just 
as easily 300 bu. per acre of .Salzer's National Oats, aa 
we can. Your land is just as good, just as rich and you are 
Just as good a farmer as we are. We hope you will try this 
Oat in 1904, and then sell same for seed to your neighbora 
at a fancy price, next fall. 

Macaroni Wheat. 

It does well on arid, dry lands, as alsoon rich farm lands, 
yielding from 30 to 80 bu. per acre. 

Speltz and Hanna Barley. 

Greatest cereal food on earth. Yields 4 tons elegant straw 
hay and 80 bu. of grain, as rich as corn, oats and wheat 
ground together ! Does well everywhere. Hanna Barley 
grows on dry, arid lands, yielding 60 bu. per acre. 

Salzer's Home Builder Corn. 

Positively the biggest eared early corn on earth, yielding 
In Ind. 157 bu , Ohio 160 bu., Tenn. 198 bu., Mich. 220 bu. 
and 8. D. 276 bu. per acre. It is really a marvelous corn. 
Sinks its roots doeply alter moisture and nourishment and 
grows like a weed. ^^_^^_^ 

Bromus Inermis and Alfalfa Clover. 

Bromus Inermis is the most prolific grass for permanent 
pastures on earth. Yields 7 tons hay per acre. Good on 
Band, lime, clay, gravel— yes, on all kinds of soils ! 

Alfalfa Clover produces more hay and better hay thaa 
any Clover known. It is good for 7 tons per acre. 

Potatoes 736 bushels per Acre. 

The Editor of the Rural New Yorker says, "Salzer's 
Earliest I'otato is the earliest outof 58 early sorts tried, and 
yields 464 bu. per acre, wliile Salzer's Early Wisconsin 
yielded for them 736 bu. per acre. Salzer's Potatoes for 
yield challenge the world !" 

FOR 10c IN STAMPS 

and the name of this paper, we will send you a lot of farm 
seed samples, including some of above, together with our 
mammoth 140 page illustrated catalog. Send to-day. Jt^^^Bt^^j'/'' 



w^mMiMWMmmmm. 



Bee H i ves 
Sections 

EVERYTHING 



THAT IS USED BY BEE-KEEPERS CAN BE 
PROCURED OF US AS CHEAPLY AS ANY- 
WHERE, AND WE KNOW. 

Our Goods are Superior 

BOTH IN MATERIALS AND WORKMAN- 
SHIP TO THOSE OF ANY COMPETITOR. 

One Trial Will Convince You 

THAT'S ALL WE ASK. WE KNOW YOU 
WILL NEVER BUY OF ANYBODY ELSE. 

Our new illustrated catalog and price list is now 
ready. Send for one on a postal card. 



The W. T. 
FALCONER MANFG. CO., 

JAMETSTONA/N, N. Y. 



J 



IF YOU 

WANT TO GROW 

Vegetables, Fruits and Farm 
Products in Florida subscribe 
for the FLORIDA AGR1CUL= 
TURIST. Sample copy sent 
on application. 

E.O. Painter Pub. Co. 

JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA. 



BEGINNERS. 

shoii.d have a copy of 

The Amateur Bee-keeper, 

a TO page book, by Prof. J. W. Rouse; written ei- 
peciar.y for amateurs. Second edition just ou' 
First edition of 1,000 sold in less than two year* 
Editor Yuik says: "It is the finest little book pub- 
lished at the present time." Price 2i cents; bj 
mail 28 cents. Th« little book and 

Tlie Progressive Bee-keeper, 

(a live, progressive, 28 page monthly journal ) on«, 
year for ts.^c. Apply to any lirst-class dealer, or 
address 

LEAHY MFG- CO., Higginsv^ue, m.. 



00 YOUR HCN& PAY? 
This woman understands 
her business, ID Dozen 
Eggs at 36c. per dozen 
trom 180 hens in 
one day. 



1-THi-sismfP'ijPE^^ 



The only Pipe made 

that cannot be told ' 

from a cigar. Holds 

a large 'pipe full of 

tobacco and lasts for years. Agents" outfit and a 25-cent sample 

by mail for lOe., and our Big Bargain Catalog Free. Address, 

ZENO SUPPLY CO., IndianapollH, Ind. 



PAlENTS 



promptly ohtained OE NO FEE. Trade-Marks, 

J Cav.-^tsi Copyrights and Labels registered. 

I TWENTY YEARS' PRACTICE. Highest references. 

1 Send model, sketch or photo, for free report 

on patentability. All business confidential. 

HAND-BOOK FREE. Explains everything. Tells 

How to Obtain and Sell Patents, What Inventions 

Will Pay, How to Get a Partner, explains best 

1 mechanical movements, and contains 300 other 

I aubjects of importance to inventors. Address, 

H. B. WILLSON & CO. "*' 



790 F Street North, 



Attorneys 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 



That^Egg 

tells the 
story. 




Ten Dozen at 36e. per doz. in one day for 
Our New Book "Helits for PonUry Kf' 
how, explains why so many fall and so f 
A Book we can commend with a good e< 
a GRE.4T HELP to all Poultry Keepei 
old. Describes 60 varieties of fowls, well i. 
and contains a Poultry Keepers Accnui-it . 
gainorlossmonthly;onheavy paper worih - 
This Book Free with our Poultry Paper one year for 
25e. or Book free with pai)f-r .S months for 1 Gc. 
Descriptive circulars Free for stamp to pay postage. 
AVayside I'ouitry to., C'lintonville, Conn. 

DON'T KILL 

YOURSELF, WASHING the 

WAY, BUT BUY AM E M P I R E 

WASHER, with which tht 
frailest woman can do an or- 
dinary wathing in one hour, 
without wetting her handn. 
Sample atwholetaltprice. Satisfaction C^^lft^anteecl. 
Nopau until tried. Write/or Illustrated Catalogv* 
anapricea of Wringers, Ironing Tables, Clothes ReeU, 
DryingBars, WagonJaekt,<ke. AeentsWanted. Lib- 
eral Terms. QuickSalesI Little Workll Big Paylll 
AddrtM.Tut EmpikkWashib Co..JamestoTni.N.Y. 





BARNES' 

Foot Power Machinery^ 

This cut represents our 
Combined Machine, whick 
Is the best machine made 
for use in the construction 
of Hives, Sections, Boxes, 
etc. Sent on trial. Send for 
Catalogue and Price List. 
W. F. & J. BARNES CO., 
913 Ruby St., Rockford.Ill. 



B'&M'eAZfNE 



One year free to quickly in- 
troduce it. As good aa Harp- 
er's, Munsey's, LadiesHome Journal or McClure's. 
Send 10 cents to help pay postage. AMERICAN 
STOKIES Oept, rt D., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

tf. 



HOHB V\ORK Sarr's"t"af 

week. Enclose stamp. H. D. LEADER CO ^ 
Grand Rapids, Mich: tf. 



W. M. Gcrrish, R. F. D., Eppinj, N. H.. 
keejjs a complete supply of our goods, mm 
Eastern customers will save freight by order* 
int of him. 

The W. T. Falconer Mfg. Co. 



Homes in 

Old Virginia. 

It is gradually brought to light 
that the Civil war has made great 
changes, freed the slaves, ^.nd in 
consequence has made the large 
land owners poor and finally freed 
the land from the original owners 
who would not sell until they were 
compelled to do so. There are some 
of the finest lands in the market at 
very Jow prices, lands that produce 
all kinds of crops, grasses, fruits, 
and berries; fine for stock. You 
find green truck patches, such as 
cabbage, turnips, lettuce, kale, 
spinach, etc., growing all the win- 
ter. The climate is the best all the 
year around to be found, not too 
cold nor too warm. Good water. 
Healthy. Railroads running in 
every direction. If you desire to 
know all about Virginia send 10c. 
for three months subscription of 

the VIRGINIA FARMER to 

Farmer Co., Emporia, Va. 



THE DIXIE HOME MAGAZINE 

10c a year. Largest. Brightest and Finest Illustrated 
Magazine in the World for lUc a year, to intro- 
duce it only.^ ih -.«_ ^fc» ^ 
It is bright and up-to-date. Tells 
all about Southern Home Life. It is 
full of fine engravings of grand scen- 
ery, buildings and famous people. 
Send at once. 10c. a year postpaid 
anywhere in the U. S., Canada and 
Mexico. 3 years 50c. Or, clubs of (i 
names 50c., 12 for $1. Send us a club. 
Money back if not delighted. Stamps 
taken. Cut this out. Send today. 
THE DIXIE HOME, 
Birmingham, Ala. 
When writing, meulion the Am. BeeKeeper. 



There is bo trade or profession better catered to 
vy good journals than that of the farner. Unia- 
tellipent BBprogressiveuess has now no excns«. 
tf. 

Good Adveitisers j 

Those who are careful where they | 
place their advertising money, use 

BARNUM'S 

MIDLAND FARMER 

which reaches over 30,000 prosperous, 
wide-awaks, buying farmers every is- 
sue. Regular rate 14 cents per agate 
line, but send us a trial order at 10 
cents per line ($1.40 per inch each 
time), and we will place it where it 
will do the most good. Two or more 
new subscriptions (sent together). 20 
cents per year. Sixteen pages, four 
columns to page. Departments cover- 
ing every branch of farming and stock- 
raising. The little journal that is 
"readand re-read by its readers." Bar- 
num's Midland Farmer. No. 22 North 
Second St., St. Louis, Mo. 7tf 



Poultry Success 

14th Year, 32 to 64 Pages. 

The 2oth Century 

POULTRY MAGAZINE,[ ; 

Beautifully illustrated, 50 cts. per year. 

Greatly improved and enlarged. Shows 

readers how to succeed with poultry 

SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY oOFFER. 

3 years, 60 cts.; 1 year, 25 cts.; 4 
months' trial, 10 cts.; stamps ac- 
cepted. 

SAMPLE COPY FREE. 

j Large, Illustrated, Practical Poultry 
Book FREE to yearly subscribers. 

I Catalogue of poultryi publications* 
FREE. Address nearest oftice. 

POULTRY SUCCESS CO.,* 

Dept. 16. 
DesMoines, Iowa, Springfield, Ohio. 



BATH 



wher EMPIRE 

takeoman ^ Portable 
Folding BATH 

Used in any room. 
Agents WA>fTED. 
Catalogue Free. 
.Twfi EMPIRE 
■'washer CO., 
Jamestown,n,y. 

American 





Journal 



16 -p. Weekly. 
^—^ — ^ Sample Free, 
O" All about Bees and their 
profitable care. Best writers. 
Oldest beepaper; illustrated. 

Departments f. r beg-ianera 
and for women bee-keepers. 
Address, 

aBORQB W. YORK & CO. 
144 <fe 146 Erie St. Chicago.Ilu 



AGENTS Wanted 'washing m 



achines. 



You can double your money every time you sell one 

and they sell easily. We have sold over 150,000 in the last fourteen years. They 
are cheaper than e^'er. Catalogue Free. 

The Empire Washer Co. , Jamestown, N.Y. 




The Iowa 

Horticultural 

Paper. 

Monthly, 
50 cents 
per year. 

It is unique, 
planned on 
original lines. 

You cannot 
be up-to-date 
in fruit growing unless you read it. 

Balance of this year free to new 
subscribers. 

THE FRUITMAN, 

Mt. Vernon, Iowa. 



Hi 



WE WANT 

ETcry reader of the American Bee-K-'oer to 
write for a free sample copy •{ the 

ROCKY MOJNTAIN BEE JOURNAL 

Tells you about Western methods, co-opera 
tire honey selling and the great big crops that 
hare made the Alfalfa regions famous. Addrew 
the publisher, 

H. C. MOREHOUSE, 

Bouldet' Colo. 
tl 

SHINE! 

The Empire Washer Company, Jamestown, 
N. Y. makes a Shine Cabinet, furnished with 
foot stand, blacking, russet dressing, shoe 
rubber— in fact, all articles and materials need- 
ed to keep shoes looking their best— and it Is 
made to be fastened to the wall of the toilet 
room or kitchen, it does away with the rex- 
atious searching after these articles which i» 
altogether too common. A postal will bring 
you details of this and othi r good things. 



The Nebraska Farm Journal 

A monthly journal devoted to 
agricullufal interests. Largest 
circulation of any agricultural pa- 
per in the west. It circulates in 
Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa 
and Colorado. 

C. A. DOUGLASS, prop. 
Itf 1123 N St., Lincoln, Neb. 



AUSTRALIANS. 

NOTE the address— 

Pender Bros., 

WEST MAITLAND, 
New South Wales, Australia. 

The largest manufacturers of Beekeepers' 
Supplies in the Southern Hemisphere, 
and publishers of the AUSTRALASIAN 
BEEKEEPER, the leading bee journal south 
of the equator. 

Sample copy and 64-page catalogue, FREE 

6-tf 

HOMESEEKERS 

AND INVESTORS, who are interest- 
ed in the Southern section of the 
Union, should subscribe for THE 
DIXIE HO:\IESEEKER, a handsome 
illustrated magazine, describing the 
Industrial development of the South, 
and its many advantages to homeseek- 
ers and investors. Sent one year on 
trial for 15c. 

Address, 

THE DIXIE HOMESEEKER, 
West Appomattox, Va 



When writing to advertisers mention 
The American Bee-Keeper. 



^/3/S 



Special Notice to Bee=keepers ! § 

BOSTON I 

Money in Bees for You. S 

Catalog Price on 9 

ROOT^S SUPPLIES ^, 

Catalog for the Asking. L 

3] 

F. H. Farmer, 182 Friend St., ^ 

[I 
6! Boston, Mass. ri 

L Up First Flight. I 




P ROVIDENCE n UEENS 
ROYE THEIR IJoALITIES 

TO BE 

UNEXCELLED 

Head your colonies with them. 
Use them to invigorate your stocls. 
They will increase your profits. 
Produced by many years of careful 
breeding. A circular will be sent 
on request. 

LAWRENCE C. MILLER, 
P. O.Box 1113. Providence, R. I. 

Put Your Trust in Providence Queens 



2G per ceni, Profit 



Pineapples, Oranges, Grape Fruit 

Made a Specialty for Non-Resident Owners 
and Intending Settlers in the 

Lovely Lalce Region of South Florida. 

20 per cent, annual return on investment. 

Pure air, pure water, no mosquitoes. Higl 
pine and oak land, bordered by fresh water 
lakes, suited to all cirtus fruits and pineapples. 
Good title. Time payments. Address for de- 
scriptive matter, W. E. Pabor, Manager Pa- 
bor Lake Pineries, Avon Park, Fla. tf 



CAVEATS, TRADE MARKS, 
COPYRIGHTS AND DESIGNS. 

Send your business direct to Washington, i 
^ saves time, costs less, better service. 

) My office close to TT. S. Patent Office. FREE preUmln- 
ary examinations made. Atty's fee not due until patent < 
Is secured. PERSONAL ATTENTION GIVEN-19 YEARS < 
ACTUAL EXPERIENCE. Book "How to obtain Patents," 
etc., sent free. Patents procured through E. G. Siggers ' 
receive special notice, without charge, in the J 

INVENTIVE ACE; 

illustrated monthly— Eleventh year— terms, $1. a year, J 

918 FSt., N. W. 

, WASHINGTON, D. Cl 



vam%i 



If, 



Tf 'If, BmGHAM 

-*— ■"5 has made aW the im- 
' provemoiil:!; in 

Bee Smokers and 
Honey Knives 

made in ilie last 20 years, uiid()iil)t(-;lly 
he makes the best on earth. 

Smoke Engine, 4 inch stove, none too larg^, .'<eiit 

postpaid, per mail ? 1 £>0 

i\(< inch ].1(J 

Knife, 80 cents. 3 inch 1.00 

2 ^^ inch 90 

r. F.Bingham, ^inch to 

Farwell, Mich. 



Little Wonder, 2 in. .65 



Patent Wired Comb Foundation 

has no sag in brood frames. 

TMn Flat Bottom Fouidatioi 

has HO Fish-bone in Surplus Honey. 

Being the cleanest is usually worked the 
quickest of any foundation made. The talk 
about wiring frames seems absurd. We furnish 
a Wired Foundation that is Better, Cheaper 
and not half the trouble to use that it is to 
wire brood frames. 

Circulars and samples free. 

J. VAN DEUSEN <£ SONS, 

Sole Manufacturers 
Montgomery Co., Sprout Brook, N. Y. 



I. J. STRINGHAM, 

105 Park Place, 
NEW YORK . 
Furnishes everything a bee-keeper uses. We endeavor to have 
our Hne of suppHes include the most practical articles. Full col- 
onies of bees. Nuclei colonies and queens in season, Discount 
for early orders. 
Apiaries. Glen Cove, L. I. Catalog free. 



Bee Supplies Exclusively 

A complete line of Lewis' fine Bee I Bingham's Original Patent Smokers 

supplies. and Knives. 

Dadant's Foundation. I Root's Extractors, Gloves, Veils, etc. 

Queen Bees and Nuclei in Season. In fact anytliing needed in the "Bee- 
Line," at 

FACTORY PRICES HERE IN CINCINNATI 

Where prompt service is yours, and freight rates are lowest. Special dis- 
count for early orders. Send for cata log. 

THE FRED W. MUTH COMPANY 

(We're Successors to Nobody, nor Nobody's Successors to Us.) 

51 WALNUT STREET CINCINNATI, OHIO 



3 an(f 5=Banded Italian 
and Carniolan Queens. 

Say friends, you who have support- 
ed us during the past season, we 
desire to express our thanks for 
your patronage in the past, and 
respectfully solicit a continuance of 
your valued favors through the sea- 
son of 1904. 

Our queens now stand upon their 
merits and former record. We are 
preparing for next season, and seek- 
ing the patronage of large apiarists 
and dealers. We do not claim that 
our queens are superior to all oth- 
ers, but that they are as good as 
the best. We will furnish from one 
to a thousand at the following 
prices: ""^sted of either race, $1; 
one unte d, 75c., 5 for $3.25, lo 
for $6, 15 for $8.25, 25 for $12.50,- 50 
for $23.50, 100 for $45. 
For descrii)tive circulars address, 

JOHN W. PHARR, Prop., 

New Century Queen Rearing Co., Ber- 
clair, Goliad Co., Texas. 

W. B. VAUGAN, 

NEWBURGH, N. Y. 

Agent for The W. T. Falconer Mfg. 

Go's. 

BEE=KEEPERS' SUPPLIES. 

Jy-4 Catalogue free. 



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John W. Pharr, Berclair, Tex. 

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®©«50©©O©<^®€9®©f)O©€>OO 0©©00©< 




Vol. XIV 



MARCH, 1904. 



No. s 



A NEW YORK APIARY. 



An Apiarist Tells of His Experience and Methods in Treating Foul Brood. 

Other Information. 

BY P. W. STAHLMAN. 



MR. HILL, Dear Sir:— When I 
read The Bee-Keeper, which 
comes to me regularly, I cannot: 
help being interested and benefited 
by reading the articles which it con- 
tains. I herewith send you a photo 
of the apiary of F. G. Hinman, of Gal- 
lupville, N. Y., of which I was the 
apiarist this season — 1903. The per- 
son standing is the proprietor, a man 
of good business qualHie;-!, a man of 
his M'ord, and one that admires a 
tasty-looking apiary, and every pai't 
of it kept up in order. The person sit- 
ting on the hive is the writer, "ion 
will notice I am holding a ramons 
rabbit dog, but unfortunately the little 
fellow turned his head .iust as the pic- 
ture was taken and therefoi'e is no 
good. 

As you will see, the apiary is located 
In an apple orchard on quite level 
ground. The, hives are all in rows, 
which permits the use of a lawn 
mower. They are of the L size and 
the apiary is run for comb honey prin- 
cipally; but if there are any weak col- 
onies they are run for extracted 

When I say that bees in this vicinity 
are kept on business principles you 
may think I may be throwing a hint 
that only bees here are run I'ight. But 
let me tell you when a man keeps bees 
where the ruins of foul brood have ex- 
isted for six years (and still exists), he 



must do things pretty near right or the 
result will be failure every time. The 
yard in view has been diseased quite 
badly, but has been rid of the disease 
and the whole apiary of 126 colonies 
are in winter quarters in good shape. 
We have tried all sorts oF cures for 
foul brood, the formaldehyde cure in- 
cluded, and as to formaldehyde curing 
foul brood to perfection, I am not 
ready to say that it will. We have 
made tests all along this line, giving 
double doses and every other wa.v. To 
cure is easy, but to stay cured is an- 
other thing not quite so eas.v. We 
have experimented to our satisfaction, 
taking all the brood and hone.v from 
an infected colony and fumigating for 
11/0 hours, then air the combs well and 
return to the same bees. M^hich result- 
ed in doing much good, but did not kill 
all of the germs, as a little of the dis- 
ease remained during the entire sea- 
son. We also treated combs of honey 
(sealed and unsealed) in the same 
manner and filled a hive full of such 
combs and put a swarm on those 
combs with good re><ults. No signs of 
disease appeared during the entire sea- 
son. But the only plan in which we 
have gi'eat confidence is to tier the in- 
fected combs of brood over a colony 
that is slightly affected (but quite 
strong in bees) and keep the queen out 
of all the combs above by means of a 



46 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



March 



queen exchider, and after the good 
brood has hatched out and the bees 
have cleaned out the dried out larvae 
(which they will do if the bees are 
good Italians), and the combs have 
been filled by bees with honey and 
then extracted once or twice. Then 
let the bees clean up the combs so 
as to have them dry and then ap- 
ply gas good and strong-. We 
arc quite sure a cure has been effected 
in this way and these combs may be 
used without fear. I am also sure that 
by shaking the bees just at night when 
all have ceased to fly and using a 



all the bees in front of the hive they 
are to occupy. In most cases the bees 
will have a few combs built during the 
three days, and if any are jarred out 
in jarring the bees, 3nake quick v/ork 
in getting these little combs away 
from the bees, as there may be a little 
honey in them, which they should not 
be allowed to get. 

It will be understood by taking these 
bees in the box and quietly and quick- 
ly jarring them out, they cannot 
fill themselves with honey as they can 
if smoked. Of course they will - be 
quite cross now, and you will want to 




MR. HINMAN'S APIARY. 



large newspaper to shake the bees 
on, after the bees are all lu the 
hive take the paper with what dead 
bees (and drops of honey if there be 
any) and burn at once, will make 
doubly sure work of it. 

I prefer a box hive to shake the bees 
as there are no frames to bother with 
and after they have been in this box 
for three days then get the frame hive 
ready and at night (or rather in the 
evening late) take the box with the 
treated bees without smoke, lift it 
carefully and at one good jar dislodge 



step back; and if they still show war 
you can take to your heels or use your 
smoker, as the bees are now away 
from the honey. 

One of the greatest points in curing 
the bees is to get along with them just 
as quietly as possible, and have their 
location so distinctly marked in some 
way that they will not mix with other 
colonies. All old queens should be re- 
placed with young ones -ind all black 
bees and queens gotten rid of, also all 
hybrids done away with the greatest 
of speed. 



1904 THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 

3 I emphatically aud unhesitatingly 
say you cannot get a'.oii.ij with loul 



47 



brood by having a lot of black and 
hybrid bees. At least, not in my 
locality. 

I rear my own queens, and then I 
know what I have. I have little 
faith in paying one dollar each for a 
lot of cull queens. I much prefer to 
rear them myself, then I know just 
what to look for — a pretty good lot of 
queens, I am sure. As regards hives, 
each ha.s its friends and enemies. I 
may some time in future send you a 
photo of my queen rearing outfit with 
article concerning it. 

Gallupville, N. Y., Dec. 21, 1903. 



CHUNK HONEY. 



Four- Piece Sections versus One-Piece. T-Supers 

versus Wide-Frame Supers. 

By F. Greiner. 

MR. EDITOR: The production of 
chunk honey has become quite 
a hobby, or perhaps business, 
with the bee-keepers in Texas, I siip- 
pose. 

If we and all other bee-keepers 
would go to producing that kind of 
honey, the section problem would be 
solved, causing perhaps half the siip- 
ply manufacturers to shut down. For 
the consuming public possibly this 
might be a good thing, providing we 
coidd educate the people to accept 
chunk-honey in place of section honey. 

From private customers in' my 
vicinity I have more call for chunk- 
honey (without the extracted article be- 
ing poured over it) than for any other 
kind. Furthermore I can with advan- 
tage produce it. With the regular stock 
of chunk-honey as produced in Texas 
there is a great drawback <'on'!ectcd, 
which is much more serious than it is 
with the extracted kind, viz: the comb 
honey, with the extracted poured on it, 
becomes one .solid mass as soon as the 
season advances, and cannot well be 
liquefied again. It is not probable that 
this difficulty will be overcome in the 
near future and for this rmson. if no 
other, section honey will be in demand 
for a long while. 

The consumers will care nothing 
whether the honey he eats was pro- 
duced in four-piece or in folding sec- 
tions; that will be a matter of conven- 



ience for the producer. We have used 
the four-piece sections before the one- 
piece sections came into fashion, and 
have not had any reason to be sorry 
for adopting the folding kind. It 
i.s very true, sometimes a batch 
of sections does not fold true. When 
the grooves are not cut right, sections 
cannot fold true and cannot be made 
to stay .square without being held in 
shape until filled. Why a four-piece 
section should not come true I fail to 
see, as it will easily conform to any 
shape, diamond or square. In fact 
the four-piece sections will solve the 
problem of .sections coming square 
every time. Even with the T-super 
the four-piece section would work 
nicely as far as keeping its shape, 
while the one-piece section, (if it does 
not hold square) can make us lots of 
trouble. When it comes to taking the 
filled sections from T-supers the dif- 
ficulty we have experienced was al- 
ways with the dovetailed corner of our 
one-piece sections. The bottom of 
section is generally so glued down 
to the T, and in the attempt to sep- 
arate the two the bottom would 
pull oft' at the dovetailed corner 
and break the bottom row of 
cells. If such is the case with a sec- 
tion that has but one dovetailed cor- 
?^er. will not our trouble be multiplied 
with a section having four such cor- 
ners? By way of explanation would 
say, that it has been our practice to so 
place sections in the supers that the 
dovetailed corner is down. We do not 
wish to have it show when the honey 
is crated. We followed the same rule 
when filling our T-supers, of which, 
fortunately, we have only 40 in use, 
and these Ave do not use except on a 
pinch, when all others are used up. 
We have experienced another difficulty 
with the T-super. and in this also the 
dovetailed corners, because of their be- 
ing sharper or coming to a sharper 
corner than the others, increased this 
viz: When sliding the sections into 
their places between the T-rests the 
corners of sections would catch on 
them. A section pulled out of the cen- 
ter of a filled T-super can be replaced 
only with diificulty on this account. 
While speaking of the undesiral)le fea- 
tures of the T-super I want to mention 
this other. We have to be very careful 
how we handle them when ready for 
the bees. When one accidentallv or 



48 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



March 



carelessly sets a T-super down ou some 
rough surface, perhaps 3own into the 
grass by the shade of a hive, and he 
finds a dozen or more sections pushed 
up partly — how trying it is for one in 
the hurry of the work to get that 
super back in shape. Even when a T- 
super is filled with honey it must be 
handled with greater care than any 
other one on account of sections not 
being protected from the bottom. 

As to the one-piece section getting 
glued up worse than the four-piece 
section, this is a most insignificant 
matter. If Mr. Heddon will try no- 
bee-way sections he will experience no 
trouble in their becoming glued up 
seriously, providing he uses wide- 
fi'ame supers, which is the only super 
I consider worth having in a large bee 
yard where time is considered money. 
Mr. Heddon also prefers a section of 
hard wood. I have suggested soft 
maple as a suitable timber for the pur- 
pose, some years ago. I was prompted 
to do so because I felt we ought to 
save the linden for bee pasturage. Of 
course hard timber does not soil as 
easily as soft basswood and water 
does not soak into hard wood easily, 
but we have no occasion to wash our 
sections in order to get them clean. So 
far as that is concerned, basswood an- 
swers the purpose very well. The 
principal gluing always occurs along 
the top-bars of our wide frames where 
the bottom bars sag a little, thus form- 
ing a gap between the tops of sections 
and the top-bar of the wide frames. 
For this reason I would now make bot- 
tom-bars of frames fully as heavy as 
top-bars, or make the frames shorter 
so as to take only three sections in- 
stead of four. The gluing with one- 
piece sections could not possibly be 
any worse than with four-piece sec- 
tions, and the soiling would be slight 
whether hard wood or soft wood was 
used for sections. The reason why 
there is so much difference between 
bee-keepers on the same subjects may 
be attributed to tile fact that the 
notions of different men are unlike. 
Some will get along with little imper- 
fections in a certain line, others would 
not; and then again other imperfec- 
tions they will make a big fuss over 
t!ie others would count naught. So it 
happens that the majority of bee- 
keepers put up with the Italian bee al- 



though they well know their coml> 
honey is not to be compared with that 
of the black or Carniolan bee. As G. 
M. Doolittle says: "The honey the 
Italians make is 'good enough,' " and 
so I might say, soft wood sections are 
good enough. As to one- and Tour-sec- 
tions, I would give a little more for 
the former rather than use latter, but 
of course if the former cannot be ob- 
tained I would not hesitate to use the 
latter. 

Naples, N. Y., Dec. 15, 1903. 

♦-•-♦^ 

MANIPULATION. 



Variable Results from Different Methods and 
Races of Bees. Characteristics Viewed from the 
Standpoint of Sentiment and Science. 
By Arthur C. Miller. 

IT WAS with some surprise that I 
read Dr. Blanton's comments in 
the January Bee-Keeper on the 
Cyprian bees. In my own apiaries I 
find them most tractable when proper- 
ly handled. I say "properly handled" 
because they do resent the treatment 
generally given to bees. I handle 
Cyprians as freely as Carniolans, do it 
bare faced and bare handed and in 
fact on account of their tractability 
and beauty use them for show bees 
and do not hesitate to show them to 
visitors even when the latter are with- 
out veil and gloves. 

But this article is not to extol the 
merits of any race or strain of bees 
but to treat of causes of trouble in 
handling bees. Do any two persons 
handle bees the same? I almost be- 
lieve not. With smoker belobiug clouds 
of pungent, suffocating vapor, one 
operator will assail the hive like a 
Chinese fanatic demolishing devils. 
The poor bees are driven helter-skelter 
first from the entrance and then from 
the tops of the frames. By the time 
the first frame is out the bees are in 
a tremendous furor, rushing to and 
fro in a vain endeavor to escape the 
all-pervading smoke. And the operator 
wonders why it is so hard to find the 
queen! 

Try such treatment with Cyprians 
and the poor misguided operator will 
go onto the retired list for many a day. 
Iry it with "Blacks" and they will de- 
sert the hive and scatter to the four 
winds — till some more convenient sea- 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



49 



son. With Syrians it moans a fight to 
a finisli. With most Italians and with 
Caruiolans it is comidete subjugation 
up to a point, beyond whicli they fight. 
With all it is a grevious mistake. An- 
other operator will go to the other ex- 
treme and fail to use smoke at the crit- 
ical periods. Then some strike the 
Iiappy medium, have a well charged, 
well burning smoker, use it just as lit- 
tle a,s possible and yet enough, and 
control the bees readily and perfectly. 
One man will be filled with senseless 
fear, another will view his work 
rationally, study and know the va- 
garies of his strain of bees and act 
accordingly, for difl'erent strains and 
races react differently to the stimulus 
of smoke. 

It is the currently accepted belief 
that smoke "frightens" bees. It is 
doubtful if bees "fear" anything. It is 
probable that smoke simply acts as a 
nerve excitant, producing disturbing 
sensations, which in turn react and 
cause the bees to gorge with honey or 
to precipitately flee. I question 
whether the talfing of food under such 
circumstances is anytMng more than 
a nervous reaction. There is nothing 
but sentiment to suggest that on the 
bees' part there is forethought of loss 
of home or food. When smoked ex- 
cessively the bee ifights; "sacrificing 
herself for the sake of home and sis- 
ters" the legend runs. But 'tis hardly 
true. A point has been reached in 
nerve excitation where the sting mech- 
anism is ,stimiil:ited. As ail i)arts 
work in unison .so must tlie bee fly to- 
wards that which excites the nerves of 
the eyes and on striking the object the 
rest of the actions occur in regular se- 
quence. 

The bee possesses a highly developed 
nervouf^ system but its power of asso- 
ciative memory is decidedly limited. 
Beyond finding its way to the source 
of nectar or food supply and back to 
its domicile and noticing any marked 
change in the appearance or suiTound- 
ings thereof, I have failed to note any 
evidence of a "'mind" in bees. Every 
other function can be explained per- 
fectly as reactions to excitants or 
nerve stimuli. 

To revert to sting action. The appli- 
cation of ,smoke or heat can be carried 
to a point where the bee doubles up 
until it stings itself, or of when forced 



almost to this, the abdomen be severed 
from the thorax, the anterior part of 
the body still continues to assail and 
cling as before, while the posterior 
part curves and the sting dart§ out 
ami in as if the abdomen was still con- 
nected with the thorax. 

Someone may ask me to reconcile 
these views with the action of the 
"guards" which dart so readily from 
the hive entrance at any moving ob- 
ject. The movements excite (set in 
action) the optic nerves, which in turn 
react on the organs of flight. The bee 
approaches the object and if the latter 
causes continued or increased nerve 
stimulation, either through the organs 
of Slight, smell, hearing or touch, the 
sequence is assault. 

Why do bees feed the larvae ? They 
have to. They cannot help themselves. 

This article is but the merest al- 
lusion to the laws underlying all life. 
With man and the higher animals as- 
sociative memory and reasoning enter 
into the ]iroblem but with the lewder 
orders movements are merely the re- 
sults of various stimuli (such as heat, 
light electricity, gravity, touch, etc.) 
acting on living tissues. 

When we can rid ourselves of the old 
beliefs of the reasoning power of bees, 
of a lot of unknown but supposedly 
marvelous and complex laws, and go 
to searching for the stimuli behind 
each action we may then hope for a 
speedy .solution of the swarming prob- 
lem and similar perplexing questions — 
and not before. 

Providence, R. I.. .Tan. 2?,. 1904. 
«-•-'* 

In concluding a I'ecent letter, the 
editor of one of the leading foreign 
bee journals says: "Allow me to add 
with what real pleasure I studv your 
most excellent American Bee-Keeper 
every month. You have good reason 
to be prond of your publication, so full 
it is of valuable teaching, so cleverly 
edited, so attractive in form, .so fresh 
and inspiriting from month to month." 

The word honeymoon comes to us 
from the ancients, among whom it was 
the custom to drink diluted honey for 
thirty days or a moon's age, after a 
wedding feast. — Ex. 

Have you noticed our special offer 
on another page? An excellent agri- 
cultural journal free to our readers. 



5.0 



THE AMERICAN 
FORMALIN. 



BEE-KEEPER. 



Marcli 



A Method of Its Application Suggested Within a 
Hive Occupied by the Bees. 

By J. E. Johnson. 

THE question of foul brood is cer- 
tainly an important one to all 
who keep bees; ami any infor- 
mation upon the subject ought to be 
welcomed by every up-to-date bee- 
keeper. This matter of applying gas to 
a colony of live bees to kill the germs 
and spores of disease and not injure 
the bees or hinder them from work 
means much if it can be done suc- 
cessfully. Without giving the matter 
much serious thought, or without a 
full understanding of germ life, or 
the real cause of why or how germs 
are killed by gas, it would seem impos- 
sible, but I am very confident that it 
is not only possible but practicable. 
Let us then first see if we fully under- 
stand what formalin or or formalde- 
hyde is. 

Formaldehyde is a gas. This gas 
can be mixed Avith water only to 
an extent of 40 per cent. This solu- 
tion is then called formalin or formal- 
dehyde solution. A formaldehyde so- 
lution may be of 10, 20 or 40 per cent, 
strength but it is properly called for- 
malin, only when 40 per cent, 
strength. The gas may be driven 
from this solution by heat or it may be 
applied cold, and as the water evapor- 
ates the gas is set free. 

There are only two gases that are 
good gei-macides. The gas from burn- 
ing sulphur will unite with the water 
of the air to produce sulphurous acid, 
hence it is a germacide. The gas foi'- 
maldehyde is a germacide because 
when in the air it combines with free 
oxygen to produce formic acid. So in 
either case it is the acid that kills 
germs, not the gas at all. Many think 
that Itecause sulphurous gas is deadly 
to all animal life foi-maldehyde must 
necessarily be the same: but such is 
not the case. One god long whiff of 
.sulphurous gas may kill any animal 
because it fills the lungs and stays 
there, thus cutting off all oxygen. The 
longest man can live without the oxy- 
gen of the air is five minutes, hence 
death would result from want of oxy- 
gen. But formaldehyde is of a dif- 



ferent nature. It can be inhaled along 
with the air without serious injury, 
that is to quite an extent. The injury 
would be principally irritation from 
the acid. In a medical college of 
this state this matter was tested. 
By way of experiment a dog was 
placed in a room and formaldehyde 
Avas applied quite strong for 24 
hours. The dog was not injured ex- 
cept nose, eyes, mouth and lungs were 
much irritated but soon recovered so 
as to eat a good meal. Now if we 
should apidy a 40 per cent, solution of 
formaldehyde on a piece of cotton and 
place on the bottom board of a hiA'e 
containing live bees, protected with 
wire screen so that bees would not 
come in direct contact with the 
solution (it would burn them), this gas 
would bo gradually set free and would 
combine with the air in all parts of the 
hive even through the l)rood, as brood 
contains air Avhether live or dead. 
Hence it would be effective. Now 
spores are hard to kill when dr.v. but 
in this case all spores would be in a 
condition of rapid germination and 
would be very much easier killed than 
when combs alone were fumigated. 
The spores are the seeds and 
when in the right pabulum of 
proper temperature and moisture, will 
germinate, somewhat similar to 
other seeds: and av h e n in this 
stage of development they are easily 
killed by any good bactericide, hence 
the great advantage of this mode of 
treatment, as bees Avould furnish the 
necessary heat, moisture, etc. 

However, if a 40 per cent, solution 
be thus applied the bees would suffer 
and Avould probably -desert the hive 
unless given lots of air aboA^e and be- 
low brood chamber, but if a weaker 
solution be applietl it would no doubt 
be as effective and less offensive to the 
bees. As an illustration, one ounce of 
20 per cent, solution would contain as 
mur-h gas. and would yield as muc5 
acid as one-half oiince of 40 per cent, 
solution, only it Avould be slower. Also 
tAVO ounces of 10 per cent, solution 
would equal the same. Anyone trying 
this method should experiment in a 
small Avay to ,see how strong a gas the 
bees woidd put up with. Raise 
cover a trifle to create a -draught. 
Weather should be warm, and soultion 
be applied frequently for some time so 



1904 
as to have 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



coutiuuous forming ol" 
acid, probably every two or tiiree days 
for 10 or 15 days would, be right. The 
strength of solution to be used would 
depend on the weather and the amount 
of ventilation given, but I would sug- 
gest that a 10 or 20 per cent, solution 
be used. Ten per cent would be best 
to begin with. Ask a good physician 
to get the solution for you, then you 
will get what you ox-der. Get a 40 per 
cent solution and reduce it by adding 
water. The solution should be handled 
with care. Any good physician can 
give you further information as to 
how to handle it. 

There are such things as disease 
germs of animal life but they belong- 
to a different family. All bacteria, 
ferments and fungi are of vegetable 
life and should be treated as plants. 
They neither live nor die from the 
same causes as animals. Some prep- 
arations will kill both animal and veg- 
etable life but usually not from the 
same cause or in the same way. 

Williamsfield. 111.. Feb. 1. 1904. 

♦-•-♦ 

SECTIONAL HIVES. 



efficiency 
chamber 



As to Their Influence Upon the Strength of Colo- 
nies, etc. A Friendly Criticism of Mr. McNears 
Position in the Matter. 

By E. F. Atwater. 

ITH the added experience of 
another honey -harvest I 
reaffirm laiy belief in the 
of large non-sectional brood- 
hives," says W. W. McNeil 
in October Bee-Keeper. 

Right you are, for many localities, 
Mr. McNeal, about the large hives, but 
hold on, that "non-sectional" part I am 
not so sure about. 

"Repeated failure of this hive (sec- 
tional) to give that numerical strength 
of colony early in the season that is so 
necessary to success." How, oh, how 
did it happen so? My sectional brood 
chnmbers do not "fail" here. 

In fact there is less waste space in 
the Heddon sectional hive than in the 
standard L. However, waste space at 
ends of frames has little to do with it, 
one way or another. The vital point is 
in the amount of waste space between 
the combs in one case and the set of 



51 

combs above or below. This must be 
reduced to a minimum to secure the 
best results. 

Mr. McNeal, tell us please, the exact 
thickness of the top-bars in your 
sectional hives and the exact thick- 
ness of the bottom bars. Also were 
your combs built down to the bot- 
tom bars? With thick top bars, combs 
not built down to bottom bars, 
and rather thick bottom bars I should 
expect bad results. I fail to see 
where "climatic condition" or "floral 
surroundings" have anything to do 
with the case. 

.T. B. Hall uses the sectional hive in 
Ontario, L. Stachelhausen uses it in 
Texas, 

"Recourse to the sugar barrel is the 
real life of the method." How so? It 
is not so with me. 

In extracting our thick, gummy 
honey, new combs, full depth, built on 
foundation are often torn and dam- 
aged, while the shallow combs are un- 
harmed. Then what perfect combs we 
get in the shallow frames, every cell 
available for worker brood, and no 
sagging 

"The big colonies in the big hives 
are able to take care of themselves to 
such an extent that the real need of 
handling the brood combs is reduced 
to a minimum." 

True, again, and .lust as true of my 
big colonies in my big sectional brood 
chamlier hives, and when I do want to 
know the exact condition of my colo- 
nies how handy it is to pi-y apart the 
sections of the brood nest, and see at 
a glance the exact condition. How- 
ever, I use hundreds of L hives, con- 
.iointly with the sectional hives, for I 
doubt that it would pay to change for 
extracting alone. I shall use no more 
clo,sed-end frames in extracting hives. 

I see some very decided advantages 
if? the use of sectional hives, and some 
disadvantages, but the failure to pro- 
duce strong colonies in them is not one 
of the disadvantages. The shallow 
cases are adapted to a great many sim- 
ple .systems of management, biit net 
so with the deep hives. 

I fear that in a locality where foul 
brood is prevalent, the shallow cases 
Avould be objectionable, owing to the 
time required to make a thorough ex- 
amination of each comb. 

Boise, Idaho, Dec. 7, 1903. 




HEES WORKING ON CHRYSANTHEMUMS. 
This beautiful picture was taken November 3, 1903, by Mr. Dick- 
son D. Alley, a prominent photographer of New York City. 
We have other equally good subjects from Mr. Alley's 
camera, to appear in these columns. 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



53 



PHACELIA TANACETIFOLIA. 



A Pretty Story of California's New Honey Plant. 
By Henry E. Horn. 

YEARS AGO, when I first began 
bee-keeping in Southern Califor- 
nia, I noticed in the early sea- 
son the field-bees coming home loaded 
with at least three main distinct and 
different colored kinds of pollen. Some 
carried a creamy-looking variety, some 
a deep orange, and some came wig- 
gling up the alighting board with enor- 
mous lumps of a sky-blue color. I 
soon found out and knew the particu- 
lar species of flowers and their plants 
furnishing each particular kind of pol- 
len; but as they all looked to be mere 
weeds and so-called wild flowers, I 
paid no special attention to them any 
more. 

Our honey, whenever we get a crop, 
is derived from the orange, the sages, 
and wild buckwheat, mainly, and these 
are so abundant in a good season that 
bee-keepers hardly ever notice any 
other sources; while in a poor season 
everything is poor— and thus it has 
come about that Californians never dis- 
covered, or recognized, the rare virtues, 
from a bee-keeper's point of view, of 
the modest and beautiful Phacelia 
tanacetifolia. 

It was a stranger from far away 
Germany who, botanically, discovered 
our brilliant golden poppy, and give 
her his own name, "Esscholtzia," and 
it was in a hidden garden nook on the 
far-away banks of the Rhine where 
she had absent-mindedly wandered, 
that our sky-blue "Thousandpretty"' 
was first loved, and being loved, 
watched over and handled. And the 
great good-look of "Thousandpretty" 
was that her lover was a true friend 
of Apis mellifera a.s well. Of course 
Apis and Pretty soon found one 
another and one can easily imagine the 
delight with which human eyes 
watched the mutual approachment, 
and the prolonged and oft repeated 
visits of "Apis" to "Pretty." 

Now all this happened about ten or 
twelve years ago. Today, among the 
bee-men of Central Europe Phacelia 
seed is an article of commerce, like 
clover or rape; and many are the 
praises sung in its favor. 

Phacelia grows about 15 to 24 inches 
high, branching out, or not, according 



to room. Its foliage is fern-like, and of 
a color varying from dark green to pur- 
ple brown. It furnishes bee pasturage 
in about six weeks from seed. Its 
flower-stalk forms a sort of an 
involute, unrolling as it goes, its 
native name, "fiddleneck," explains 
this very well. The flowers are sky- 
blue, star-shaped, very shallow, aver- 
aging, perhaps, one-eighth of an inch 
in depth, and one-quarter inch in diam- 
eter. 

The bloom lasts about six weeks. It 
furnishes nectar all day long, but 
sometimes more, sometimes less. The 
honey is light amber, sometimes light 
green, and of a mild aromatic flavor. 
The sky-blue pollen comes from it 
alone. 

Its fodder value is rated next to clo- 
ver, and cows fed on it have shown a 
marked increase in the yield of milk. 
But cattle will not take it alone by 
itself at first, for a while it must be 
mixed with something they are used 
to. And it must be fed green. It will 
grow where weeds grow, early in the 
season or late, and for green-manuring 
Phacelia is said to equal the pea. 

Our wheats and corns and things 
were once but wild grasses somewhere. 
Like them, our "Thousandpretty" may 
yet turn out to be a real discovery. 

Riverside, Cal., Feb. 12, 1904. 



LAYING AVORKERS. 

They Are Sometimes Wrongfully Accused. 
By Adrian Getaz. 

SOME TIME ago, the question was 
raised in the European bee pa- 
pers whether there is only one 
laying worker in a colony or whether 
there is a large number of them. 

The discussion began by Mr. L. Jas- 
pard asserting that having proceeded 
to the investigation of a colony affect- 
ed with so-called "laying workers" he 
finally found instead of a real "laying 
worker" a very imperfect queen, ex- 
actly similar, or nearly so. to an ordi-. 
nary worker except that with a very 
close examination the pollen baskets 
and other work organs were imper- 
fectly developed. Later on Mr. 
Lacoppe Arnold stated that he had 
met two similar cases and boldly said 
that there was probably no such thing 
as laying workers, and and that all 
such cases were likely due to the pres- 



54 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



March 



ence of imperfect qiieeus. I might ex- 
plain here that the imperfect queens 
are those raised from a too old larva 
and cannot be fecundated, therefore 
lay only drone eggs. 

Such assertions could n(5t remain un- 
challenged. Quotations to the contraiT 
from Hul)er down to Chas. Dadant 
were produced. Several cases were 
quoted ^showing that a large propor- 
tion of the bees examined under the 
microscope had shown enlarged 
ovaries and eggs. Donhoff had once 
caught a bee carrying pollen and yet 
having the enlarged ovaries and eggs, 
showing the laying worker character- 
istic. Some say that the laying 
worker or workers can be got rid of 
by shaking all the bees at a distance 
of their home and letting go liack 
those that will. Charles Dadant 
is quoted as having said that, ns far 
as his experience goes, there is no such 
thing; and that there will be as many 
laying workers after the opera; ion as 
before. 

After all was said and argued, it be- 
came evident that there are such 
things as fertile workers and when 
tLere is any, they are in large num- 
bers. Rut, on the other hand, a con- 
siderable proportion of the supposed 
laying workers' colonies ai'e merely 
cases of imperfect queens. 

Knoxville, Tenn., Feb. 11, 1904. 

BLACK BEES. 



They Have Meritorious Traits Not Possessed by the 

Italians. 

By T. S. Hall. 

THE black bees of this part of the 
country have some very fine 
points in their favor, while they 
po.ssess some very objectionable fea- 
tures. 

They are a hardy race that winter 
well, stand the severe changes of 
spring without dwindling; are never 
found to be diseased in any way. No 
such thing as foul brood, black brood, 
pickled broo-d or paralysis. They com- 
mence to breed very early — much 
earlier than the Italians. The queens 
are very large and prolific; they cap 
their honey snowy white, are good 
workers, but not quite as good as the 
Italians. They will enter the supers 
almost at once when the first honey 



flow comes. In the spring they work 
better in the supers than the Italians, 
putting all their honey above the brood 
chamber. If they have the room they 
do not crowd out the queen like the 
Italians; they are fine queen-celF build- 
ers. Their objectionable points are 
their ill-temper; they are more vicious 
than the Italians, when we smoke 
them down they come back just as 
quick as the smoke stops. Not so with 
the Italian. They are very excitable 
and will run ofE the combs when being 
handled and easily become the prey of 
robbers or the wax moth. They are 
very easy to become discouraged and 
seemingly just give up when they get 
weak or the wax moth gets into their 
combs. If we could eliminate these 
few objections they would be the best 
race we have; but those three points 
are very serious marks against them. 
If anyone has ever seen black bees 
with paralysis we would like to hear 
from them. 

If as much care and selection was 
given the black race of bees as has 
been given the Italians and other races 
no doubt there would have been great 
improvements made on the blacks. 
Their virgin queens are very quick 
and active. Their drones are the 
swiftest flyers and very active on the 
wing. Selection has brought about 
considerable changes and improve- 
ments, and selections should not all be 
made from the queen side. The drone 
transmits certain traits to the progeny 
of the queen that will not come from 
the queen. Stock breeders use as 
much care in selecting their sires as 
they do in the female. The selections 
should be made from both sides. 

Jasper, Ga., Jan 20, 1904. 



(Black bees in South Florida are not 
less subject to paralysis than other 
races, we think. — Editor.) 



I wish to congratulate you on your 
standpoint of limiting The American 
Bee-Keeper to matters apicultural. 
One of the rarest of virtues these days 
is a resolute abstainance from preach- 
ing. This is no joke. If j^ou can keep 
your promiise, you are a rare bird. — 
Henry E. Horn. 



When writing to advertisers mention 
The American Bee-Keeper. 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



55 



CAN TVE GET MORE FOR OUR 
HONEY. 



I 



By Mrs. S. A. Smith. 

NOTICE, Mr, Editor, what is be- 
ing said about trying to force up 
the price of honey, by we produe- 



Our good friend, Dr. Miller, says 
that, if enough would join the N. B.-K. 
A., then they could have wnough mon- 
ey to do something in this line. 

In September Review, the editor 
says if the money of the National is 
not used to defend members who go 
to law justly, they will soon have too 
much money. Also, if it is not used 
for that, what will they use it for? 
Does the N. B.-K. A. wish to help raise 
the price of honey? 

I remember when there were two 
associations and what was to be done 
if they would only join hand and 
hearts. They have done well, but I 
would like to ask, if they have not 
lost sight of a great deal that they 
started out to do? 

The way to raise the price of honey, 
is to raise it. Set an honest price, and 
then stick to that price. Do not under- 
sell another bee-keeper one cent. If 
you do so today, tomorrow the other 
seller will be asked to undersell you; 
and the next day you will be asked 
to keep the ball rolling. Do not begin! 
I say. 

Be verj- careful of your honey. 
Honey that is unripe, unskimmed and 
exposed to the air in large tanks or 
perhaps open vessels, in any humid 
climate, cannot be first-class, and I 
have truly seen just such honey for 
sale, and was asked by the grocer for 
my opinion as to whiether it was honey 
or some other sturt". If you use your 
honey that way, you should not have 
anything for it. Keep it sealed, as 
the bees do. Who can handle honey 
better than they. One lady told me, 
our honey had such a nice perfume 
about it, she said she knew it came 
from the flowers by that. 

If you are near two or three other 
bee-keepers, meet and agree on the 
price of your honey, and then stick to 
that price. 

If you are too far off, postage is 
cheap. If you think your honey is the 
best, send them samples, 'and get 
samples of theirs. If one is the best 



then the price should be fixed accord- 
ingly. We will all help one another 
to produce the honey but when it 
comes to marlveting, that's another 
story. 

If the wholesale market is low, do 
not help it down lower, with your 
honey. Fruit must be shipped when 
ripe, but we can keep our product for 
months. Then why hurry it off just 
as soon as taken from the hives? 

If you say "I must sell, for I need 
the money very much," just ask your- 
self this: "What would I have done 
for money if I had failed to get a 
crop ?'' 

As it is a very uncertain business, 
you often do not have the crop to 
sell; what did you do then? 

Keep your credit good at your bank, 
and see which will pay the best, to 
borrow money to live on, or sell your 
honey for anything you can get for 
it? 

I can assure every bee-keeper that 

there is a consumer who is just as 

anxious to get your honey, as you are 

f jr. and at a good price, 

too. 

There is too much difference be- 
tween the wholesale and retail price. 
Think of honey selling in New York 
for 4 1-2 cents per pound, and the 
poor who can not afford to eat it, for 
by the time it reaches them it costs 
10 cents a spoonful. 

If the X. B.-K. A. wishes to use their 
money to help bee-Iceepers, why not 
loan money on honey, and keep it out 
of the market until the market is 
ready for it? 

Take all the bee journals you have 
and see if each year the market has 
not been good at some date during the 
year. 

I believe in the end the consumer 
will go to the. store and buy his honey 
both comb and extracted, in a tin can, 
and that can will be just the same as 
fruit and vegetables are canned in. 
A label will tell what is in the can. 

Why should honey be put up in 
glass? Why not demand our meat, 
fruit, fish and everything else put in 
glass? Would poor people buy a great 
deal if it was? 

If the N. B.-K. A., or some other 
association, would put tinned honey 
on the market, and advertise the same 
as Swift, Fairbanks and everything 
else is advertised, then both sides 



56 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



March 



would get the honey and money that 
is due them. 

When you pick up one of our first- 
class magazines you see everything 
else advertised except honey. Then 
we are foolish enough to wonder why 
we cannot get anything for our honey. 

We use all our brains and energy 
to produce, and there we quit. It's 
wrong. 

I know you are tired, so once more 
I will say don't, don't, don't sell for 
less than your price, and be good to 
your product. 

Grant, Fla. 



THAT FRAME OF FOUNDATION. 

By Adrian Getaz. 

I AM ACCUSED of colliding with 
Mr. Poppleton's opinions. 
I don"t see it. That's altogether 
a question of view point. Mr. Pop- 
pleton looking at that comb of founda- 
tion from the standpoint of an ex- 
tracted honey producer, while I was 
writing from the position of a comb 
honey raiser. 

An extracted honey producer is sup- 
posed to have plenty of built combs, 
and all he has to do is to give enough 
of them to accommodate both sui-plus 
and brood. There is absolutely no 
need of giving foundation except when 
he needs more combs. 

But the comb honey raiser is alto- 
gether in a different position. He can 
give only foundation in the sections 
instead of combs already built. When 
the honey flows come there is no room 
yet in the sections to deposit the honey. 
Then the honey gatherers put it in the 
brood-nest as fast as the brood 
emerges, disputing the cell,s to the 
queen. Eventually swarming occurs 
as the result of such a condition of 
affairs. 

Now, we take out a comb and give 
a sheet of foundation. It takes the 
bees some time to draw the foundation, 
further more the queen can lay in the 
cells as soon as they are stretched, 
while they cannot be used for holding 
honey until they are about an eighth 
of an inch longer. These two causes 
enable the queen to keep up with the 
comb-builders and fill the comb with 
eggs. 

As I said, the object in view is to 
prevent swarming. As long as there 
is plenty of brood to feed, the nurse 



bees will not waste their time on queea 
cells. 

Giving an already • built comb will 
not answer. The thousands of honey 
gatherers contained in the hive would 
fill it with honey at once before the 
queen could even make more than a 
beginning at egg-laying. 

Knoxville, Tenn. 



AVIIiTSHIRF BAL.LAD. 



The Harnet and the Bittle. 

A harnet sat in a hollow treie, 
A proper spiteful twoad wur he; 
And he merrily sung as he did set. 
His stinge as sharp as a bagouet. 
Oh! who's so bowld and vierce as I 
I vears not bee, nor waspe, nor vly. 

A bittle up thuck tree did dim, 
And scornfully did look at 'im. 
Says he: "Sir Harnet, Avho guv thee 
A right to set in thuck there tree? 
Although you zing so nation (very, ex- 
tremely) vine, 
I tell-'ee it's a house o' mine." 

The harnet's conscience felt a twinge. 
But growin' bowld wi' his long stinge; 
Says he: "Possession's the best law, 
So here thee shasu't set a claw. 
Git out and leave the tree to me, 
The mixen's (dunghill) good enough 
for thee." 

Just then a yuckel (woodpecker) pass- 
in' by. 
Was axed by them their cause to try; 
Thinks he, 'tis very plain to see, 
They'll make vamous munch for me. 
His bill was sharp, his stummic leer, 
So up he suapt the caddlin' (quarrel- 
ing) pair. 



(Moral.) 
All you as be to law inclined. 
This leetle story bear in mind; 
For if to law you ever go, 
Be sure they'll alius sarve you so. 
You'll meet the fate of them there two. 
They'll take your cwoat and carcase 
too. 

— T. P.'s. Weekly. 



I like The American Bee-Keeper 
very much, and think it is improving 
all the time.— Geo. B. Howe. 



Windbreaks in winter are beneficial. 




THE 



Bee -Keeping World 



I staff Contributors : F. GREINER and ADRIAN GETAZ. 

Contributions to this Department are solicited from all quarters of the earth. 



M ♦»♦♦♦»♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ f ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ MM ♦»♦♦♦»♦♦♦♦♦♦» M » 



GERMANY. 

The honey producers in Germany 
seem to be bothered more than we in 
America to sell their product. The 
reason lies in the fact that the selling 
part of the business has not yet been 
reduced to the system as here in 
America. They are lacking the middle- 
man; the very man cried down so 
much here. He, as he does in America, 
could serve a good purpose there as 
well. 



Very good retail packages for ex- 
tracted honey are offered for sale to 
the German bee-keepers, some holding 
as little as 1-4 poimd, and up to 10 
pounds, made of flint glass. Glass- 
works in Silesia make them in six dif- 
ferent styles. 



The German bee-keepers are in a 
sad plight as to honey adulterations. 
A dealer of honey in Hamburg says: 
"A great deal of artificial honey is 
consumed in Germany. The product 
is usually sugar-syrup flavored with 
a little honey and bee-bread decoction. 
Unfortunately a great deal of fraud is 
practiced and the artificial mixture is 
palmed off as the genuine article, sold 
to bakeries and small consumers. The 
authorities are powerless, as there is 
no sure way to detect the fraud out- 
side of judging by the taste and odor, 
and they have given up the idea of 
watching for adulteration in honey." 



P. Neuimann, after an experience of 
twenty-five years with foul brood says 
in Leipz. Bztg. that with the exception 
of a very few cases he has always 
been able to trace the different cases 
to the transmission of the disease from 
one hive to the other, from one bee- 
yard to another. Not until the bee- 
keepers become convinced that the fire- 
cure is to be practiced on discovery 
of a foul broody hive will the disease 
be controlled. 



Generally speaking German writers 
favor the destruction of foul broody 
colonies by fire. Editor Reidenbach, 
(of Phalz. Bztg.), however, is opposed, 
to this. He makes a distinction be- 
tween foul brood in light form and 
that in a malignant form. Under fa- 
vorable conditions the former generally 
disappears of itself and. the IvXcEvoy 
treatment would not be necessary, so 
he says. Lichtenthaler asserts in Die 
Biene, that honey per se does not 
carry the disease to other hives, the 
infectious spores and the bacilli are 
contained in the pollen. He says fur- 
ther that the foul brood is a harmless 
disease for the experienced, but may 
become a dangerous affair with the 
careless and inexperienced. 

The writer of this has been studying 
and thinking how to get around buy- 
ing high-priced lumber for bee hives 
and his mind has turned (?) to the 
paper and straw. A German friend 
tells in Leipzigor Biene Zeitung how 
he makes use of waste paper. He 
says: "A receptacle is filled up witS 
the paper and the latter is covered 
with water. Thus it is left for sev- 
eral days. Then it is hauled over with 
a garden rake and stirred smooth till 
it is a sort of pudding. This is then 
poured into forms and smoothed down. 
In this shape it is left to dry for sev- 
eral weeks when the paper boards are 
dry enough to be made up into hives. 
They can be sawed, bored, nailed but 
not planed.- I maKe the boards 1 1-2 
inches thick. The hives made from 
them are very warm in winter and cool 
in summer. Well painted they will 
resist the weather first-rate. With the 
primitive means employed I have not 
been able to make hives all in one 
piece." 



Steenhusen, the editor of the Schlwg. 
Hoist. Bztg. thinks it is unlawful to 
put out decoy hives, and discusses this 
question at length in his paper. Others 



5S 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPEE. 



March 



hold a like opinion and say that a man 
can be taken to task for keeping empty 
hives (full of comb) setting in his bee- 
yards when it can be proven that he 
does so to induce stray swarms to 
take possession of them. It should 
come under the same head as trapping 
bees, which is unlawful. 



ITALY. 

The bee-keepers of Italy do not seem 
to see the need of a bee journal. The 
Apicoltore has but 400 subscribers. 

B. V. 



PALESTINE. 

Palestine has been called the land 
where milk and honey flows, and judg- 
ing from what the Bible says one 
might be lead to think that the bee- 
keeping industry must have flourished 
in Bible times. It is, however, pretty 
well conceded that the word translated 
with "Honey," by Luther meant in 
most instances, "something boiled 
do-^vn to a jelly — grape jelly," an arti- 
cle used even now in the Holy Land 
by the wealthier people and travelers 
in place of butter, which is scarce. 
There were probably many wild bees 
in the woods and in caves, but none 
were kept in hives domesticated. Since 
these times the timber has all been de- 
stroyed and Avild bees have become 
a rarity. Not many bees are kept now 
in hives althovigh the conditions are 
favorable for bee-keeping. The Euro- 
pean imigrant is the only one carrying 
on modern bee-keeping, averaging 60 
pounds per hive. Failures are not 
known. The earliest honey is gathered 
from almond and apricot blossoms, 
followed by orange blossoms. Thistle, 
cactus and other weeds furnish some 
honey later. Some bee-keepers migrate 
to the mountains and into the vicinity 
of Bethlehem. — From Schlesw. Hoist. 
Bztg. 

CHILI. 

A report from a Chilian bee-keeper 
states that an apiary of 160 colonies 
bought in the country and transferred 
in modern hives, gave (in 1903) 340 
swarms. No foundation was given. 
The crop of honey was 37,000 pounds; 
74 pounds per colony, all counted, or 
231 pounds "spring count." Apiculture 
is on the increase. The natives use but 
very little honey, only as medicine. 
Practically all is exported, the present 



price being about 7 cents per pound. 
All extracted honey. — From Rucher 
Beige. 



SIBERIA. 

The winter in Siberia is not only 
very cold but lasts about seven months, 
from the middle of September to the 
middle of May. The snow is very 
abimdant, sometimes eight or ten feet 
deep. The summer comes suddenly 
as soon as the snow is melted, is ex- 
ceedingly warm, especially during the 
day, and ends as suddenly as it be- 
gan. 

The honey is gathered almost exclu- 
sively from the lindens. There are 
seventeen dii¥erent varieties of them, 
blossoming successively during nearly 
the whole season. The colonies ai-e 
wintered in buildings erected for the 
purpose. Most of the bee-keepers ai-e 
specialists and establish their apiaries 
in or near the forests. The hives are 
imported from the United States, that 
is, the majority of them. Each is set 
on four small posts, and has a roof 
above. In the fall, or rather beginning 
of the winter, the weak colonies are 
united, sometimes five, six or more to- 
gether. No colony weighing less than 
14 pounds (of bees) is wintered. Hives 
are hung on the trees to attract and 
capture the runaway swarms. The 
bees remain in the hives during the 
middle of the day on account of the 
excessive heat. The honey (chunk 
honey) is sold at about 17 cents per 
pound. — From the Apiculteur. 



SWITZERLAND. 
Mr. Edouard Bertrand, the editor of 
the Revue Internationale d' Apiculture, 
announces that the paper will be dis- 
continued at the end of the present 
year, (1903). His health and strength 
are beginning to fail, and it is neces- 
sary for him to seek some rest. The 
Revue is, or rather has been, the best 
of all the bee papers published in the 
French language. It has lasted 25 
years. Mr. Bertrand is the author of H 
some of the best works on bee-keeping ; i 
in existence. It is hoped that the 
Suisse Romande Society of Apiculture 
will undertake to continue the paper. 



FRANCE. 

A swarm had introduced itself into 
the wall of a frame house and decided 
apparently to stay there. A bee-keeper 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



59 



(Mr. Le Haulx) was called to dislodge 
them, if possible without doing too 
much demolition. After some hard 
thinking, Mr. Le Haulx brought a hive 
with a comb of brood and honey from 
his apiary, installed the hive against 
the opening in the wall putting a Por- 
ter escape between the wall and the 
hive so the bees could come out of 
their place but not go back. He thus 
succeeded in capturing the entire 
swarm. — Gazette Apicole. 



THE FUTURE. 



It would not be surprising if, after a 
year so discouraging as 1903, many 
bee-keepers should feel inclined to take 
less interest in the industry. Indeed, 
the reports — the "Melancholy Record," 
which we publish in October would go 
far towards justifying a falling-off in 
enthusiasm. But there has been no 
falling-olf, nor any sign of despair; 
and this, in itself, is of more value to 
the country than an abundant honey 
harvejst would have been. Because 
it is now, more than ever before, evi- 
dent that the men who have taken to 
bee-keeping are made of the stuff that 
the country wants; men who are not 
to be defeated by reverses, who are 
prepared to take the rough with the 
smooth, and who, when they suffer 
loss, to determine to make the future 
retrieve it. 

It is refreshing; it is worth going 
through a disastrous season, to expe- 
rience this kind of hopeful enthusiasm 
on the part of men w^ho have, beyond 
doubt, been badly hit in their business. 
Truth to tell, our correspondence has 
brought us more encouragement this 
year, just because of the evidence it 
has given of a spirit of confidence on 
the part of our friends — confidence in 
themselves, and in the recompense 
which ttiey look forward to. "We like 
the man who can say: "It was not 
the fault of the bees. They will serve 
me well when bi-ighter days come for 
them and for me," and who puts on 
the candy cakes, and dry, warm wraps, 
waits for the future with steady hope. 
By such as he it is that success is de- 
deserved or won. 

There ard three or four months to 
come before active work in tne apiary 
can begin again. What is to be done 
with the winter months? Well, this 
is the season for making and repair- 



ing hives, for re-arranging apiaries, 
for comparing notes, and forming 
plans for the coming year. Now, in 
the long evenings, there is time for 
study. A good, useful bee-book; an 
hour by the fireside with Maeterlinck, 
will yield both pleasure and profit. 
The great point is to leave nothing un- 
done that can help to the attainment 
of the objects in view. The practical 
bee-keeper looks well ahead. He is 
ne'V'er taken by surprise when the 
business in hand calls for his attention 
at a moment's notice. He knows that 
few things done in a hurry ai'e 
lasting, are well done. He makes his 
preparations beforehand. Not even 
the activities of bee-life can find him 
unready. — Irish Bee Journal. 



A GREAT SUFFERER. 

Perhaps the Bohemian bumble-bee 
has been the greatest sufferer from 
weather ravages. He has no warm 
hive to shelter him, and no candy or 
syrup put down for his consumption. 
When belated frosts or untimely 
storms come, his nest of withered 
grass or moss is often devastated, and 
poor Bombus, as he is called from the 
volume of his buzz, perishes. There 
has been so far this year as great a 
scarcity of bumble bees as of butter- 
fiies, owing to inclement weather. One, 
the first this year, was seen in an un- 
cut clover field near Epping. The 
great velvety fellow was blundering 
and buzzing among the purple clover 
heads with all the bustle characteris- 
tic of his species. And he knew that 
he had the purple clover to himself, 
for the hive bee's tongue is not long 
enough to reach that flower's nectar. 
Perhaps that was some compensation 
for the fact that a bumble-bee is born 
to shift for himself, and face storms, 
—Daily Express (London), July 14th. 



We like the American Bee-Keeper 
very much, and wish you much suc- 
cess for 1904.— T. S. Hall. 



Chaff cushion divisions are prefer- 
able to boards alone, as they are 
warmer. 



Division boards should be used in all 
weak calonies, thus contracting the 
space. 



60 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



March 




PUBLISHED MONTHLY 
THE W. T. FALCONER MANFG. Co. 
PROPRIETORS. 
H. E. HILL, - EDITOR, 

FORT PIERCE, FLA- 



Terms. 

Fifty cents a year in advance; 2 copies S5 
cents; 3 copies $L20; all to be sent to one 
postoffice. 

Postage prepaid in the United States and 
Canada; 10 cents extra to all countries in the 
postal union, and 20 cents extra to all other 
countries. 

Advertising Rates. 

x'ifteen cents per line, 9 words; $2.00 per 
inch. Five per cent.' discount for two iser- 
tions; seven per cent, for three insertions; 
twenty per cent, for twelve insertions. 

Advertisements must be received on or be- 
fore the 15th of each month to insure inser- 
tion the month following. 

Matters relating to business may be ad- 
dressed to 

THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 
Fort Pierce, Fla., or Jamestown, N. Y. 

Articles for publication or letters exclusively 
for the editorial department should be ad- 
dressed to the Florida office. 

Subscribers receiving their paper in blue 
wrapper will know that their subscription ex- 
pires with this number. We hope that you 
will not delay favoring us with a renewal. 

A red wrapper on your paper indicates that 
you owe for your subscription. Please give 
the matter your early attention. 




As an experiment, an apiarist in 
quest of a situation invested twenty- 
five cents in the Bee-Keeper's cent-a- 
word column, recently. Before the 
month was out he wrote that inquiries 
had been received from bee-keepers 
from "Vermont to California. As a 
southern location is preferred, he has a 



choice between Texas and Mississippi, 
from both of which business proposi- 
tions have been received. Possibly, 
other of our readers have failed to ap- 
preciate the efficiency and cheapness 
of this department. 



Texas has a new bee-keepers' asso- 
ciation, organized at Beeville, Texas, 
Feb. 1, and to be known as the Nueces 
Valley Bee-Keepers' Association. Mi*. 
W. H. Laws, of Beeville, is secretary 
of the new organization. 



An association of bee-keepers was 
organized .Tan. 30, in Knox county, III. 
The regular annual meeting will be 
held in April and a rousing attendance 
is anticipated. Mr. J. E. Johnson, of 
Williamsfield, is president, and E. D. 
Woods, of Galesburg, secretary of the 
new society. 



In the last annual report of the 
National Bee - Keepers' Association 
there appeared a list of prices on 
honey cans. General Manager France 
desires to inform the readers of the 
American Bee-Keeper that "these 
prices will not be granted any longer.'' 



In view of different opinions re- 
cently expressed in these columns, in 
I'egard to the amiability or viciousness 
of the Cyprians, it would be interest- 
ing to have a brief statement of the ex- 
periences of the fraternity in general 
upon this point. We shall be pleased to 
hear from those who have had to do 
with this race of bees. 



A winter of unusual severity is 
drawing to a close, and its 'efPects upon 
the bees is a matter of quite general 
interest. Brief reports of the results 
in wintering would be quite in order 
for the April Bee-Keeper, and we shall 
be pleased to hear from our readers 
throughout the country in regard to 
this point. 



SECTIONS. 
• Commenting editorially upon Mr. 
Heddon's article in The Bee-Keeper, 
the American Bee .lournal says: "If, 
perforce, we must go back to four- 
piece sections, we may as well take all 
the comfort we can out of the advan- 
tages thew oflFer. They can be made 
out of any kind of wood, and no one 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



61 



pretends tbat basswood is the best 
lumber for sections where no bendiniC 
of joints is needed. It is tnie tbat .1 
one-piece section that is not s(iuare can 
be made square, but it will not st:7y 
square unless rigidly held so, while a 
four-piece section stays square of 
itself. There is generally dan.;ier of 
breaking ,some sections in putting to- 
gether one-piece sections unless the 
joints are wet. and it is extra trouble 
to ,wet the sections aside from danger 
of discoloration from wetting. This 
breakage and wetting is saved when 
using four-piece sections. Besides the 
breaking when folding sections, there 
is the ibreaking that sometimes hap- 
pen.? after the foundation is put in, 
which is worse, and very much worse 
if it occurs after the section is filled 
with honey. Four-piece sections avoid 
this. Possibly we may find comfort in 
discovering other advantages, but 
these are enough to show that the 
change, if the change must come, will 
not be an unmixed evil." 

Though the Journal has not enumer- 
ated all the objections peculiar to the 
one-piece section, it might find ad- 
ditional "comfort" in an effort to com- 
pile so formidable an array of "evils" 
against the four-piece style. 



SELLING EXTRACTED HONEY IN 
THE LOCAL MARKET. 

On page 19 of The Bee-Keeper for 
January is discussed the advisability 
of readopting the word "strained" in- 
stead of "extracted," as now used in 
connection with liquid honey. 

As a result of an experience related 
by Mx-. W. L. Coggshall during his re- 
cent visit with The Bee-Keeper, we are 
moved to touch again upon this sub- 
ject. As an experiment, last fall, Mr. 
Coggshall inserted a small advertise- 
ment in a local newspaper published 
at Ithaca, near his home in New York 
state. The "ad" simply stated that 
for ten cents a pound he would deliver 
at the buyer's door pure strained 
honey. The result was that 60"0 
pounds were ordered and delivered. 
The newspaper announcement cost Mr. 
•Coggshall 75 cents. He is quite confi- 
dent that the success of the enterprise 
is attributable to the virtue of that 
word, "strained." People know what 
"strained honey" is; while "extracted 



honey" is yet a mystery to the million. 
If there is more money in "strained" 
honey than in "extracted," even 
though it be taken with the extractor, 
it does not seem advisable to stand 
upon the technicality while good busi- 
ness rushes by. It is our obvious duty 
to see that the populace is amply pro- 
vided with honey, whether it is called 
comb, bulk, extracted or strained. It's 
profitable business and honest dollars 
that the producer wants; and the peo- 
ple may call the goods what they will. 



W. L. COGGSHALL IN FLORIDA. 

Mr. W. L. Coggshall, of Groton, N. 
Y., in company with his brother, 
David H. Coggshall, in returning from 
a tour of inspection in Cuba, where he 
has extensive aparian interests, stop- 
ped off to favor the Bee-Keeper with 
a day's visit, recently. W. L. has 
about 1,900 colonies in New York 
state, 800 in Cuba and extensive 
apiaries in New Mexico and Colorado, 
aggregating, approximately, 3,500 colo- 
nies; while David H. has 600 colonies 
near his New York home. Like most 
other men of great achievements, Mr. 
Coggshall is in manner extremely 
modest and unassuming. 

During their visit. The Bee-Keeper 
secured a photograph of the distin- 
guished gentlemen, which it hopes t9 
present next month, in connection with 
an article of interest from the pen of 
the most extensive bee-keeper in the 
world. 



END STAPLES IN BROOD FRAMES 
We have several times in these col- 
umns expressed our preference for < 
end-staples in the bottom-bar of brood 
frames. An ordinary widow blind 
staple driven into the end-bar until it 
projects 5-16 of an inch, affords a val- 
uable safeguard against maiming or 
killing a queen and greatly facilitates 
rapid and easy work when manipulat- 
ing a hive. This idea we learned 
many years ago in the apiaries of 
Mr. J. B. Hall, of Canada, and have 
continued it in use ever since, with in- 
creasing satisfaction. The big guns of 
beedom, however, seem to prefer the 
end staple at or near the top of the 
frame where it is almost useless, not- 
withstanding our humble protests 
upon several occasions. It was there- 
fore gratifying to learn, during Mr. 



I 



62 



THE A]SIERICAN BE.K-KEEPEK. 



March 



Coggshall's visit, that he invariably 
uses the staple in the end of the bot- 
tom-bar, where it is of genuine service 
to the x'apicl manipulator. 



THE MAKING OF THE QUEEN- 
BEE 

To the American Bee Journal col- 
umns Mr F. Greiner contributes a vrey 
interesting translation from the Ger- 
man, by Pastor Kline, bearing the 
above heading, and supported by this 
foundation sentence. 

"In regard to the physiology of the 
worker and the queen bee I have con- 
cluded, after a close observation, that 
the female bee-larva, when but little 
developed, embraces within her little 
body two distinct possibilities or ten- 
dencies, viz: 1st, to develop either 
into a mother-bee, or, 2nd, into a nurse 
or worker bee. One is irresistibly 
forced to the conviction of its 
being an error that the worker-bee is 
a dwarfed or undeveloped female bee, 
for in the worker as well as in the 
queen do we find different organs in 
the highest state of perfection. The 
worker is endowed with that wonder- 
ful system of glands, the pollen-bas- 
kets, the stronger tongue and jaws; 
the queen with those perfect organs of 
reproduction." 

Mr. Kline proceeds 1p show that no 
distinguisking line really exists — that 
the degree of development of the re- 
spective functions is proportionate to 
extent or thoroughness of the treat- 
ment during the larval stage, as pre- 
scribed by nature — and that the dis- 
tinguishing characteristics blend, or 
overlap to an extent that entirely 
obliterates the dividing line. He says: 

"What do we know about a larva de- 
veloping into a worker in one case, 
into a queen in another? It is believed 
that we must look for a certain admix- 
ture in the laiwal food, or that the lat- 
ter is more plentifully administered, 
and thus produces the queen bee. It 
appears that as soon as the larval food 
is changed the development changes 
with it, but it comes very gradually. I 
have taken five-day worker larvae and 
transferred them to queen-cells. They 
should have been sealed after one-half 
day, but it was accomplished only in 
a full day, and yet the resulting queen 
could hardly be distinguished from a 



worker. The older the larva selected 
for a queen at the time the change Is 
made, the nearer the resulting queen 
will be like a worker. 

"Worker larvae, when from one to 
one and a half days old, have hardly 
received other treatment than queen 
larvae. Not till the end of the second 
day can we notice that the lai'val food 
is more scantily supplied to woriver 
than to queen larvae. Even when a 
three-day worker larva is placed into 
a qiieen cell full of royal food, its 
growth is slower than that of one that 
has been in a queen cell from the be- 
ginning, and we can notice some dis- 
tinguishing marks in the natural in- 
sects between those that were reared 
from one, or two-day larvae. I trans- 
ferred 30 one-half to one day old 
worker larvae to queen cells, let them 
remain therein for two days, and final- 
ly returned them to worker cells. I 
succeeded only with two. One of the 
larvae was immediately sealed after 
the second transfer, and produced a 
perfect worker bee; the other one was 
not sealed quite so quickly and pro- 
duced a queen, small and weak, show- 
ing round head and curved hairs on 
the hind legs, and possessing a short 
tongue. This experiment shows that 
a queen larva can be changed into a 
worker." 

"The moral of the whole," says Mr, 
Kline, "is this: The earlier a larva re- 
ceives royal treatment, and therefore 
the more lavish she is fed. the better 
and more perfect will be the resulting 
queen." 

In conclusion, Mr. Greiner makes 
the following supplementary com- 
ments: "While I fully endorse the 
moral, I wish to say this: Our posi- 
tive knowledge of this mysterious mat- 
ter is restricted to the fact that the 
queen larva is fed more lavishly and 
slightly differently during the latter 
pei'iod of her life. We do not know 
that this difference in food and food 
supply produces the I'esults we see. I 
believe the real cause is not under- 
stood, and what we see are only the 
accompanying circumstances.'' 

It is evident, as asserted by Mr. 
Greiner, that nothing very definite is 
really known upon this subject; but 
The Bee-Keeper is pleased to be able 
to assure its readers that this problem 
is now undergoing a series of very 



1904 



TffE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



63 



careful and thorough experiments at 
the hands of a most capable student 
of apiculture, and one who is especial- 
ly conversant with the biological 
phases of the art. We therefore an- 
ticipate the development of knowledge 
before the lapse of many months which 
will prove of inestimable value to 
queen breeders. There's "somethin' 
doin'." 



A GOOD FARM PAPER FREE. 

The Bee-Keeper invites the atten- 
tion of its readers to an announcement 
in the advertising columns of this issue 
oifering them a free yearly subscrip- 
tion to the American Farmer, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. The price of the Farmer 
is 50 cents a year, but by subscribing 
for it through The Bee-Keeper office, 
and in connection with The American 
Bee-Keeper, it will cost our readers 
nothing for a whole year. We believe 
many of our subscribers will be glad 
to avail themselves of this liberal of- 
fer; and we shall esteem it a special 
favor if they will kindly mention this 
proposition to any bee-keepiuj? friend 
not at present a subscriber. 
*-*-¥ 

A NOTEWORTHY THAW IN MIS- 
SOURI. 

In our January issue we "had to 
show" Editor Abbott a few things in 
regard to specialized journalism in api- 
culture. In his journal, the Modern 
Farmer and Busy Bee, for February, 
Mr. Abbott comes back at the editor 
of The Bee-Keeper with the following 
sarcastic thrust. It is a relief, how- 
ever, to be permitted to read something 
in a cheerful vein from Mr. Abbott's 
pen, when criticising a point not 
wholly in accord with his own views 
upon the subject: 

There comes a wail from the 
swamps of Florida that indicates that 
Bro. Hill, of the American Bee-Keeper, 
is in a bad way. However, his friends 
need not be alarmed. He will no doubt 
come out all right, for we see that he 
reads The Modern Farmer and no man 
who peruses regularly the clean pages 
of this high grade, moral, agricultural 
monthly can remain off his base very 
long. 



The American Farmer free to our 
readers. See announcement elsewhere. 



BEE PARALYSIS— WHAT'S THE 
CAUSE? 
With reference to Mr. Atchley's the- 
ory as to the cause of bee-paralysis, 
Mr. O. O. Poppleton, whom we con- 
sider one of the very best authorities 
in the country upon the question, says: 
"Mr. Atchley must have either a very 
peculiar kind of bees or an unusual 
form of paralysis." "For," says he, 
"one of the distinguishing characteris- 
tics of the malady is an abnormal 
brood-rearing inclination, so much so 
that they are rai-ely able to care for 
the excessive amount of brood found 
in afflicted colonies." — American Bee- 
Keeper. 

The above editorial we clip from the 
American Bee-Keeper, page 255, 1903. 
While I have always had due rever- 
ence for Mr. Poppleton and all other 
bee brethren, Bro. Hill, it is very essen- 
tial that we get at the root of these 
matters. Mr. Poppleton is high au- 
thority on apiculture, but I feel very 
sure that he is mistaken as to bee pa- 
ralysis. Please allow me to ask Mr. P. 
a few simple questions, and if he will 
give satisfactory answers then I will 
bow and sit down. First. Why is 
pollen always found in the sacs of bees 
dying with paralysis? Second. What 
was that pollen taken for? Third. 
Is not pollen always used in brood- 
rearing? Then why are bees always 
healthy in confinement when they have 
no pollen at all? Certainly, the very 
character of the so-called disease is an 
abnormal brood-rearing inclination, as 
everything would be normal if it were 
not so. Why, sure bees are not in a 
shape to care for brood when they have 
their bodies chock full of old, soured 
pollen, which has been there so long 
that they cannot use it, and ultimate 
death is the only alternative for Na- 
ture to perform.— Southland Queen. 

The foregoing extract was submitted 
to Mr. Poppleton with a request for 
an early response, and the following 
hurriedly written comments are the 
result. From a long and intimate as- 
sociation with Mr. Poppleton, we are 
strongly inclined to believe that Broth- 
er Atchley will find his opponent quite 
equal to any demands he may be 
pleased to make upon his resources, in 
the matter of practical experience with 
paralysis; and that Mr. Atchley's posi- 
tion must be greatly reinforced before 
it is generally regarded as tenable by 
the craft. — Editor Bee-Keeper. 



64 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



March 



I 



Stuart, Fla., Feb. 17, 1904. 
Friend Hill: 

Thanks for the clipping you sent me 
from an editorial in the January num- 
ber of The Southland Queen. I will 
try to answer Mr. Atchley's questions. 

To his first and second questions I 
would say that it is not a fact that 
"pollen is always found in the sacs 
of bees dying with paralysis." All the 
diseased bees that I have dissected 
and examined with Coddington lens 
showed no appearance whatever of 
pollen in the sacs. They seemed to be 
filled with pure honey. To his third 
question the only answer there can be 
is yes. 

I cannot help thinking that I was 
right in saying that "Mr. Atchley 
must have either a very peculiar kind 
of bees or an unusual form of disease." 
His theory is quite ingenious, but, un- 
fortunately, several well-observed 
facts throw almost certain doubt on 
the theory. 

1st. Drones are quite subject to the 
disease, and they have never been ac- 
cused of being chyle producers. Mr. 
Atchley is without doubt mistaken 
when saying that drones do not die 
with the disease. Many others be- 
sides myself have reported on that 
point, at least two Texas beekeepers 
having done so within the last two 
months. 

2nd. The disease seems to be much 
more prevalent in certain strains or 
families of bees. At least four times 
within the last ten years I have had 
to utterly destroy certain queens and 
all their daughters; nearly all the cases 
in my apiary being confined to these 
particular bees. Certain viue'.Mi3 seem 
to iMinsirit the germs of the disease 
thrcvgh queen daughters to their i)ro- 
geny. This looks as though there < an 
be but little doubt that the disease is 
of a nature to be transmitted from one 
generation to another. It will, liow- 
ever, take the most skillful scientific 
examination to absolutely determine 
this point — an examination which 
neither Mr. Atchley nor myself have 
the facilities to do. 

3rd. Colonies which have had the dis- 
ease one season, but recovered without 
treatment of any kind, are much more 
liable to have the disease next season 
than are other colonies. 

4th. It is the old bees, the field 

workers, that die; not, as a rule, the 

1 are ti>e ones that 



prepare the chyle. If chyle was in 
any manner the cause of the disease, 
the nurse bees would be the ones af- 
fected, not the field workers. My own 
conclusions, as to cause and effect, 
are directly opposite to those of Mr. 
Atchley. I think the strong inclina- 
tion shown by the diseased colonies to 
rear all the broo-d they possibly can is 
caused by the disease, and that the 
disease is not a result of the brood 
rearing inclination. 

All badly diseased colonies are very 
short of field workers and have an un- 
duly large proportion of young or 
nurse bees. All weak colonies with 
prolific queens have a strong desire to 
raise all the brood they can. In nearly 
all badly diseased colonies many more 
eggs are laid by the queen than the 
few field workers can gather food for. 
I have never noticed that colonies de- 
^■eloped any abnormal brood rearing 
desire before being weakened by the 
disease. It looks to me as though the 
facts point to a shortage of the chyle 
supply rather than an over supply. 

The undoubted fact that the proper 
use of sulphur has and will cure the 
disease indicates that its nature is en- 
tirely different from Mr. Atchley's 
Idea of it. I don't see how that fact 
and Mr. Atchley's theory can be re- 
conciled. 

There are still other reasons why it 
looks to me as though Mr. Atchley's 
"facts" on which he bases his theory, 
aro quite badly mixed. 

While I am not absolutely certain 
that sick bees can carry the disease, 
yet I am so well satised that they can 
do so that I take considerable care to 
prevent it. O. O. Poppleton. 



REMOVING SECTIONS FROM THE 

sri'!:R. 

In Mr. Greiner's interesting article 
published in this number, he refers to 
the liability of the one-piece section to 
pull apart at the dovetailed corner ■ 
when removing finished goods from 
the super, and asks if our trouble in > 
this respect may not be multiplied by 
the use of a section having four such i 
corners. 

We do not know Mr. Greiner's meth- \ 
od of removing completed sections 
from the super; but in all the comb | 
honey we have handled we do not | 
remember to have had such an ex- ' 
perience in a single case, and do not 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



65 



think it has occurred. This experience 
inclndes the handling of many car- 
loads of comb honey, and in sections 
of various types. The plan we use 
may be of interest to some of our 
readers : 

If the T-super is in use, have a wide 
board (similar to a new, nucleated flat 
hive lid) always at hand. Upon this 
place smoothly a piece of carpet fully 
as large as the top of the super. Slack- 
en all wedges, stand the super on end, 
stand the cloth-covered board against 
the open top, incline the super towards 
the l)oard and in direct contact con- 
tinue the motion with both until the 
super rests inverted upon the board 
and lays flat upon the work table. The 
super may now be readily lifted, and 
the sections stand free. In case of 
extreme propolizing, it may be neces- 
sary to lift one end of the super and 
let drop with slight force upon the 
carpet, but no harm will come to the 
honey as a result. 

If a super on the plan of the old 
Heddon style is used, the super is in- 
verted in the same way, and the sec- 
tions forced down to the carpet by 
means of a follower made of a piece of 
4x4. 



,,MmiS«a||!igy4«i.i|!Si 




Elmira. N. Y., Feb. 21. 1004. 
Gentlemen: I wish to ask a little fa- 
vor of you in regard to hiving swarms. 
Now we can hive one swarm all right, 
but when two or more come out and 
light on the same limb, at the same 
time, we have a hard time of it, and in 
a good many cases we lose some of the 
swarms. If you can give a little advice 
upon this question through the columns 
of The Bee-Keeper we will be vei-y 
thankful to you. Sincerely yours. 
Chas. Koop. 



such unpleasant condition of afEairs, 
where natural swarming is permitted, 
it is Avell to have all queens clipped, 
and promptly caged as they issue. 
Such combinations usually all return 
to one hive, that hive being the one 
upon the alighting-board of which a 
caged queen has been left exposed; 
and when in the judgment of the op- 
erator, a proper proportion of the clus- 
ter has entered with the first queen, 
the hive may be removed from the 
stand, well covered with a sheet, and 
another empty hive placed at once in 
its place and another queen released 
with the Ingoing bees. In this way 
the process may be repeated as often 
as the number of queens and swarms 
may dictate, and no difficulty is in- 
volved. If queens are not clipped, and 
the apiarist is unable to find in the 
festoon and cage the superfluous 
queens, perhaps the better plan would 
be to shake the swarm upon a sheet 
several feet from the entrance to the 
hive prepared for its reception, put 
a few bees close enough to the entrance 
to give the call and start in; then, with 
cage in hand sharply scan the moving 
mass as it proceeds to the entrance, 
and cage the extra queen or queens. 
If the eye is trained to such work, the 
queens may usually be found in this 
way, and the. swarms thus divided. 
Our advice is, however: Have your 
queens clipped, and thus insure the 
safe and easy management of swarms. 
With undipped queens at swarming 
time, the apiarist must "trust to luck." 
To the writer the plan is most unsat- 
isfactory. — Editor. 



When two or more swarms in the 
apiary are out at the same time, they 
usually combine in the cluster. We 
have seen 18 swarms thus clustered 
together. If queens are not clipped, 
the apiarist, under such circumstances 
certainly has a most disagreeable job 
upon his hands. To guard against any 



HONEY AND BEESWAX MARKET. 

Boston, Feb. 19, 1904.— There is a 
little better demand in comb honey, 
which is the beginning of the spring 
demand. The stocks in hand are ample 
to take care of all possible demands. 
Our prices we quote as follows: Fancy 
white, 16c.; A No. 1, 15 l-2c.; No. 1, 15 
to 15 1-2. Extracted, fancy white, 8c.; 
light amber 6 1-2 to 7c., according to 
quality. — Blake, Scott & Lee. 



Toronto, Canada, Feb. 22.— We are 
under the impression that a good many 
bee-keepers who sold honey early in 
the season are ahead, as the prices 
and demand for honey at present are 
not so good as earlier. The supply 
is abundant, with rather slow demand. 



66 



THH AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



March 



We quote our market today as follows: 
Comb, $1.25 to $1.50, wholesale. Ex- 
tracted, 6 1-2 to 7 l-2c. Beeswax, 30c. 
— E. Grainger & Co. 



Milwaukee, Feb. 15. — The demand 
for honey is dragging slow, with liber- 
al supply. We are hoping and expect- 
ing an improvement in the demand 
during the spring months. We quote: 
10 to 14c. as to quality, for comb honey; 
extracted, white in barrels, 6 1-2 to 7c. 
in cans and pails, 7 1-2 to 8c. Bees- 
wax, 30c. for choice, pure goods. — A. 
V. Bishop & Co. 



24 sections, $2.50 to $2.75; No. 2, per 
case, $2.25 to $^40; extracted, white, 
7 l-2c., light amber, 6 1-2 to 6 3-4c. 
Beeswax wanted at 26 to 30c. — The 
Colorado Honey Producers' Associa- 
tion. 



Kansas City, Mo., Feb. 13.— We be- 
lieve the demand for honey will begin 
to increase from now on, but do not 
think prices will go any higher. The 
supply is large, with fairly good de- 
mand. We quote: Fancy comb, $2.50 
No. 1, $2.40 per case; extracted, 6 to 
7c. Beeswax, 30c. — C. C. demons & 
Co. 

New York, Feb. 13. — Some producers 
hold back their honey too long. In 
the fall the demand was good at good 
prices; now concessions have to be 
made to move it. The supply is quite 
large for this time of year. The de- 
mand is rather slow for all kinds. We 
quote our market today as follows: 
White comb, 12 to 14c.; dark, 9 to lie; 
extracted: white, 6 to 6 1-2; dark, 5 
to 5 l-2c. Beeswax, 28 to 29c.— Hil- 
dreth & Segelken. 



Albany, N. Y., Feb. 18.— The unpre- 
cedented cold winter has made the de- 
mand for honey slow at any time. 
There is a surplus in the -market. We 
quote: Comb, 10 to 13c.; extracted, 
5 to 7c. Beeswax, 28 to 30c.— H. R. 
Wright. 



Hamburg, Germany, Jan. 6. — Cali- 
fornia amber, per cwt. $8.33; white, 
$8.80. Shipments of honey soon due 
are offered at $7.66 and $8.14. All 
honey importations are subject to im- 
port duties of $4.76 per 100 lbs. — L. 
Gabian. 



Denver, Feb. l3.^The supply of 
honey in fancy grade is small, though 
plentiful in No. 2 and off grades. The 
demand is better than last month. The 
probabilities are that stock will all be 
cleared up before the new crop ar- 
rives. We quote our market as fol- 
lows: No. 1 comb, white, per case of 



Chicago, Feb. 8. — The demand is bet- 
ter for all grades of honey than at any 
time since beginning of December of 
last year. Stocks are now being re- 
duced, but at the same time prices are 
easy. Many have had it so long that 
they are anxious to make sales. No. 
1 to fancy white comb honey sells at 
12c to 13c.; amber gi-ades, 10c to lie; 
dark, etc., 9c. to 10c. ; white extracted, 
6e. to 7c., according to quality, kind 
and flavor; amb'er 5c. and 6c. Bees- 
wax;, 30c. per pound. — R. A. Burnett 
& Co. 



Cent=a=Word Column. 

The rate is uniformly one cent for each 
word, each month; no advertisement however 
small will be accepted for less than twenty 
cents, and must be paid in advance. Count 
the words and remit vnth order accordingly. 

CALIFORNIA PHACELIA SEED-One ounce 
for 25 cents, or 1000 seeds for 10 cents, post- 
paid. Sent by Henry E. Horn, Riverside, Cal. 



FOR SALE — Farms, both large and small; 
also, houses and lots, everywhere. Send for 
free bulletins. W. H. Burke, Clifto« 
Springs, N. Y. 1-3 

WANTED— To exchange six-month trial lub- 
scription to The American Bee-Keeper for 31 
centi in postage stamps. Address, Bee-Keeper, 
Falconer, N. Y. 

FOR SALE— A Hawkeye, Jr. Camera Coib- 

plete. Uses both film and plates. Cost (S.N, 

will sell with leather case for $3.50 cash. Ai 

dress Empire Washer Co., Falconer, N. Y. 

A TANDEM BICYCLE (for man and lady) 
cost J150, in first-class condition, was built 
to order for the owner. Tires new. Will lell 
for $25 cash. Satisfaction guaranteed. Ad- 
dress J. Clayborne Merrill, 130 Lakeview ave., 
Jamestown, N. Y. 

AGENTS WANTED to sell advertising novel- 
ties, good commission allowed. Send for cat^ 
logu* and terms. American Manufacturiag 
Concern, Jamestown, N Y. 

"We have an awful appetite for orderi." 

THE W. T. FALCONER MFG.. CO., 

Bee-keepers' Supplies Jamestown, N. Y. 

Send us your name and addrcti for a cat- 
logue. 



The subscription price of the ROCKY 
MOUNTAIN BEE JOURNAL is SO cenU. 
Wt will =cri<l it with THE BEE-KEEPER 
one year for only 7S cents. 




'HE A. I. ROOT CO:, MEDINA, QHIO. 
Breeders of Italian bees and queens. 



r^EO. J. VANDE VORD, DAYTONA, FLA. 
vJ Breeds choice Italian queens early. All 
queens warranted purely mated, and satisfaction 
guaranteed . 

p H. W. WEBER, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
^- (Cor. Central and Freeman Aves.) Golden 
yellow. Red Clover and Carniolan queens, bred 
from select mothers in separate apiaries. 

THE HONEY AND BEE COMPANY, BEE- 
1 VILLE, TEXAS. Holy Land, Carniolan, 
Cyprian, Albino and 3 and 5-banded Italian 
queens. Write for our low prices. Satisfaction 
guaranteed.. 

TOHN M. DAVIS, SPRING HILL, TENN.. sends 
J out the choicest 3-banded and golden Italian 
queens that skill and experience can produce. 
Satisfaction guaranteed. No disease. 



I B. CASE, PORT ORANGE, FLA., has fine 
^ • golden Italian queens early and late. Work- 
ers little inclined to swarm, and cap their honey 
very white. Hundreds of his old customers stick 
to him year after year. Circular free. 



CWARTHMORE APIARIES, SWARTHMORE, 
^ PA. Our bees and queens are the brighest 
Italians procurable. Satisfaction guaranteed. 
Correspondence in English, French, German and 
Spanish. Shipments to all parts of the world. 

WZ. HUTCHINSON, FLINT, MICH. 
• Superior stock queens, $1.50 each; queen 
and Bee-Keepers' Review one year for only $2.00. 



NEW CENTURY QUEEN-REARING CO., (John 
W. Pharr, Prop.) BERCLAIR, TEXAS, is 
breeding tine golden and 3-banded Italian and 
Carniolan queens. Prices are low. Please write 
for special information desired. 



PUNIC BEES. All other races are dis- 
carded after trial of these wonderful bees. 
Particulars post free 
Sheffield, En^'laud. 



lU GORE'S LONG-TONGUED STRAIN 
''^ of Italians become more and more popu- 
lar each year. Those who have tested them 
John Hewitt & Co., ' know why. Descriptive circular free to all. 
4 I Write J. P. Moore, L. Box 1, Morgan, Ky. 4 



MAPS. 

A vest pocket" Map of your State. 

New issue. These maps show all 
the Counties, ia seven colors, 1^11 
railroads, postoflfices — ana mur!» 
towns not given in the postal guiJc 
— rivers, lakes and mountains, wiih 
index and population of co'jnties, 
cities and towns. Census — it gives 
all official returns. We will send 
you postpaid any state map you 
wish for 



20 cents 



(silver). 



JOHN W. HANN, 

Wauneta, Neb 



American 




BEE 



Journal 



16 - p. Weekly. 
Sample Free. 
jO" All about Bees and their 
profitable care. Best writers. 
Oldest beepaper; illustrated. 
Departments for beginners 
and for women bee-keepers. 
Address, 
OBORaB W. YORK & CO.. 
144 & 146 Erie St. Chicago,Ill. 



CLUBBING LIST. 



We will send The American 
Keeper with the — 

Price 
Rocky Mountain Bee Jour- 
nal $ .50 

What to Eeat 1.00 

Bee-Keepers' Review 1.00 

Canadian Bee Journal 1.00 

Gleanings in Bee Culture. . 1.00 

American Queen 50 

The American Boy 1.00 

Irish Bee Journal 36 

Poultry News 25 



Bee- 

Both 

$ .75 

1.00 

1.35 

1.35 

1.35 

.60 

1.00 

.65 

50 



FREE 



TO OUR 
SUBSCRIBERS I 



THE GREAT 



AMERICAN 
FARMER 

OF INDIANAPOLIS^ IND., 

One of the leading agricultural journals of the nation, edited by an 
able corps of writers. 

This valuable journal in addition to the logical treatment of all 
agricultural subjects, also discusses the great issues of the day, there- 
by adding zest to its columns and giving the farmer something to think 
about aside from the every day humdrum of routine duties. 

FOR A LIMITED TIME 

By special arrangement with the publishers we are enabled to offer 
all Bee-Keeper readers the American Farmer one year absolutely free. 

TWO FOR TUB PRICE OF ONE 

Every new subscriber who sends us fifty cents to pay for The 
Bee-Keeper one year may also have the American Farmer, without 
extra charge. Every old subscriber who pays up in full and one year 
in advance is also entitled to a year's subscription to the Farmer. 

YOl ARE INVITED TO TAKE IMMEDIATE ADVANTAGE OF THIS OFFER 

ADDRESS: 

I The American Bee=Keeper | 

Falconer, New York 



THE ONLY GERMAN AGRICULTIRAL MONTH- 
LY IN THE LNITED STATES Jt^^j^^^Ji^ 

FARM UND HAUS 

The most carefully edited German 
Agricultural journal. It is brimful of 
practical information and useful hints 
for the up-to-date farmer; devoted to 
stock raising, general farming, garden- 
ing, poultry, bee-keeping, etc., and con- 
tains a department for the household, 
which many find valuable. Another de- 
partment giving valuable receipts and 
remedies called "Hasarzt," in fact every 
number contains articles of real prac- 
tical use. 

Price only 35 CENTS per year. Sam- 
ple copy free. 

Send subscriptions to, 

FARM UND HAUS 

& tf. BLUFFTON, OHIO. 



Are You Looking for a Home? 

No former should think of buy- 
ing land before seeing a copy of 
THE FARM AND REAL ESTATE 
JOURNAL. It cfntoins the largemt 
list of lands for sale of any paper 
published in Iowa. Reaches 30,- 
000 readers each issue, and ia one 
of the best advertising mediums to 
reach the farmers and the Home- 
Seekers that you can advertise in. 
For 75c vee v^ill mail you the Jour- 
nal for 1 year, or for ten cents in 
silver or stamps vpe will send you 
the Journal 2 months on trial. 
Address, 

Farm and Real Estate Journal, 
TRAER, TAMA CO., IOWA. 
10-tf. 



Attica Lithia Springs Hotel 

Lithia-Sulpbur Water aud Mud Baths 
Nature's Own Great Cure for 

...RHEUMATISM.... 

and Kindred Diseases, such as Liver 
and Kidney Complaints, Skin and 
Blood Biseases, Constipation, Nervous 
Prostration, etc. 

A new aud up-to-date hotel. Large, airy, 
light and finely furnished rooms, with Steam 
Heat, iSlectrio Lights, Hot and Cold Water 
on each floor. Rates including Room, Board. 
Mud Baths, Lithia-Sulphur Water Baths and 
Med AtteudHnce (noextras) J3.)) aud 
$3.00 a dav, according to room. 

WRITE FOR BOOKLET. 

Address Box 3, 

tf Lithia Springs Hotel, Attica, lad. 



Strawberries. 

Young, healthy, fresh, vigor- 
ous stock in prime conditioi? for 
spring planting. 

All 

Leading 
Varieties 

wiue lor prices and terms. 
MONROE STRAWBERRY CO., 

Box 66 MONROE, MICH. 



Headquarters for Bee-Suppiies 

ROOT'S GOODS AT ROOT'S FACTORY PRICES. 

Complete stock for 1904 now on hand. Freight rates from Cincinnati are 
the lowest. Prompt service is what I practice. Satisfaction guaranteed. 
Langstroth Portico Hives and Standard Honey-Jars at lowest prices. 

You will save money buying from me. Catalog mailed free. Send for 
same. 

Book orders for Golden Italians, Red Clover and Carniolan Queens; for 
prices refer to my catalog. 

C. H. V^. WEBER, 



Ofllce and Salesrooms 2146-48 Central Ave. 
Warehouses— Freeman and Central Aves. 



CiNCINNATI, OHIO. 



La Compania 
Manufacturera Americana 

ofrecc los mas reducidos prccios en to- 
da clasc de articulos para Apicultorcs. 
Nuestra Fabrica cs una de las mas 
grandes y mas antiguas de America. 
Especialidad en Colmenas, Ahumadores 
para Colmenas, Extractores, etc. In 
ventores y perfeccionadores de muchos 
articulos de suma utilidad en la Apicul- 
tura. Enviamos gratis nuestro catalogo 
y precios a quienes lo soliciten. Dirija- 
nse a. 

THE AMERICAN MFG. CO., 

Jamestown, N. Y., E. U. A. 




The only strictly cigricultural 
paper published in this btate. The 
only agricultural paper published 
every week. It goes to every post 
office in State of Tennessee and to 
many offices in Kentucky, Alabama, 
Georgia, Mississippi, Arkansas, 
Texas, Florida and Louisiana. It 
is the official organ of the Agricul- 
tural Department of Tennessee and 
Live Stock Commission. Subscrip- 
tion $1 per year in advance. 

Tennessee Farmer Pub. Co., 
etf Nashville, Tenn. 



FIGHTING ROOSTERS 

Mystify and amuse your 
f rieuds, These are two gen- 1 
nine game roosters with 1 
feathers, they fight to a 
finish, and are always ready 
to fight. The secret of their 
movements is only known to 
the operator. Will last a life- /i! 
time. 10c per pair, 3 for 2&C, 
postpaid. Address 

ZENO SUPPLY COMPANY 




Indianapolis 



BOX J. 



Indiana 



The Kecord. 

The Oldest and Leading Belgian 
Hare Journal of America and 
England. 

R. J. FiNLEY, Editor and Publisher, 

The only journal having 
an English Belgian Hare 
Department. 

One copy worth the yearly 
subscription. 

If interestea, aon t fail to 
send 2-cent stamp for sample . 
copy at once. Address, 

R. J. FINLEY, 

^^- MACON , MO. 



When writing to advertiser mention 
The American Bee-Keeper. 



To SubterlberB of 
THE AMERICAN BEE=KEEPER 

And Oth«fni! 

Until Further Notice 

We Will Send The 

Country 
Journal 

to Any addrese in the U. 8. A., on* 
year for 10 cents, prorldlng you 
mention American Bee-Keeper. 
■^ The Country Journal treats on 
5 Farm, Orchard and Garden, Poul- 
i? try and Fashion. It's the best pa- 
I per printed for the price. 
4 Address, 

] The Country Journal, 

Allentown, Pa. 

2tf 



If our special offer in this number 
interests you, write today and enclose 
subscription. 



Be sure that each colony has a good 
fertile queen. 



Sunshine 



is gaining ad- 
miration as a 
jiojmlar litera- 

rv faiiiilv 

■~""™™™™"~^~"^"~" MAGAZINE. 
It entertains its readers witli good short stor- 
ies, sketches and poems by the most famous 
authors of the day and is a magazine of supe- 
rior merit. 

It is a welcome visitor in every home. 

Price 25 cents a year. 

We wish to haye our magazine in your 
vicinity and as a special offer for new readers 
we will send you 

Sunshine for 1 Year for lOc. 

Think of it. less than one cent a copy. Can't 
you act as our agent ? 

ADD. MAYES PUB. CO., 
LOUISVILLE, = KENTUCKY. 

THE SOUTHERN FilER, 

ATHENS, GA. 



Subscription, .... 50 Cents a Year. 



Published tbe First of Every Month 

and Circulates in £very 

Southern State. 



ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLI- 
CATION. 



50 YEARS' 
EXPERIENCE 




Trade Mahks 

Designs 

Copyrights &.c. 

Anyone sending a sketch and description may 
quickly ascertain our opinion froe whether an 
invention is probably patentable. Communica- 
tions strictly confidential. Handbook on Patents 
sent tree. Oldest asiency for securing patents. 

Patents taken throuprh Munn & Co. receive 
tpeciat notice, without ch.irgc. in the 



A handsomely illustrated weekly. Largest cir- 
culation of any scientific journal. Terms, $3 a 
year : four months, ?1. Sold ty all newsdealers. 

&Co.3^^«^°^''*^^' New York 

Branch Office. S?-"; F Ht.. Washington, B. C. 



National Bee<-Keepers' Association, 

The largest bee-keepers' society in the 
world . 

Organized to protect and promote the 
interests of its members. 

Mcfflbership Pee, $1.00 a Year. 

N.E. PRANCE, Platteville, Wis.. 

General Manager and Treasurer. 



Clubbing Offers 

Here is a Sample: 

Modern Farmer $ .50 

Western Fruit Grower 50 

Poultry Gazette 25 

Gleanings in Bee Culture 1.00 

$2.25 
All One Year for only $1.00. 

Write for others just as good, or bet- 
ter. 

SAMPLE FREE. 

New subscribers can have the Amer- 
can Bee .Journal in place of Gleanings, 
if they wish, or all for $1.60. Renew- 
als to A. B. .T. add 40c. more. 

MODERN FARMER, 

The Clean Farm Paper 
St. Joseph, Mo. 



Beeswax 
Wanted 



We will pay 29 cents cash or 31 cents 
in goods for good quality of Beeswax, 
freight paid to Falconer, N. Y. If you 
have any, ship it to us at once. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 
THE W. T. FALCONER MFG. CO. 



When writiuK' to advertisers mention 
Tlie American Bee-Keeper. 



T^ee Supplies from Lewis 

They are the finest. 
THOUSANDS OF BEE HIVES, 
MILLIONS OF SECTIONS, 

Ready for Promnt Shipment. 

G. B. Lewis Co.^^ST!:a. 

I-:ASTERN agencies. C. M. Scott & 
Co., 1004 East Washington St., Indianapolis, 
Ind. 

THE FRED W. MUTH CO.. 
Front and Walnut Sts., 
CINCINNATI. OHIO. 

Catalogue Free. tf. 



Out Specialty for over 30 Years has been the Manufacture of all Kinds 




Including Bee-Hives and Frames, Section Honey-Boxes, 
Shipping-Cases, Honey and Wax Extractors, Bee-Smokers, 
Bee-Comb Foundation, Comb-Foundation Machines, Comb- 
Foundation Fasteners. Perforated Queen-Excluders, etc. 



In fact, a full line of every tiling required by bee-keepers. T 
superior excellence of these goods is such that they have a worl 
wide reputation, and dealers handling them generally say: 



<tf 



Catalog for 1904. 93d Edition.— Our Catalog 
full of valuable information, and is ready for mailmg. Apply 
once to the nearest agent or branch house, or to the home ofhce. \ 
send it free to all applicants. 

Gleanings in Bee C\iltiire.— If you will rivc 
the names and addresses of ten or more bee-keepers we will seud 3; 
in addition, if you request it, our 44-page semi-monthly jourr 
Gleanings in Bee Culture, for 3 months free. Price $1.00 per ye 



Agents.^ Because of the great demand for Root's G( 
we have established agencies all over the United States and m m^ 
foreip-n countries. Some of the more important are mentioned bel 



M. II limit Si. Son, Bell Branch. Wayne Co., Mich 
Geo. K. Hilton, Fremont, Newaygo Co., Mich. 
C. H. W. Weber, 2146 Central Av.. Cincinnati, O. 



Missouri. 



Prothero & Arnold, DuBois, Clearfield Co., Pa. 
K. H. Farmer, 182 Friend Street, Bo.ston, Mass. 
Carl F. Buck, Augusta, Butler Co., Kansas. 
Griggs Brothers, Toledo, Ohio. 
X,. A. Watkins Mdse. Co., Denver, Colorado. 
A. F. McAdams, Columbus Grove, Ohio. 
K Grainger & Co., Toronto, Ont. 
Nelson Bros. Fruit Co., Delta, Colo. 



Walter S. Ponder, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Vickery P.ros., Evan.sville, Ind. 
Joseph Nysewander, I)es Moines, Iowa. 
John Nebel & Son, High Hill, Montg. Co 
Rawlings Implement Co., Baltimore, Md. 

In addition to the above mentioned we have hundreds of ott 
who handle our goods in large or small lots, some of them handl 
specialties only, like Root's Cowan Extractor, Root's Weed Cc 
Foundation, etc. When you want standard Bee Supplies place y 
order with any of the agents or branch houses mentioned on this pi 
or write our home office for name of agent nearest you. 



M.a.in Office and ^WorRs, Medina, OS^io, U. S. A, 



CHICAGO, ILL , 144 Kast Rrie Street. 
PHILADELPHIA, PA., lo Vine Street. 
SYRACUSE, N. Y. 
MECHANIC FALLa, ME. 



>B R A N C H £ S' 



ST PAUL MINN., 1024 Miss. St. 
SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS, 4.^8 W. Houston S 
WASHINGTON, D. C I TOO Md. Av., S. W. 
HAVANA, CUBA, San Ignacio 17. 




Entered at the Postoffice, Fort Pierce, Fla.. as second-class mail matter 



kSALZERS 
^ FARM 
SEED NOVELTIES 



Salzer's National Oats. 

Most prolific Oats on earth. The 
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington, Bays: "Salzer's Oats are the 
best out of over four hundred sorts 
tested by us." This grand Oat 
yielded In Wisconsin 156 bu., Ohio 
187 bu., Michigan 231 bu., Missouri 
255 bu. , and North Dakota 310 bu. per 
acre, and will positively do as well by 
you. Try It, sir, and be convinced. 

A Feiv Sworn to Yields. 

Salzer'i Beardless Barky, 121 bu. per A. 
Salzer's Houiekuilder Corn, 301 bo. peri. 
Salzer's Big Four Oats, 250 bo. per A. 
Salzer's New National Oats, 310 bu. peri. 
Salter's Potatoes. 736 bu. per A. 
Salzer's Onions, 1,000 bo. per A. 
All of our Farm and A'^egetAble Seeds are 
I)edigree stock, bred right up to big yields. 

Salzer's Speltz (Enuner). 

Greatest cereal wonder of the age. It is 
not corn nor wheat, nor rye, nor barley, nor 
oats, but a golden combination of them all, 
yielding 80 bu. of grain and 4 tons of rich 
straw hay per acre. Greatest stock food on 
earth. Does well everywhere. 

Salzer's Million Dollar Grass. 

Most talked of grass on earth. Editors and 
College Professors and Agricultural Lecturers 
praise it witliout stint; yields 14 tons of rich 
nay and lots of pasture besides, per acre. 

Salzer's Teoslnte. 

Salzer's Teosiiite produces 113 rich, juicy, 
sweet, leafy eincks from one kernel of seed, 14 
feet higli in 90 days; yielding fully 80 
tons of green fodder per acre, doing 
well everywhere, Kast, SVest, South 
or Nortlx. 

Grasses and Clovers. 

Only large growers of grasses and 
clovers for seed in America. 
Operate over 5,(KX) acres. Our 
seeds are warranted. We make 
a great specialty of Grasses and 
Clovers, Fodder Plants, Com, Po- 
tatoes, Onions, Cabbage, and all , 
sorts of Vegetable Seeds. 



For 10c in Stamps 

and the name of this paper, we 
will send you a lot of farm 
seed samples, including some 
of above, together with our 
mammoth 14o p.ige illus- 
trated catalogue, for 
hut 10c in postage 
stamps. 

Send for same 
to-day. 



JOHN A.SALZER SEED CO. 

LA CROSSE. WIS. 



We 



It 



Druggists Who Sell 

Dr. Miles' Nervine 

Agree, If It Fails, 

To R efund Cost. 

Of course we reimburse the druggist. 

You know him, and trust him. 

Dr. Miles' Nervine is medicine for youi 
nerves. 

It cures diseases of the internal or- 
gans, by giving tone to the nerves which 
make these organs work. 

It is a novel theory — not of anatomy, 
but of treatment; first discovered by 
Dr. Miles, and since made use of by 
many wide-awake physicians, who ap- 
preciate its value in treating the sick. 

If you are sick, we offer you a way to 
be made well — Dr. Miles' Nervine. 

This medicine is a scientific cure for 
nerve disorders, such as Neuralgia, 
Headache, Loss of Memory, Sleepless- 
ness, Spasms, Backache, St. Vitus' 
Dance, Epilepsy or Fits, Nervous Pros- 
tration, etc. 

Ey toning up the nerves. Dr. Miles' 
Restorative Nervine will also cure those 
diseases of the internal organs due to 
a disordered nervous system. 

Gome of these are: "^ Indigestion, Bil- 
ious Headache, Kidney Trouble, Chronic 
Constipation, Dropsy, Catarrh, Rheuma- 
tism, etc. 

"My brother had nervous prostration, 
and was not expected to live. I pre- 
vailed upon him to try Dr. Miles' 
Restorative Nervine, and now he has 
fully recovered. You remember I wrote 
you how it saved my life a few years 
ago, wlien I had nervous trouble. I 
preach its merits to everyone." — REV. 
M. D. MYERS, CorrectJonville. Iowa. 

F75"r»Tji Write us and we will mail 
j\i±jj!i you a Free Trial Package of 
Dr. Miles' Anti-Pain Pills, the New, 
Scientific Rem<jkdy for Pain. Also Symp- 
tom Blank for our Specialist to diagnose 
your case and tell you whnt is wrong 
and how to right it, Absolutely Free. 
Address: DR. MILES MEDICAL CO., 
LABORATORIES, ELKHART, IND. 



"We 1-ave an awfu! appetite for orders." 

'i-he W. ,T. FALCf^NER MFG. CO. 

"ec-keepers' Supplies Jamestown, N. Y, 

Send us your name and address for a cata- 
'ogue. 



The subscription price of the ROCKY 
MOUNTAIN BEE JOURNAL is 50 cents. 
We will send it with THE BEE-KEEPEK 
one year for only 1^ cents. 



Bee Hives 
Sections 

EVERYTHING 



THAT IS USED BY BEE-KEEPERS CAN BE 
PROCURED OF US AS CHEAPLY AS ANY- 
W'HERE, AND WE KNOW. 

Our Goods are Superior 

ROTH IN MATERIALS AND WORKMAN- 
SHIP TO THOSE OF ANY COMPETITOR. 

One Trial Will Convince You 

THAT'S ALL WE ASK. WE KNOW YOU 
WILL NEVER BUY OF ANYBODY ELSE. 

Our new illustrated catalog and price list is now 
ready. Send for one on a postal card. 



The W. T. 
FALCONER MANFG. CO., 

JAMESTONA/N, N. Y. 



IF YOU S 

WANT TO GROW ffi 

Vegetables, Fruits and Farm ^ 
Products in Florida subscribe ^ 
for the FLORIDA AGRICUL= @ 
JURIST. Sample copy sent ^ 
on application. (^ 



E.O. Painter Pub. Co. 

JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA. 



DO YOUR HEN^ PAY? 
This woman understands 
her business, 10 Dozen 
Eggs at 36c. per dozen 
irom 180 hens in 
one day. 




BARNES' 

Foot Power MacMnery, 

This cut represents our 
Combined Machine, which 
is the best machine made 
for use in the construction 
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Hi 



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Catalog for the Asking. L 

1^ 

F. H. Farmer, 182 Friend St., ^ 



'II 

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Boston, Mass. 

up First Flight. 




P ROVIDENCE n UEENS 
ROYE THEIR yOALITlES 

TO BE 

UNEXCELLED "" 

Head yonr colonies with them. 
Use them to invigorate your stock. 
They will increase your proifits. 
Produced by many years of careful 
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on request. 

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P. O.Box 1113. Providence, R. I. 

Put Your Trust in Providence Queens 



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Good title. Time payments. Address for de- 
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Smoke EDgine, 4 inch stove, none too largt, sent 
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iM inch 1.10 

Knife, 80 cents. 3 inch i.OO 

2^ inch 90 

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wire brood frames. 

Circulars and samples free. 

J. VAN DEUSEN S SONS, 

Sole Manufacturers 
Montgomery Co., Sprout Brook, N. Y. 



I. J. STRINGHAM, 

105 Park Place, 
NEW YORK . 
Furnishes everything a bee-keeper uses. We endeavor to have 
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Apiaries. Glen Cove, L. I. Catalog free. 



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(We're Successors to Nobody, nor Nobody's Successors to Us.) 
51 WALNUT STREET CINCINNATI, OHIO 



3 and 5=Banded Italian 
and Carniolan Queens. 

Say friends, you who have support- 
ed us during the past season, we 
desire to express our thanks for 
your patronage in the past, and 
respectfully solicit a continuance of 
your valued favors through the sea- 
son of 1904. 

Our queens now stand upon their 
merits and former record. We are 
preparing for next season, and seek- 
ing the patronage of large apiarists 
and dealers. We do not claim that 
our queens are superior to all oth- 
ers, but that they are as good as 
the best. We will furnish from one 
to a thousand at the following 
prices: '""''sted of either race, $1; 
one unte d, 75c., 5 for $3.25, 10 
for $«, 15 for $8.25, 25 for $12.50, 50 
for $23.50. 100 for $45. 
For descriptive circulars address, 

JOHN W. PHARR, Prop., 

New Century Queen Rearing Co., Ber- 
clair, Goliad Co., Texas. 



American 




BEE 



Journal 



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— Sample Free. 

O" All about Bees and their 

profitable care. Best writers. 

Oldest bee paper; illustrated. 

Departments fur beg-inners 

and for women bee-keepers. 

Address, 

QEGRQE W. YORK & 60. 

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J Subscription Agencies. C 

2 Subscriptions for the Ameri- ^ 

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1 :ii. S 



5 The Fred W. Muth Company, 

^ 51 Walnut St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

M T. Phillips, Johnsonvllle, N. Y. 

S John W. Pharr, Berclair, Tex. 

§ W. O. Victor, Wharton, Texas. 

CJ Miss S. Swan, Port Burwell, 

|J Ontario. 

3 G. A. Nunez, Stann Creek, 

3 British Honduras. 

1 Walter T. Mills, Burnham, N. © 
•5 Rochestei*, Kent Co., Ivan Houae, 5 
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2 anui, New Zealand. * S 
I H. H. Robinson, Independencia © 
^ 16, Matanzas, Cuba. £ 



0<i5f500©©9<?©^©©WOO®00 ©©©GO©! 




Vol. XIV 



APRIL, 1904. 



No. 4 



An April Morning. 



THIS moniiug when I woke I heard 
The low, ,sweet chatter of a bird 
Beside my window, where so long 
I've missed the music of the song 
That filled last summer with delight, 
And saw a sudden, arrowy flight — 
A flash of blue that soars and sings — 
A bit of heaven itself on wings. 

"The bluebird has come back!" I cried. 
And flung the window open wide. 
I leaned across the mossy sill. 
And heard the laughing little rill 
That comes but once a year, and stays 
Through the brief round of April days, 
Then, when its banks with blooms are bright, 
It seems to vanish in a night. 

The old spring gladness filled th'fe air. 
I breathed it, felt it everywhere. 
How blue the sky was! and a tint 
Of color that was just a hint 
Of "green things growing" greeted me 
Along the willows by the lea, 
And I could feel, and almost hear. 
The quickened pulses of the year. 

A warm south wind that seemed a draught 

Of wine the sweetest ever quaffed 

Blew round me, bringing balmy smells 

That made me dream of pimpernels. 

And arbutus blooms in pinewood nooks. 

And gay wake-robins by the brooks, 

Whose heart with spring's swift joy was stirred. 

And I was happy as the bird 

— Eben B. Rexford in Home and Flowers. 



68 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



April, 



PRINCE OF AMERICAN BEE- 
KEEPERS. 



He Tells American Bee-Keeper Readers Something 
of His Early Career, Failures, Obstacles and 
Successes. 

By W. L. Coggshall. 

FIRST, I liked houey and had a 
fondness for insects, especially 
bees. When but 10 years old — 
1862 — we got our mail but once 
a week, and I, being the young- 
est, was sent for it, a mile dis- 
tnat to a neighbor's usually on 
Sunday morning. This "neighbor," 
Mr. Metzgar, had bees; and I much 
preferred seeing the bees swarin to 
going to church, especially as in war 
times the sermons lasted nearly one 
and a half hours, and then Sunday 
school, which augmented the interest 
in bees on Sunday. Well do 1 remem- 
ber the arguments my mother used to 
hold with me because I failed to goi 
home earlier with the mail on Sunday 
morning; as waiting for me caused 
them to be late for church. If I re- 
member correctly, they did not always 
wait, and this was quite agreeable to 
myself. 

Well, the outcome was that father 
got a "skep" of bees so that I might 
see them swarm at home; and they 
did swarm — up in the spare room where 
they were put for winter — one warm 
day in March. Oh, how I did mourn 
the loss of those bees. 

The next year my grandfather gave 
D. H., my older brother, one "skep," 
and how well I remember splitting 
elder stalks and cleaning out the pith 
and slipping it into the hives to catch 
the worms of the moth-miller, which 
destroys so many bees. They cast a 
big swarm, and the next year D. H. 
bought Kidder's book on bees, as well 
as a farm right to make his patent 
hive. 

In 1866 I bought a "skep" for $5.00. 
It cast three swarms, and I got $8.00 
worth of honey. The next year the 
firm of coggshall Bros, was formed. 
The capital stock was not in the thous- 
ands. We had about thirty colonies in 
Kidder and box-hives. These were put 
into the cellar to winter, but in the 
spring were taken out nearly all dead. 
This was a serious loss to us, but we 
were not entirely discouraged, and 
soon bought more bees; so that in 



1S68 we had eighty colonies. That 
winter we aauled in logs and with 
horse-power and u saw-table built 
by my brother, we cut and made 150 
Langstroth hives. Those hives are in 
use today. Tney were painted two 
coats of paint. Rignt nere I beg to 
say that I honestly think that a square 
joint is better than either a miter or 
dovetail, for durability — and they are 
certainly cheaper. The severe winter 
of 1869-70 resulted in the loss of our 
bees; but we stocked up, and by 1871 
we again had eighty colonies. 

My brother made an extractor, using 
the gearing of an apple-paring machine 
in its construction. I'his was the first 
extractor in the country. Our crop of 
3,000 pounds of extracted honey was 
sold to C. O. Parrine at 12 1-2 to 15 
cents a pound, wholesale. Parrine, it 
will be remembered, is the man who 
tried the floating apiary on the Missis- 
sippi river; and I want to say right 
here that this plan will be successfully 
consummated at no very distant date. 
It will be made a success, and my own 
hands itch to assist in carrying on the 
scheme. 

In 1872 we had another severe win- 
ter, which resulted in tne loss of one- 
half of our bees. In 1873 we sold our 
crop of extracted honey to Mr. Par- 
rine at 17 cents a pound. 

In 1876 the firm of Coggshall Bro- 
thers dissolved, and I did not get 
stocked up again until the season of 
1877. In the spring or 1878 I received 
a check in payment for noney of $341.- 
70. That was the check that set me 
up in the bee business. I commenced 
to buy bees. In 1880 I had 125 col- 
onies. The winter of 1880-81 was an- 
other hard one' — the mei-cury being 
below zero for three weeks or .January 
— and 70 per cent, of the bees out of 
doors were lost. Then I stocked up, 
and the year of 1882 was the best I 
have ever known for bees. My aver- 
age being 200 pounds of honey per col- 
ony, one-fourth box or section honey 
which I sold at 18 to 20 cents; and the 
extracted at 8 to 10 cents per pound, 
wholesale. 

Since that time I have continued to 
buy bees wherever I could do so to 
advantage; and here I might state that, 
with four exceptions, every one of my 
twenty apiaries represents some one 
M'ho has become discouraged at bee- 
keeping. Up to 1894 I invariably made 




D. H. Ck)ggshall. 



W. L. Cosssball. 



ro 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



April, 



the bees pay for themselves the first 
year; but since that time prices of 
honey have gone down, without a cor- 
responding decline in price of bees, 
and I have not been able to do so. 
Competition is inci'easing and yields 
growing lighter. 

My first out-apiaries were started in 
1879, at M. B. Miller's place, two and 
one-half miles away. At this writing 
I have them scattered at distances 
varying from four to twenty-nine miles, 
driving from here to look after them. 

I went into winter quarters this win- 
ter with 1965 colonies in New York. 
My other apiaries, situated elsewhere, 
make the aggregate at this time. 3800 
colonies. Mj^ brother, D. H., now has 
650 colonies. 

Groton, N. Y., March 4, 1904. 

P. S. — I have five apiaries with dif- 
ferent sized frames — bought from dif- 
ferent bee-keepers Different fraines 
rquire different manipulation, and that 
is about all the difference I see in dif- 
ferent hives. The first requisite to suc- 
cess is the honey source; .second, the 
man, and appliances third. Most of 
my bees are on the original Langs- 
troth frame — the frame that Mr. L. 
first presented in his book — nine inches 
in the clear. I have six or eight api- 
aries in ten-fram simplicity hives, 
but prefer the larger size and eight 
frames, as there is .iust as much comb 
surface in the latter. Though this hive 
v.'as not patented it was made so com- 
plicated that no ordinaiT v-arpentei- 
could make the mitered .loints. T have 
never bought but one such hive from 
the factory. W. E. C. 



NEW^ ZEALAND. 



Aparian Conditions in the Fair Isles Are Not 
Satisfactory. 

■By G. J. S. Small. 

IN BEING allowed the privilege of 
addressing the bee-keeping com- 
munit.v of America, through the 
columns of the American Bee-Iveeper. 
I will endeavor to give an outline of 
how the industry stands a^t the pres- 
ent day. - ""'■^ 

In order that my readers will bo 
able to follow and understand my 
writings, I will ask them to thorough- 
ly understand the map of Ncav Zea- 
land, by which they will see '^hat the 



countiy is divided into two islands 
(North and South), and I may here say 
that from the North Shore to the South 
Shore we have temperatures ranging 
from forty-five degrees in the South 
to 90 degrees in the North, dunng sum- 
mer. 

That being so, we have a most fav- 
ored country for bees. The bee-keep- 
er can choose what temperature he 
prefers, the kind of fiora he would like 
his bees to gather honej^ from— 
whether from the native bush, white 
clover or both— with rainfalls and 
fiora to add to one of the largest hon- 
ey-producing countries of its kind in 
the world. 

Then comes the question, "What 
makes New Zealand produce so little 
honey? AVhat keeps the prices down?" 
I will not treat on the last question in 
these notes, leaving that for a proper 
and separate threshing out; but I in- 
tend to represent before you facts that 
are too true to be passed by with a 
smile, and hope that after reading 
them my readers will not jump to the 
conclusion that this country is no good 
for bees. But it is not the bees. It 
is the government. We have no State 
associations, like other countnes. We 
have (with one exception) \o bee- 
keepers' associations to note our 
rights, as there should be. We have no 
bee jounaals, no way of advising and 
teaching the "beginner" as to how he 
should mana^ his apiary. Our gov- 
ernment helps poultry farming, fruit 
growing, vine culture and other indus- 
tries, yet bee culture receives no aid 
from the government, though equally 
worthy and important; and since its 
introduction, in 1843. it has had an up- 
hill struggle, making but little ad- 
vancement during the past twenty or 
thirty years. Look back twenty years 
on the past history of the honey bee of 
our colony, and there we see the bee 
lirospering. There were thousands of 
acres of native bush upon whose fiora 
the bees in their wild state sucked the 
sweet nectar, thus laying up large 
stores for winter use in the hollows of 
trees. There did the early settler see 
during the summer months dozens of 
sw%'irms pass over his head man.v of 
which he succeeded in catching; there 
was to be seen in the back yard and 
orchard of those early fathers some 
ten. fifteen, twenty, fifty and eightj 
hives of bees in all kinds of boxes, gir 



l'J04. 



11 IK AMERICAN BE^MvEF^PEU. 



cases, and places Avhere it was possi- 
ble to rake up a covering for the bees 
and from which large returns of both 
cash and honey resulted. 

But what do we see nowV The 
scene has changed, and changed for 
the worse. If the present bee-keping 
community is not awakened to a sense 
of their duty and realize the fact that 
our industry is sleeping, the hopes of 
tiie few bee-keepers wlio still light on 
against many obstacles will have their 
hojies ci'ush,'ed to the ground, from 
which they will never rise. I say the 
scene is cnanged. Here we see the 
land Avhich once was a dark, dense for- 
est, turned to grassy pastures, upon 
which white clover blooms to its utter 
best; but where are the bees, those 
pounds of honey? In many districts 
they have passed out, Availe b\it a few^ 
hives are scattered here and there, 
while very few who keep them 
know that thir hives consist of 
a queen, drones and workers. They 
want the honey from their hives, 
and to secure it means death to 
the bees, xhe brimstone pit is dug, 
and in this way hundi-eds of colonies 
of bees ai'e killed annually, thus de- 
creasing the bees of this country; and 
people ask why the industry is not a 
more prominent one 

Reader, I say this sort of thing must 
be stopped, the modern appliances in- 
troduced; those candle, soap and 
gin cases must be abolished, and a rev- 
olution take place in the industry. Hun- 
dreds in our country today live in per- 
fect ignorance of the Langstroth hive. 
Bee journals they have not seen. The 
good results that follow this industi->' 
they know not, ajid if this state of 
things exists as at present, the bee m- 
dusti'y of this country will in anothei' 
fifty years be a thing of the past. Have 
we not a way Oj. placing, within the 
reach of every person who keeps his 
two or three hives or his .fifty hives, a 
way that will bring him in touch with 
the leniding bee journals, the modern 
system of bee farming, and pave the 
way to success for him? I say that 
way lies through unity. 

The editor, in his intei'esting jour- 
nal, points out my wail for associa- 
tions, for the furthering of the indus- 
try and raising of low price?,; and it 
is union that will do it. rii,. ii,si;ocia- 
tions of other counti-ies linve helper! 
the industry, and it will do the same 



here. If associations were formed, 
their meetings would be kept before 
the public. They would have as a 
member he who carries the years of 
an experienced bee-master, as well as 
those who are entering into tne trade 
and seeking advice. They would ob- 
1a in practical lessons on the art of 
managing a modern apiaiy. they 
would become subscribers to bee jour- 
nals, and so keep themselves posted 
;u the now-a-day doings of other coun- 
tries. They would 1)e helping to place 
the industry on a level with other 
countries. 

Marton, New Zealand, Oct., 1903. 

HONEY COMB. 



Nature and Art Brought Into Comparison---Com- 

mercial Foundation vs. Natural. 

By W. W. McNeal. 

OXK of the prime beauties of hou- 
eycoml), wholly constructed by 
the bees, is the wonderfully su- 
perior supjiorting power. Erail and del- 
icate to the eye as the flowers from 
whence its burden of delicious sweet- 
ness is derived, 'twould seem to be 
inadequate to the purjioses for which 
it was made. Delightfully fragrant, 
crisp to perfection and white as the 
driven snow; yet these very essential 
qualities are not more desirable than 
that of perfect freedom from all ten- 
dency to sag. No amount of honey the 
bees can ever store in it will cause it to 
yield one particle. An overheated con- 
dition of the hive will cause the comb 
to melt down, or a sudden jarring of 
the hive may breaiv the comb in two; 
but it will not sag. 

In the design of honeycomb there is 
a radical departure from the principle 
of construction employed in building 
a uouse, wherein a perfectly upright 
position of the walls gives the greatest 
support to the sti'ucture ul)tainable. 
Honeycomb beng a susi)euded struc- 
ture, the cell Avails must necessarily 
bp of such form or shape that 
will give substantial support AA'hile 
overcoming their o\ami tendency to elon- 
gate, there must be an equal distribu- 
tion of the Aveight of its lading, not 
permitting any part or the comb 
being taxed beyond endurance. 
The embodiment of that feature — 
which Ave do find to exist in honey- 
comb — makes the sjscem a A'erv fit- 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



April, 



ting one for the purposes of its crea- 
tion. It is, therefore, a practical sys- 
tem, too, and one that honey producers 
cannot well afford to ignore in the use 
of comb foundation. Taken in any 
oilier way, tae power of the comb to 
resist the specific gravity of honey is 
greatly lessened. 

There is not a vertical wall in the 
make-up of honeycomb, even the sep- 
tum that forms the bottom of the cells 
is shaped to assist in overcoming the 
tendency tn sag. The effect of ad.iust- 
ing the conil) in all its parts so that 
each wall will contribute in an equal 
manner to the support of its neighbor, 
makes the structure exceedingly 
strong, and enables it to remain firm 
and true under all conditions of nat- 
ural usage. Now, in the manu- 
facture of comb foundation, or 
rather, in the manner of using it, 
one-third of the cell walls are ver- 
tical walls, thus breaking the sym- 
metry of the comb and resulting in an 
abnormal lengthening of those walls. 
By losing their tiiie relationship with 
the surrounding walls, chey no longer 
possess the strength of the union of 
all the walls, but that of a dividea 
structure. The supporting power of 
the comb is, therefore, no greater than 
that represented by the vertical walls, 
for nothing is stronger than its weak- 
est part. The fact of the comb being 
suspended in the hive positively for 
bids the use of any plan or mode 
of construction wherein a true vertical 
line or wdll would form any part of 
the comb. If you will get a sheet of 
comb foundation and hold it up before 
you in the manner in which it is cus- 
tomarily used in the comb-frames, and 
then turn it up the other way, you will 
see the difference at once. By revers 
Ing the order of construction as it ex- 
ists in natural honeycomb, the rertlcai 
walls of comb foundation serve best to 
promote any tendency to sag that 
combs built from refined wax m;iy 
have. 

I hardly think that bees ever ar- 
range the size of the worker cells for 
the rearing of drones. Were they 
guilty of that misdemeanor under cer- 
tain conditions, we should expect, at 
least, to see them stick to the regula- 
tion way of rearing their drone-brood 
along the bottom edges of the comb 
and not at the top, where honey is 
supposed to have the right of way. But 



since that feature is conspicuous by its 
absence in hives of natural-buUt 
combs, we conclude that the enlarged 
cells in the upper half of combs built 
from comb foundation are due to defi- 
cient sustaining power of those combs. 
However, bee-keepers would better 
look into this matter fully, and ascer- 
tain, if possible, to what extent the 
sagging of comb lOundation is direct- 
ly attributable to having departed, in 
the manufacture of it, from the true 
ai'chitectural style of honeycomb. 

Commercial comb foundation saves 
the bees much time in buildmg their 
combs, for a tremendous large force of 
them can begin the work of complet- 
ing it, at the same time. This tends to 
increase the yield of honey, but it 
adds nothing to the quality of bonev. 
Ready-drawn combs are even more 
pernicious in that respect, for the 
temptation to store raw or partialh- 
ripened honey in them is, according- 
ly, that much greater to the bees. The 
results are that honey thus obtained 
is not so wholesome, is not so easily 
assimilated by the human s.ysteni, and 
it will more surely i.,ianuiaie. 'the 
natural process of building comb and 
storing it with honey is more tedio'is 
but it is necessarily so that the trnns 
formation of nectar might be com 
plete. 

Yes, Brother John iiard,scrabblp. yov 
are always buttin' in — always war 
bling that ginger-butter-and-'lasses 
melody of yours. Surel.v you must b( 
subject to hallucinations more grievou 
than a nightmare. I am really snr 
prised that you made even a tolerably 
fair guess as to my meaning whereii 
I thought to state, p. 262, that I li:'( 
observed that bees usually accomplish 
ed more, when engaged in comb -build 
ing, if they were free to extend th 
combs downward instead of laterally 
And I'll sandwich in the assertioi 
right here that not only is a dowuwar< 
course more favorable to a vigorou 
prosecution of the work, but the bee 
manifest more enthusiasm in the pei 
formance of it. The picture of yr 
and the "purps" is good; it is real cut 
of you all. But I don't just like th 
combination, Bro. John, for it sorte|! 
instills into one's mind a suspicion tha 
a man who is willin' to be caught wit 
a bee-hive under one arm and a doH 
under the other, is hunting trouble. 

Now, in all sobriety, Bro. John. 



l'J()4. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



flon't believe you ever saw a suow !.)all 
in its native haunts, or you woulfl not 
speak so disparagingly of frames 
cleeper than the Langstroth foi' wiuler- 
Ing bees. The old-fashioned straw 
3k ep and its sister hive, the box hi /o, 
is far superior to our modern hives for 
the puri^ose named. That fact is r.o 
plain that he that runs may read. Give 
the box-hive colonies the same amount 
ot protection that colonies in frauie- 
[ilves usually receive and they will 
make the others look like bumble-beei-' 
Qests in comparison at tue opeiiiug of 
the honey harvest. Yet, I would not 
persuade anyone against his will in 
this matter. I merely wish to point 
out to the reader what I believe to be 
the surest and cheapest way of se- 
curing workers for the early bloom- 
ing of the flowers. That which has 
stood the test of centuries is no the- 
ory, Deacon, and you will pardon me 
for re-asserting the tuct herein. 

If any of the advocates or shallow 
hives don't know how to proceed with 
the management of a big swarm of 
bees in a box-hive at the opening of 
the season, why don't he say so, and 
not berate those hive conditions which 
give him the largest number of neon 
at a time of year they are of the 
greatest possible value to him. The- 
work of "driving" is so easily done 
that swarms may be taken from box- 
hives at the pi'oper time and hived in 
shallow-frame hives wherein may be 
had every facility for rapid dispatch. 
comfort and art in the production of 
honey. The swarms being returned 
to the parent hives at the close of the 
season gives one the best there is in 
both systems — the old and the new. 
However, let not any one dare to prac- 
tice the method who is not willing to 
be frowned upon by the progressive ( ?) 
*■ element in this granu . "d honey pur- 
suit. 
Wheelersburg, Ohio, .Tan. 12, 1904. 



FLIES, NOT B££S, ON CHRYSAN- 
THEMUMS. 



'Yeliow Blood' 



Wholesale methods of matiug queens 
with inexpensive apparatus and re- 
quiring but a few bees, practically as 
eimnclated for several years by 
"Swarthmore." are becoming quite 
general — more so, indeed, than the 
name of the originator of the idea in 
connection with discTissions of the 
principle. 



in Carnlola---Other Interesting 
Facts. 



By Frank Benton. 

THE PLEASING picture on page 
52 of the Bee-Keeper for March, 
1904, caused me to smile at first 
sight, not altogether because the pic- 
ture was pleasing, bnt partly also at 
the mistake of the editor, who had in- 
serted the picture as an illustration of 
"bees working on chrysanthemums." 
The fact of the matter is, that even 
the most indistinct-appearing of the 
insects on the chrysanthemums can be 
readily recognized as the representa- 
tation of a fly and not a bee. There is 
not among the whole lot a single bee! 
The pose of each Insect, the manner 
of spreading its wfngs, the short, 
stumpy abdomen, the head, which 
(viewed from the top) is slightly point- 
ed, the probosis (wnere visible), and 
the truncated lower portion of the 
head (the .laws), as well as, in general, 
the look or habitus of the whole insect, 
stamp it at once as a ily of the fam- 
ily Syrphidae. The picture was shown 
to several entomologists here at the 
Department, some of them workers in 
tue groups involved, and all agreed 
with me in calling the insects flies and 
not bees. They are undoubtedly the 
well-known drone flies, or chi-;\^santhe- 
mum flies, the most common species of 
which is Eristalis tenax, which Baron 
Osten Sacken believes he has identi- 
fied as the so-called Bugonia* of the 
ancients, and which serves to explain 
the supposed oxen-born bees of olden 
times. All will recall the directions 
given by Aristotle, Virgil and other 
classic writers for the piT)ductio"i of 
bees from the carcasses of domestic 
animals. T(he name drone fly was 
given to this insect because of its 
great resemblance to the drones of onr 
honey bees, and it has frequntly also 
been called chrysanthemum fly, be- 
cause it appears late in the seiison and 
visits chrysanthemums freely for the 
pollen furnished by them, the adults 



*"On the so-called Bvigonia of the ancients, 
and its relations to Eristalis tenax." By C. 
R. Osten Sacken. Bullettino della Societa 
Entomologica Italiana, Anno XXV, 1893. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



April, 



being pollen feeders. The fly is credit- 
ed with effecting to a greater or less 
degree the pollination of chrysanthe- 
mum blossoms, and the plan of intro- 
ducing it into countries where chrys 
anthemums do not seed has been seri- 
ously discussed. 

A very curious belief exisis in the 
province of Carniola. Aiistria, con- 
cerning this fly. The old bee-keepei's 
there state that the yellow which 
constantly crops out in breeding those 
bees is due to a cross between these 
flies and the honey bees, the flies tak- 
ing the place of our drones. Some of 
these old bee-keepers have even told 
me that they had this tale from their 
grandfathers! I believe I quoted this 
popidar belief some fifteen or moro 
years ago in the- British Bee Journal, 
when the question of yellow on Garni - 
olan bees was under discussion. Somo 
of tue correspondents of that journn! 
had been disposed to think that tue 
yellow of Carniolans was due to my 
having introfluced eastern blood into 
the province and mixed it in my 
breeding of Carniolans. But this cur- 
rent belief regarding the yellow of 
the race is itself evidence that the 
yellow had existed in the province long 
before my own time or that of the old- 
est people of this generation. Like- 
wise my own explanation of how the 
yellow element came to be mixed in 
with the gray of the Carniolan riice, 
namely; through the introduction ol 
yellow bees from the provinces adja- 
cent to Italy, should have been accept- 
ed as evidence to clear me of the 
above imputation. 

But to return to our flies. A brief 
explanation of how they breed may be 
of interest. The eggs are laid in pu- 
trescent matter and the larvae devel- 
op where liquid or semi-liquid mate- 
rial Is to be found. These larvae are 
known as rat-tailed larvae, from the 
fact that the posteiior segments of the 
body are drawn out to form some- 
thing which resembles a tail, and 
which, in the aquatic life of this lar- 
va, is useful to the developing insect. 
as the breathing spiracles are located 
in this extremity, and the larva can 
therefore obtain air by leaving the 
tip of the tail-like a]ipendange above 
the surface of the liquid while the 
body is imnierserl. The larvae, if ta- 
ken out and dried, present a mouse- 
gray appearance, and look very much 
as would a mouse an inch long crouch- 



ing with its feet folded under its body 
the total length of the larva, includ- 
ing its tail being about equal to this. 
The mottled flies issue the latter part 
of summer or early in autumn jtist as 
the chrysanthemum blossoms are ap 
pearing, and being pollen feeders these' 
flowers the most available for them at 
this season of the year, although they 
likewise visit asters, goldenrod, etc. 
The coppery or golden-yellow blotches 
on the bodies of the adult drone flies, 
together \vith their generally bulky 
form and large heads, give them stich 
a general resemblance to drones of our 
honey bees, that many people have 
been deceived by them. 

Tiiose who were present at the fa- 
mous Utter trial described in Glean- 
ings in Bee Culture for 1900 and 1901, 
will recall the fact that as a witness 
for the National Beekeepers' Asscoia- 
tion I brought with me a small case of 
insects which the lawyers for the de- 
fence passed to the witnesses on the 
side of the prosecution to see whether 
they cotild really identify bees when 
placed side by side with insects of 
simnar appearance, and the same box 
was later passed to me when on the 
witness stand. This case contained 
workers, queens and drones of our 
Apis mellifera, together with some of 
the very drone flies which arc shown 
in the illustration we have under dis- 
cussion, and also some related flies. 
The restilt of their introduction in the 
trial was to east a reasonable doubt 
upon the ability of the prosectition to 
distinguish bees from true flies, and 
therefore their ability to prove i)osi- 
tively that bees were the cause of the 
alleged damage. Thus these same 
drone flies have at least in one in- 
stance been of some use to bee-keep- 
ing interests. 

We can pardon the mistake in re- 
gard to the i)icture on page ■>2 in con- 
sideration of the frequency with which 
these a^ues have been mistaken for ' 
bees, and the fact tnat some of the [ 
skilled bee-keepers who were also wit- 
nesses at the Utter trial, when shown 
(privatelv, before the trial) the case 
of insects described above, did not suc- 
ceed in avoiding mistakes in all in- 
stances in the identiflcation of them 
as bees or tflies. 

United States Depai-tment of Agricul- 
ture. Washington. D. C, March in, 
1904. 



1904. 



rilH AMKKICAN BEK-KBEPEH. 



WAX PRODUCTION IN ARGEN 
TINA. 



Transforming Cheap Honey Into the More Readily 
IVIarketable Commodity. 

Bj Adrian L.etaz. 

CONSIDERING the low price of 
dark extracted lioney and the 
increasing value of the wax, 
tne question of produciiis; wax instead 
of honey has often bt'cn i-aised. The 
last number of the Auiculteur con 
tains a contribution of I'rof. Brunner 
from Coixioba, Argentine Republic, in 
which he describes the method he fol- 
lows for producing wax in a locality 
where the honey is quite dark and dif- 
ficult to sell. 

The hives used have 22 frames. 18x 
11 inches and a super of same num- 
ber of frames, only six inches deep. 

Early in the spring, that is, as soon 
as the weather is quite warm and no 
more cold ^snaps are expected, all the 
frames not having brood are taken out 
and the combs melted. The wax is 
sold and the honey kept for feeding. A 
partition is inserted on each side o." 
the brood, and the frames are cover- 
ed with a cushion, the roof being con- 
structed so as to leave room enough 
for that purpose. 

When the swarming season arrives 
all the queens more tuan two years 
old are replaced by some raised the 
previous season, and wintered in their 
nuclei. Two days later the frames 
taken out arc returned to their hives. 
Only one-half-inch starters are used. 
A large feeder containing about 40 
pounds of honey is placed on each hive, 
and feeding is begun immediately and 
kept up until the fall. As much as 
the bees will take is given, no matter 
whether there is any honey brought in 
from the field or not. Every week the 
combs are cut out from the frames 
and melted and this process continues 
until the fall, when the bees are al- 
lowed to build up for the winter or 
rather the ensuing year. 

About the middle of the summer, 
sooner or later, the l>ees refuse to 
work any more on that principle. Then 
the supers are put on, with only small 
starters in the frames, and (what 
looks singular to me) the bees resume. 
work at once. Prof Brunner has fol- 



lowed this method several years. It 
takes, all told, G8 pounds of honey to 
produce ten pounds of wax. The hon- 
ey there (that is, the dark honey used 
for that purpose), is worth (i cents per 
pound and very hard to sell at that, 
riie wax is worth .54 cents and sells 
very readily. Furthermore, rhe bar- 
rels or cans necessary for the honey 
are quite high. The cost of vranspor- 
tation is considerable, which malves 
quite a difference in favor of the wax, 
since there is less weight. 

So under such conditions Prof. Brun- 
ner finds a large profit in buying dark 
honey from the farmers and turning it 
into wax. 

ADVANTAGE OF STRONG COLO- 
NIES. 

Mr. Pincot, one of the leading 
French apiarists is in favor of keeping 
the colonies as strong as possible, in 
order to get the best crops of honey. 
By that he means keep them strong 
all the time. Not merely pushing 
brood rearing for a few weeks be- 
tween the end of the winter and the 
lieginning of the honey harvest, and 
then reducing brood rearing to save 
a few pounds of honey; but he wants 
brood rearing to be kept up throughout 
the season, even if it is necessary to 
feed. 

He says that the amount of the 
bi'ood raised is in proportion of the 
number of bees present to take care 
of it. no matter how prolific the queen 
might be. and that if the colony is not 
strong right at the openinc of the 
spring, it will never get to its full 
strength because on account of the in- 
sufficient number of bees, the brood 
rearing cannot be carried on to its full 
capacity. 

And he gives facts and figures in 
support of his opinions. One of the 
facts quoted is worth reproducing here. 
One of his neighbors had seven 
swarms within a few days, each 
weighing four or five pounds. Mr. 
Pincot asked liim. as an experiment, 
to hive the last two together. The 
man consented. The swarms hivea 
singly, made their winter provisions 
(about 35 pounds each) but no more. 
The double swarm not only made its 
provisions, but gave 90 pounds of 
siirplus. Furthermore, the following 
year (1903), the double swarm was 



re 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



April. 



stronger than the others, and gave 
much more suii)lus. 

In his own apiary Mr. Pincot will 
not hive a swarm singly unless it 
weighs about 8 pounds. He does that 
with both natural and artificial 
swarms. — From the Rucher Beige. 

Knoxville. Tenn., March 11. 1904. 



RESULTS OF SOME EXPERI- 
MENTS IN WINTERING. 

By Arthur C. Miller. 

I HAVE long contended that the 
successful wintering of bees out of 
doors was dependent on the con- 
dition of the colony rather than on the 
amount of protection afforded. I have 
frequently enunciated the necessary 
conditions as a populous colony of 
young bees and an abundance of stores 
supplied early enough to enable the 
bees to properly ripen them and store 
them as their instincts dictate. I base 
my contentions on the results of many 
years of extensive experiments, cou- 
pled with a painstaking analysis oT 
the results. 

Last fall I started some experiments 
along extreme lines, details of which 
follow. Eighteen colonies were se- 
lected, six of which were rather weak, 
six medium and six strong. Some of 
each type had an abundance of ripe 
.stores, some had many of their combs 
only partly filled and capped. All were 
in unprotected hives, none uf them 
having even the tarred paper wrapping 
which I have advocated. All hives 
were of the divisible brood cliamber 
type, with frames five and one-half 
inches deep. Some colonies had two 
sections, some three and one had four. 
To this latter I wish to call particular 
attention. It was a Bingham type of 
hive, with end bars of frames one- 
fourth inch thick and side panels of 
the same thickness, so the sole i)rotec- 
tion afforded the bees was one-fourth 
inch of pine wood. Also it should be 
noted that the brood nest wa,s cut by 
three of those "fatal, horizontal 
spaces." The colony was a medium 
good one, with plenty of ripe stores. 

All hives had flat covers, some air 
spaced, some with "paper and cloth" 
top. All entrances were wide span, i 
e., 14 inches by one-half inch. The 
winter has been the worst on record, 
and from the most relial)le soui'ces. 



The temperature held low with hard- 
ly a break, dropping at one time to 26 
below zero and keeping close to zero 
for a week at a time. Over five feet of 
snow has fallen, but at no time did it 
drift enough to protect the hives, 
which are on stands a foot above the 
ground. 

Bees flew early in Decemoer and 
not again until early In Maich, and 
then only once for a snort time. 

As to results: All of the weak col- 
onies died, apparently froze to death; 
which is to say, the clusters were too 
small to maintain the necessary heat. 
All the medium colonies succumbed, 
some from starvation, some from diar- 
rhoea. One of the oig colonies also 
went from the latter trouble. Quite 
a proportion of their stores were im- 
sealed and the honey shows signs of 
fermentation. The remaining five col- 
onies are strong and healthy, and with 
^In all but one case — honey enough 
to carry them through until the new 
crop. The colony in the Bingham hive 
is in perfect condition. According to 
most theories concerning bees under 
such conditions they should have died 
a most noisome death. But they 
didn L. 

From the results of the experiments 
I am still more nrmly satisfied that 
my theories, as to what constitute es- 
sentials for safe wintering, are sound 
and are fully supported by facts. But 
I also believe that it is not the best 
of economy to subject bees to such 
extreme conditions for the consump- 
tion of stores is too great. Had those 
colonies been protected with tarred 
paper, they would have been warmed 
enough on the sunny days to have ma- 
terially lessened the consujnption of 
honey. I have observed that in my ex- 
periments witn tarred paper. 

To summarize: I believe we ma.v 
safely and profitably dispense with ex- 
pensive double walled hives and trou- 
blesome packing and use any type of 
single walled hive and a black wrap- 
ping, provided we only piit into winter 
quarters strong colonies, with sound 
stores supplied early. 

The experiment was costly, but it 
paid. 

Providence. R. I.. March 16. 1904. 



I have taken a great interest in The 
Bee-Keeper, and greatly enjoyed 
reading it. 1^. J. Quantrell. 



1904. THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 77 

THE DICKEL THEORY. was quite natural for you to question 

. my remarks on selfishness of bees, but 

A Reply to Mr. Horn. if we are to advance in the study of 

By F. Greiner. ^^^ 'if^ ^^ th® bee we must dig deeper 

than we have heretofore. If we are to 

ON PAGE 35 Mr. H. E. Horn says advance much farther in practical bee- 

of the Dickel theory: "The im- keeping, we must needs first advance 

portance of the theory lies per- in a knowledge of the causes of varl- 

haps in the fact that true and absolute ous actions of bees. I will not mind 

inbreeding becomes an easy possibiiiJ'y your criticsm at all if it serves to 

no matter, .... etc." The promoter cause even one person to look deeper, 

of the theory has never made any Professor Jacques Loeb's book on 

claim in this direction so far as I am "Physiology of the Brain" (printed by 

aware of. There is, of course, a closer John Murray, London) may be of as- 

relationship between tlie queen and sistance to you in getting a new view 

the drone of the same colony, if both of first causes. — Arthur C. Miller, 

have the same father as »vell as Prov. R. I., U. S. A., Jan. 15th, 1904. 

mother, than when both have only the ^j^ -^ ^ pleasure to merit the forego- 

same mother m common, ami he one ■ j^^^^^. ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ American's 

of the two has no father at all Otlu i^rfghtest students of apiculture We 

erwise any one would meet with the .ventured to suggest that, with such 

same ditticulties m accomplishing close ..j^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ enunciated in his arti- 

inbreeding than when seen m the light ^j^ ^^ ^he American Bee-Keeper, Mr. 

f^i i ^"^^" T •. . K Miller was "likelv to feel lonely." 

The only way as I see it, to be ren- .j.^^^^^^ ^^, ^^ discourtesy. Lack of 

sonably sure that a queen meets a appreciation is a penalty which must 

drone of the same hive would be, to often be paid to genius. Deep thinkers 

rear a queen so early in the season ^.^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ equanimity the 

when there were no drones m the api- criticism of the vulgar mind. No, we 

ary. The colony rearing the queen had not forgotten our Loeb. But when 

would also rear a few drones, whic'i 1^^^^ has spoken, is it certain the last 

the worker bees could do, from eggs ,,.^r^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^i^, j^^^ .^^ ^^ ^^j. 

or very young worker lai-vae m the mal, "forced to orient itself toward the 

hive. According to Dickel all eggs of g^urce of .stimulation," and led, with- 

a normal queen are alike m every re, ^ut will of its own, either toward the 

spect. This IS the whole gist ot the so^^ce of the stimulus or away from 

Dickel theory. For the practi>-al bee- j^., must we, of necessity, see 'selfish- 
^^.''^''': . ^t . "If t^rs nothing whether „ess-intensely personal aims, and re- 

Dickel IS nght or Dzierzon, although I gardlessness of the happiness of oth- 

M , '\f\ Tf'o^ V£^r^- ^J-s? Is breathing (which cannot be 

Naples, N. Y., Feb. 29, 1904. avoided), an act of selfishness? 

— Would not the term "self-love" be 

<s-PT -PTQw-wpce nv -r-ppc: ^^^^^ appropriate: or must we, indeed, 

SELFISHNESS OF BEES. j^g^ our old respect for the little in- 

(From the Irish Bee Journal.) sect which has taught so many useful 

Dear Sir — In the American Bee- lessons? We should be very pleased 

Keeper for January, 1904, I note an ex- to have an expression of Mr. Miller's 

tract from your paper, in which you views on this point, agreeing with him, 

ask, "When did 'parental instinct' first as we do, that a knowledge of the 

spell selfishness?" I might ask you to cause of the various actions of bees 

define "parental instinct" and explain could but tend to further advances in 

its cause. Perhaps I can help you. practical bee-keeping. — Ed.) 

This "instinct" is the result of stimuli. 

Under normal conditions a pai-ent ani- r,,, ,. , 

mal can no more avoid supplying its ^^® bee-keepers supply factory ot 

young with food than it can avoid Gus Dittmer, :^gusta, Wis., was 

breathing. But change these stimuli burned Feb. 20th. The hustling pro- 

ever so slightly, and the fond, self-sac- prfetor. however, is probably taking 

nficing parent calmly abandons its ' „ , ., .. 

offspring or deliberately devours them. "^.^^^ ^^ ^" ^^^^^^'^ promptly by this 

From the customary point of view, it time. 



^ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ M i-^^H-H- ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦4*4 MM 




THE 



Bee -Keeping World 



staff Contributors : F. GREINER and ADRIAN GETAZ. 

Contributions to this Department are solicited from all quarters of the earth. 



RUSSIA.. 

Illustr. Bztg. says this about bee- 
keeping in Russia: It is frequently 
said that the bee-keepers of Russia are 
100 years behind the times, but this is 
anything but true. There are many up- 
to-date bee-keepers, many of them fav- 
oring American methods and using 
American hives. Five or six apicultural 
journals disseminate knowledge as to 
bee-keeping. Conditions for honey pi o- 
duetion are more favorable in the 
South and East than they are in Ger- 
many, although there are sometimes 
years of failure, as, for instance, 1903. 
Editor Kandratjeff reports that bees 
did not gather their winter supplies in 
many places. 



GERMANY. 

'jx large portion of the German bee- 
keepers cari-y on the business on a 
small scale; if they did not they would 
not put up with such implements as 
we understand find ready sale among 
them. One of these implemencs is de- 
scribed and illustrated in the Deutsche 
Btzg., viz.: a honey extractor without 
can. It seems like a mere play thing; 
during the time it is not in use as an 
extractor it may be used as a flower- 
stand. Their wax-presses may be 
used as fruit-presses. 



ABESSINIA. 

It is said of Abessinia that honey is 
as plentiful there as "dirt." Bees are 
everywhere. Set up an empty hive and 
in a week's time it will be occupied by 
bees. It is an easy matter for the Abes- 
sinians to find wild bees. A certaiii 
bird of the size of a swallow, called 
honey-bird, shows the way. The bird 
is always rewarded by a piece of the 
honey and brood. (From Praxis dev 
Bzcht.) 



"Make your own comb foundation 
from pure German wax. This is im- 
portant, and is the only guarantee to 
get good serviceable foundation," says 
Illustr. Btzg. (That speaks bad for 
Germany.) 



BELGIUM. 
Soldiers receive in this country ra- 
tions of honey during hot weather. 
<Bienenvater.) 



SCOTLAND. 
The bee-keepers in Scotland, it is 
said in Schleswig-Holstein Bztg., pre- 
fer a honey-press to the extractor for 
the reason that a large part of their 
honey is gathered from the Erica, and 
this honey is so thick, that it cannot 
be extracted successfully. Bee-keep- 
ers in many parts of Germany are sim- 
ilarly situated. The only way to ob- 
tain this honey is by heat or sque(.'z- 
ing. 



Worker-brood developed in cells with 
a glass side, is what F. Ebster reports 
in Leipz. Bztg. It came about accident- 
ally. He had a single comb observa- 
tion hive stocked up with a goo4 strong 
nucleus colony. The hive was made a 
little bit too wide, and yet not wide 
enough to justify the bees in building 
a second comb. They finally construct- 
ed a half -comb, using the glass side as 
the mid-rib. A part of the comb was 
so constructed as to make the glass 
Willi answer as one side of a cell or 
cells. These cells were preferred by 
the queen to those Avhich were built at 
right angle against the glass. The 
laying of the egg, the behavior of the 
eggs before hatching, i. e., changing 
their angle to the bases, the hatching 
out of the larvae and the nursing of 
them from beginning to end, then the 
changes during the pupa stage, all this 
could be easily and plainly watched. 
The same hive with comb was used 
several seasons, but after the second 
season the process of development 
could not well be seen on account of 
the cocoons, which were left in the 



I!.t04. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



cells, and the glass was scraped off 
when the bees rebuilt the comb. 



Some interesting questions are asked 
by Ivellen in Leipz. Btzg., which are 
not yet fully answei'ed. American bce~ 
Iceepers might take a hand in helping 
to clear the mist. 

First question: Why is it that bees 
will live and work in the dark? 

Second question: Queen-cells are 
built perpendicularly, worker-cells and 
drone-cells horizontally. What are the 
reasons? 

Third question: Why the shakin,:^ 
and vibrating of the abdomen of the 
workers so often seen inside the hives? 

Fourth question : How long can eggs 
be kept in good condition? 

Fifth question: Queenless bee.s, do 
they prefer to construct queen < ells 
over larvae or eggs? 

Seventh question: Are the drones 
reared from eggs laid by fertile woiii- 
ers virile. 

Eighth question: How much honey 
i.s used up by the bees to produce 
one pound of wax? 

Alfalfa clover produces honey oiily 
in certain sections in Germany. In 
other parts the bees ignore ilie bloom 
entirely. 



top, keeping the bees quiet, and strik- 
ing the combs as they are taken out. 
It also keeps off whatever robJier bees 
might try to pounce in. Tlie matter of 
fuel is also discussed. I don't think 
that the readei's of this paper would 
be able to guess what fuel Mr. Cou- 
terel prefers. It is nothing more or 
less than cow-dung, well dried. I think 
that in our Western States such fuel 
is used for other purposes under the 
name of buffalo chips. As a smoke 
fuel it is used in a portion o'' I^'rance 
(the Landes) in preference to all oth- 
ers, though wood is plentiful there. 
The smoke produced is abundant, ef- 
fective, and has the advantage of not 
affecting the eyes of the operator — 
From the Revue Eclectique. 



The application of warm honey 
three times each day for four succes- 
sive days is said to cure caked bag in 
new milch cows. — Die Bieae. 



FRANCE. 

Mr. Conterel, the apiarist of Model 
Apiary of Barbast (France), prel'ers 
the automatic smoker to the ordinary 
one. The one invented by Mr. De Lay- 
ens, he thinks, is the best. Perhaps 
some of the readers of this paper do 
not know exactly what is nn^aiit by 
an automatic smoker. It is an instru- 
ment with a compartment for the fuel 
and another with a clock movement. 
The clock movement runs a fan which 
does the blowing. The blo>ving is not 
very strong, but continuous. One wind- 
ing runs the movement half an hour. 
The instrument is placed on a corn-T 
of the hive (after the cover is of!:) and 
blows the smoke horizontallv over the 



A question recently discussed in the 
European bee papers was the influence 
of the heat on the production of wax 
and general welfare of the colonies. 
To arrive at something defirite the 
Apicultural Society of the Meuse re- 
quests its members to expe'iment on 
the subject. Five prizes of twenty, 
sixteen, twelve, eight and four dol- 
lars are offered to those who will make 
the best and most conclusive experi- 
ments. The lines to be followed are 
to compare hives of oi'dinary construc- 
tion (single walls) with what we 
would call here chaff hives. The walls 
of these must be four inches thick. 
The supers and covers must also be 
constructed on that principle. Either 
permanent pacKing, or outer cases 
with movable packing can be used. 
The two classes of hives are to be sub- 
divided. Some will receive only start- 
ers, others sheet of foundation, and 
others ready-built combs. All will be 
worked for extracted honey. It is re- 
quested that enough supers shall be 
added (if necessary) so the bees will 
not have to slack or stop work for lack 
of room. One of the objects in view Is 
to ffnd out if it would be more profit- 
able to melt the combs than to return 
them to the bees, considering the in- 
creasing A^alue of the wax. The pro- 
duction of comb honey is not consider- 
ed as in Europe the difference of price 
between comb honey and extracted 
honey is very small. — From the Revue 
Eclectique. 



80 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 
ITALY. 



April, 



3 


4 


3 


2y2 


9 


9% 


IVa 


3 


iVs 


1% 


3 


3 





7 


12 


141/2 


21-22 24-25 


19 


24 



In the Apicoltore, Mr. Th. Marre publishes the following table concerning 
the growth of the bees: 

Queens. Workers. Drones. 

Age of the eggs (in days) when they hatch usually . . 3 3 3 
Under exceptional circumstances, when the heat is insuf- 
ficient 8-10 

Numbers of days during which the larvae received a first- 
class jelly 5 

Number of days during which they receive coarse jelly None 
Total time betu^een the deposition of the eggs and the 

time the eggs are sealed 8 

Time spent by the larva/e to spin its cocoon 1 

Time of apparent rest 1 

Time of ti-ansformation into nymph 3 

Time of transformation of the nymph into j)erfect insect 3 

Total number of days spent in the cell 8 

Duration of development from the laying of the egg to 
the time of emerging from the cell under ordinary- 
circumstances 16 

In very favorable circumstances 151/2 

Under adverse circumstances, chieiiy the lack of suffi- 
cient heat or too small population 22 26 

Age at which the worker begins to fly before the hives, counted in 

days from ...e hatching, or I'ather emerging from the cell 4-7 

Age at which she begins to gather nectar under ordinary circumstances 13-16 

When forced to do so by want of honey or old bees 5-8 

Time for the queen to attain perfect maturity after she has emerged 

from the cell 

Her age when she goes out to mate, in the spring of the year 

In the fall 

Time between mating and beginning of laying under ordinary circum- 
stances 

Time between the issuing of the first swarm and the going out of the 

young queen to mate 10-13 

Time between the sealing of the first queen cell and the issuing of the 

first swann 1-2 

Time between the issuing of the first and second swarms 8-11 

Between the second and third 3 

Between the third and fourth 1-2 

Some of the above figures have nerver been given before, as far as I know. 
Others are slightly different from those generally admitted. 



28 



1-2 
4-6 
6-7 

2-3 




Millwood, X. Y., March 12, 1904. 
Editor American Bee-Keeper: 

The winter of 1903-'04 will go down 
in history as the most severe in recent 
years. As to its pfFer-ts upon the honey 
bee, it will be soon found out by a 
great many, to their great surprise and 
disappointment. Fully one-half of the 
colonies of nearly every apiary in this 



vicinity are dead, and in a great many 
others the results are even worse, t 
have lost sixty per cent, of my bees. 
Upon making a thorough examination 
I find the frames well stocked with 
bees and a bountiful supply of honey. 
They seem to be frozen to death in 
great clusters between the frames. 
The bees are mostly kept in sheds made 
so as to open to the south, which af- 
fords shelter from storms and also 
cold winds. H. Augustus Haight. 



Hopkinton, Iowa, INIarch 8, '04. 
Editor Bee-Keeper: As bees in this 
part of the State are mostly all win- 
tered in-doors they have escaped the 



1904. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



81 



severe Aviiiter so tar, aud I think tlie 
winter losses will be small. 

Warren H. Winch. 



Angleton, Tex., March 8, 1904. 

Editor Bee-Keeper : — Enclosed find 
35 cents for a trial suscriptiou to The 
Bee-Keeper. I liked the sample copy 
very much. 

Bees in this part of the country are 
in very good condition, for this time of 
year. (Plenty of pollen and some honey 
are coming in, and brood-rearing is go- 
ing oi"ward at rapid rate. J. D. Yancy. 



Salina, I. T., March 8, 1904. 
Editor American Bee-Keeper: 

Dear Sir — We've had a very mild 
winter — no snow. Bees never winter- 
ed better. Loss will not exceed one 
per cent. Needing rain. 

J. T. Hairston. 



Leota, Miss., March 21, 1904. 
I report that my bees wintered well 
on their stands. I went into winter 
quarters with 146 colonies. I inspect- 
ed every colony the first week in 
March and found brood in every col- 
ony except three. Tuo. Worthington. 



I had gotten them thoroughly aroused. 
I hope the Cyprians of the present day 
are not as vicious as ttiose of twenty 
years ago; yet if pure, I snould expect 
little change in them, if no one ever 
handled the bees but myself, I should 
not object &» seriously to their sting- 
ing; yet I cannot say I enjoyed it by 
any means. L. B. Smith. 



Di^ACON HAKDSCRABhLE DEAD. 



Rescue, Tex., March 20, 1904. 
Editor American Bee-Keeper : 

Having noticed a request in the 
March number of The American Bee- 
Keeper to those having had experience 
with Cyprian bees to report as to ami- 
ability, viciousness, etc., 1 will say: 
Away back in the oO's, when the Cy- 
prians were first imported to the Uni- 
ted States by D. A. .Tones and Frank 
Benton, I sent to B. F. Carroll, of 
Dresden, Tex., and got some queens 
of the "new races." They proved such 
wonderful workers in my hands I set 
to work and Cyprianized my small api- 
ary, then of about twenty^five colonies 
of black and Italian bees. They prov- 
ed to be extra good "vorkers with me, 
but were the most vicious bees I ever 
had anything to do with. So after try- 
ing them for three years, I reluctantly 
gave them up. I admit, I hated to part 
^with them, as I found them the best 
of honey gatherers, great breeders, 
and, in fact, I believe they were just 
suited to this hot, drouthy climate of 
Texas; but their extreme vicious dispo- 
sition was too much tor me. On sev- 
eral occasions my wife had to keep 
the doors of our house closed for half a 
day at a time to keep them out, when 




The Deacon's Last Portrait. 

The last of the series of Hardscrab- 
ble letters, which have been so popular 
with our readers during the past two 
years, appeared in our February issue. 
The following brief note explains their 
non-appearance recently: 

American Bee-Keeper: — Uncle John 
died Jan. 27th. He thoughl a heap 
of The Bee-Keeper. I will send his 
last picture — taken in October. 

Eben Hardscrabble. 



82 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 




PUBLISHED MONTHLY 
THE W. T. FALCONER MANFG. Co. 

PROPRIETORS. 
H. E. HILL, - EDITOR, 

FORT PIERCE, FLA 



Terms. 




Although we carefully mall The 
Bee-Keeper each month to each sub- 
scriber on oiu" list, copies are some- 
times lost in the mails. Reports of any 
such instance addressed to the Florida 
oifice Avill have careful and immedi- 
ate attention. 



April. 

The Pennsylvania State organiza- 
tion of bee-keepers is progressing very 
satisfactorily to the promoters. 



The breeder must have thorough- 
bred stock, but the number and color 
of bands count for nothing in the api- 
ary worked for a honey crop. 



One of the most extensive bee-keep- 
ers in America recently remarked: "I 
have never known foul brood to flour- 
ish where bees had access to salt." 



Fifty cents a year in advance; 2 copies 85 
cents; 3 copies $1.20; all to be sent to one 
postoffice. 

Postage prepaid in the United States and 
Canada; 10 cents extra to all countries in the 
postal union, and 20 cents extra to all other 
countries. 

Advertising: Rates. 

X' if teen cents per line, 9 words; $2.00 per 
inch. Five per cent, discount for two iser- 
tions; seven per cent, for three insertions; 
twenty per cent, for twelve insertions. 

Advertisements must be received on or be- 
fore the loth of each month to insure inser- 
tion the month following. 

Matters relating to business may be ad- 
dressed to 

THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 
Fort Pierce, Fla., or Jamestown, N. Y. 

Articles for publication or letters exclusively 
for the editorial department should be ad- 
dressed to the Florida office. 

Subscribers receiving their paper in blue 
wrapper will know that their subscription ex- 
pires with this number. We hope that you 
will not delay favoring us with a renewal. 

A red wrapper on your paper indicates that 
you owe for your subscription. Please give 
the matter your early attention. 



The Board of Health of San Francis- 
co, Calif., is in pursuit of the honey 
adulterators who have been plying 
their nefarious schemes in that cit5^ 



'The Rocky Mountain Bee Journal 
has enlarged to twentj'-four pages and 
cover and increased its subscription 
price from 50 cents to .$1.00 a year. It's 
worth it. 



The Review says a New York bee- 
keejier has devised a means whereby 
swarming preparations may be recog- 
nized without opening the hu^e; and 
the scheme is to be patented. 



The Pacific States Bee Journal says: 
"W. H. Pain, of Honoiulu, H. I., pro- 
duced 300,000 pounds of extracted hon- 
ey from 200 colonies of bees, last sea- 
son." That's not so bad — an average of 
three-fourths of a ton per colony (?"). 



In this number we are pleased to 
present pictures of the Coggshall Bro- 
thers, of Groton, N. Y. W. L. is seen 
at the right and David H. at the left 
in the picture. The photo was taken 
last January, near the apiary of the 
.writer, in Florida, as the gentlemen 
were investigating local apicultural 
resources. In connection with the ar- 
ticle relative to Mr. Coggshall's apicul- 
tural cai'eer also published in this is- 
sue, we think this picture will prove 
of exceptional interest to our readers. 



1904. THE AMERICAN 

PUSHING. PLUCKY AND PRO- 
GRESSIVE BEE-KEEPERS. 

In our Februaiy issue we published 
the full text of Ohio's new foul btuocl 
bill, an outgrowth of the agitation ef- 
fected by the Hamilton County Bee- 
Keeperes' Association, and which was 
drafted by A. E. Painter, Esq., of <Jin- 
cinuati, and presiented by Representa- 
tive D. R. Herrick. 

The Hamilton Association is fortun- 
ate in the possession of several emin- 
ently capable gentlemen, not in mat- 
ters pevtaining to bees alone but in 



BEE-KEEPER. 



83 



ed faithfully for the Herrick bill. 

Beginning from the left to the 
right: First, Mr. R. L. Curry, one of 
the pioneers in Hamilton county bee- 
keeping. Mr. Curry has been a bee- 
keeper for the past forty years, is well 
versed in science, and has faith in the 
■NI'Evoy treatment for foul brood, 
which time aad again he has put to a 
severe but successful test. 

The second, Mr. C. H. W. Weber, of 
formalin gas fame. 



'/'C/ir- 








. V 






1 


f. 


1 














iJLc Keepers at tlie (Jhio Capital. 

affairs relative to the science it gov- 
ernment and the somewhat mysccri- 
ous realm of law. They are progres- 
sive and energetic wrokers in every 
cause deemed worthy of their eirort,?. 
and there is no doubt that tlie nlti- 
mate results of their labors in behalf 
of apiarian matters in Ohio wiil be in- 
valuable to bee-keeping interests of 
that State. Of such is composed the 
little group herewith presented, whioh 
waited upon the agricultural commit- 
tee of the House of Representacivef* 
at Columbus, Feb. 4, and there labor- 



A. E. PAl-XTEK, ESg. 
The scholarly attorney, of Cincinnati, who 
drafted the new Foul Brood Bill. 

The third, Mr. John C. Frohliger, the 
orator of the little crowd, an able bee- 
keeper and a queen breeder of no little 
note. 

The next, Mr. D. R. Herrick, republi- 
can representative of Hamilton coun- 
ty, and a counsin of the present gov= 
ernor of Ohio. By the way, Mr. Her- 
rick is an able bee-keeper, years ago 
having been a queen-breeder. He had 
the misfortune to lose liis bees by foul 
brood. 



84 jj THE AMERICAN 

The fifth is Mr. E. P. Rogers, a man 
who can talk to the point, and is a 
good counselor. 

At the extreme right is seen Mr. 
Fred W. Muth, the wholesale honey 
dealer and tireless toiler for beedom's 
cause. 

At this writing the bill has passed 
the house of representatives without a 
dissenting vote, and is now in the 
hands of the agricultural committee of 
the senate. Definite information as to 
its fate will be obtainable within a 
few days. 



BEE-KEEPER. April, 

advises us that he has had in charge 
900 colonies situated near Bermeja, 
from which he has taken this season 
ten thousand gjallons of honey and 
1,100 nuclei. It is conceded, however 
that the Cuban crop is very short. 



Bee-keepers frequently report hav- 
ing secured "thi'ee-fourths," "one-half," 
'"one-third" or "one-fourth" of a crop 
of honey. Yet no one ever seems so 
fortunate as to get a "crop an^a a half." 
How much is a "full crop?" 



The Southland Queen reprints Mr. 
Poppleton's article from The Bee- 
Keeper, on "Bee Paralysis," and er- 
roneously credits it to Arthur C. Mil- 
ler. The Queen appears to become 
badly "mixed" when it undertakes o 
do or say anything in regard to this 
particular malady. 



The picture of "Bees Working on 
Chrysanthemums." shown on page 52 
of our last issue, has elicited a number 
of interesting comments from our 
studious readers, and we have pleas- 
ure in presenting in this number an 
explanatory letter from Prof, Benton, 
upon the subject. When attention is 
called to the distinguishing points, the 
difference is quite apparent, indeed, 
e^ en in a picture, though the general 
appearance is that of black bees 
clambering hastily over the flowers, 
rather than "working." Mr. Arthur 
C. Miller, of Rhode Island, was the 
first to detect the "flies" and report. 
We do not know whether Apis melli- 
fera is ever found upon chrysanthe- 
nuims, or not; though we believe some 
of the apiarian writers have reported 
that they sometimes are. May be it 
was Dr. Miller. 



If the past severe winter proves dis- 
astrous to bees throughout the North- 
ern States, as appears probable, and 
but slight or no competition from 
Cuba and California, as a result of the 
short crops there secured, this season, 
it will behoove those having bees to 
make the best of opportunities. Pres- 
ent conditions indicate a ready mar- 
ket for the crop of 1904. 



A NEW BEE JOURNAL. 
The apiarian craft is to have a new 
organ, due to appear this month. It 
is to be published by W. H. Putnam, 
River Falls, Wis., and will be known 
as the Rural Bee-Keeper. 



Mr. E. M. Storer, an old Florida bee- 
keeper who has been operating during 
the past two or three years in Ja- 
maica and Cuba has returned to the 
Florida coast and purchased another 
apiary. Notwithstanding the recent 
reports of the entire failure of the Cu- 
ban honey crop this year, Mr. Storer 



HONEY AND BEESWAX MAR- 
KETS. 

Buffalo, March 10.— Buffalo honey 
market has been very unsatisfactory 
all winter, and continues so; yet a lib- 
eral amount can be sold at low prices. 
The suppl.y is moderate and the de- 
mand, is more so. We quote our market 
today as follows: Fancy comb, 12 to 
13 cents; other grades 7 to 10 cents. Ex- 
tracted, in light demand at 5 to 7 cents. 
Beeswax, 29 to 30 cents. 

Batterson & Co. 



Milwaukee, March 10. — The demand 



1904. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



is not all that we would desire. It New York, March 10. — The supply- 
should improve, and we think as of honey is very large for this time of 
spring opens it will. Supply is very year, while the demand is very quiet. 
good. We quote today: Comb, 11 to We quote our market today: White 
lo cents, as to quality and quantity, comb, 12 to 14 cents; dark, 9 to 19 
Extracted, bbls., 6 to G 1-2 cents; cans, cents. Extracted, 5 to 6 1-2 cents. 
(5 1-2 to 7 1-2 cents. Beeswax, 28 to 39 Beeswax , 29 to 30 cents. 
cents. A. V. Bishop & Co. Hildreth & Segelkeu. 



Cincinnati, March 4. — The demand 
for honey is somewhat brighter than ^ . _- , a r* t 

it was in the past sixty days. We con- CCnt=3.= WOrU LOlUlllII. 

tinue to offer Amber Extracted in bar- 
rels at 5 1-2 to 6 1-2 cents, according 
to quality. White clover extracted is 
a drag on the market at 6 1-2 to 8 cents 
in barrels and cans. Comb honey 
seems to be reviving at 13 1-2 to 15 
cents for fancy. Beeswax is wanted at 
30 cents per pound delivered here. 
The Fred W. Muth Co. 



The rate is uniformly one cent for each 
word each month ; no advertisement, however 
small, will be accepted for less than twenty 
cents, and must be paid in advance. Count 
the words and remit with order accordingly. 



Kansas City, March 14. — Ph^e de- 
mand for honey is somewhat limited, 
while the supply is large. We quote 
our market today as follows: Fancy 
comb and No. 1 comb, .$2.25 per case; 
choice, $2.00. Extracted, white, 6 to 
6 1-2 cents; amber, 5 1-2 to 6 cents. 
Beeswax, 30 cents. There is not much 
change in the honey market, but we 
believe the demand will pick up to a 
certain extent soon. Would not be 
surprised to see a good market next 
month. C. C. Clemens & Co. 

Chicago, March 8.— It is difficult to 
get more than 12 cents per pound for 
any lot of white comb honey, with 
sales chiefly at 11 cents; even at this 
price it does not work off as fast as 
owners wish it would. Selections in 
the most desirable grades bring a lit- 
tle higher price in small quantities. 
Off grades sell at 1 to 2 cents per pound 
less. Extracted honey plentiful and 
slow of sale. White brings 6 to 7 
cents; amber 5 to 6 cents according to 
quality and style of package. Bees- 
wax active at 30 cents per pound. 
R. A. Burnett & Co. 



WILL EXCHANGE Miller's Early Raspberry, $8 
thousand, Rathbun Blackberry Tips, fiS.OO, 
Transplants, $37.50, Photographic Outfit, $42, 
for Gregg Raspberry Tips, $10,00, inspected. 
Sweet's Nursery, Swanton, Md. 



Toronto, Can., March 19.— The sup- 
ply of honey is abundant. The demand 
is onfy tair. We quote our market to- 
day as follows: Comb, .$1.50 per dozen 
on the average. Extracted, 6 to 8 
cents according to quality. Beeswax 
30 to 32 cents. We find the retail mar- 
ket vei-y fair, but not much demand 
for large wholesale lots. 

B. Granger & Co. 



FOR SALE — A Hawkeye, Jr., Camera com- 
plete. Uses both film and plates. Cost $3.00, 
will sell with leather case for J.?.. "50 cash. 
Address Empire Washer Co., Falconer, N. 
Y. 

A TANDEM BICYCLE (for man and lady) 
cost }fl50, in first-class condition, was built to 
order for the owner. Tires new. Will sell 
for ^25 cash. Satisfaction guaranteed. Ad- 
dress .T- Clayborne ^lerrill, 130 Lakeview, 
ave., Jamestown, N. Y. 

AGENTS WANTED to sell advertising nov- 
ties, good commission allowed. Send for 
catalogue and terms. American Manufac- 
turing Concern, Jamestown, N. Y. 

WANTED— To exchange six-month's trial 
subscription to The American Bee-Keeper 
for 20 cents in postage stamps. Address, 
Bee-Keeper, Falconer, N. Y. 

LEOTA APIARY.— Pure honey for sale at 
all times. Thos. Worthington, Leota, 
Miss. 4t 



"Today my inmost soul was stirred; 
I saw the crocus from the ground 
Burst, like a little flame, and heard 
The wandering bluebird's trumpet 
sound. 

"The heat of life is in the air. 

And recreated summer swings 

Her first faint odors here and there, 

To lure the bee's adventurous wings." 



When writing to advei-tisers mention 
The American Bee-Keeper. 




T 



HE A. I. ROOT CO., MEDINA, OHIO. 
Breeders of Italian bees and queens. 



GEO. J. VANDE VORD, DAYTON A, FLA. 
Breeds choice Italian queens early. All 
queens warranted purely mated, and satisfaction 
guaranteed . 



p H. W. WEBER, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
^« (Cor. Central and Freeman Aves.) Golden 
yellow. Red Clover and Camiolan queens, bred 
from select mothers in separate apiaries. 

THE HONEY AND BEE COMPANY, BEE- 
1 VILLE, TEXAS. Holy Land, Carniolan, 
Cyprian, Albino and 3 and 5-banded Italian 
queens. Write for our low prices. Satisfaction 
guaranteed.. 



lOHN M. DAVIS, SPRING HILL, TENN.. sends 
J out the choicest 3-banded and golden Italian 
queens that skill and experience can produce. 
Satisfaction guaranteed. No disease. 



PUNIC BEES. All other races are dis- 
carded after trial of these wonderful bees. 
Particulars post free. John Hewitt & Co., 
ShefKeld, England . 4 



1 B. CASE, PORT ORANGE, FLA., has fine 
J • golden Italian queens early and late. Work- 
ers little inclined to swarm, and cap their honey 
very white. Hundreds of his old customers stick 
to him year after year. Circular free. 



CWARTHMORE APIARIES, SWARTHMORE, 
•^ PA. Our bees and queens are the brighest 
Italians procurable. Satisfaction guaranteed. 
Correspondence in English, French, German and 
Spanish. Shipments to all parts of the world. 



WZ. HUTCHINSON, FLINT, MICH. 
• Superior stock queens, $1.50 each; queen 
and Bee-Keepers' Review one year for only $2.00. 



NEW CENTURY QUEEN-REARING CO., (John 
W. Pharr, Prop.) BERCLAIR, TEXAS, ia 
breeding fine golden and 3-banded Italian and 
Carniolan queens. Prices are low . Please write 
for special information desired. 



M CORE'S LONG-TONGUED STRAIN 
of Italians become more and more popu- 
lar each year. Those who have tested them 
know why. Descriptive circular free to all. 
Write J. P. Moore, L. Box 1, Morgan, Ky. 



CLONE BEE CO., SLONE, LOUISIANA. 

■^ Fine Golden Queens, Leather-Colored Ital 

ians and Holy Lands. Prices low. 



HOMESEEKERS 

AND INVESTORS, who are interest 
ed in the Southern section of the 
Union, should subscribe for THE 
DIXIE HOMESEEKER, a handsome 
illustrated magazine, describing the 
industrial development of the South, 
and its many advantages to homeseek- 
ers and investors. Sent one year on 
trial for 15c. 

Address, 

THE DIXIE HOMESEEKER, 
West Appomattox, Va 



When writing to advertisers mention 
The American Bee-Keeper. 



American 




BEE 



Journal 



16 - p. Weekly. 

Sample Free. 

JJ®" All about Bees and theif 
profitable care. Best writers,, 
Oldest bee-paper; illustrated. 
Departments for beginners)! 
and for women bee-keepers. 

QEORae W. YORK & CO. 

144 & 146 Erie St. Chicago,Ili,. 



SH/NE/ 

The Empire Washer Company, Jamestowni 
N. Y., makes a Shine Cabinet, furnished with 
foot stand, blacking, russet dressing, shoe 
rubber — in fact, all articles and materials need- 
ed to keep shoes looking their best — ?nd it is 
made to be fastened to the wall of the toilet 
room or kitchen. It does away with the ve"a»i 
tious searching after these articles which isi 
altogether too common. A postal will bringi 
jou details of this and other good things. 



THE FLORIDA BEE 
BRUSH 




An implement of unusual merit and the nov- 
elty of the season in apiarian supplies. The 
best brush for bees ever placed upon the 
market. For sale by supply dealers. 



The Rural Bee-Keeper 



is the uame f a new monthly publica- 
tion devoted to the interest of bee-keep- 
ers. A foreign travels department 
lends an added interest, and the wo- 
men's department will interest ma as 
W€il as pa. 



Sample copy free. 

W. H. PUTNAM 



tf 



River Falls, 



W 



isconsin 



THE BEST PRINTED PAPER 
J' J-l^ FLO:i(DA J- J- 



Located in the Heart of the Gel- 
eorated Pineapple Belt and sur- 
rounded by many of the finest 
orange groves on the Indian Riv- 
er, Fort - ierce is the largest and 
most impoitant town in Brevard 
county and 

The FORT PIERCE NEWS 



is the best paper in the county 
and the best weekly in Florida. 
It contains reliable information 
about this section in eveiy issue. 
Only $1.00 a year. Write for 
sample copy. tfv 

The News, Fort Pierce, Fla. 



Salzer's 

National Oats 

Oreatest oat of tl.o century. 

Yielded in UK.i iu OLiio 187, 

In Mich. 2J1, in Mo, 255, and in 

N. Dakota 310 bus. per acre. You 

can beat that record iu 1904 I 

For 10c and this notice 

we mail you free lots of farm seed 
f'amples and our biLC catalog, tell- 
ing all about this oat wonder and 
thousands of other seeds. A 

JOHN A. SALZER SEED CQ.^IJJI) 
La Crosse, 
F. Wis. 



Beeswax 
Wanted 



We will pay 29 cents cash or 31 cents 
in goods for good quality of Beeswax, 
freight paid to Falconer, N. Y. If you 
have any, ship it to us at once. 
Prices sul^ect to change without notice. 
TH E VV. T. FALCONER MFG. CO. 



CLUBCIXG LIST. 
We will send The American Bee-Keeper 
with the — 

Price Both 



Rocky Mountain Bee Journal $.50 

What to Eat 1.00 

Bee-Keeper.s' Review 1.00 

Canadian Bee Journal 1.00 

Gleanings in Bee Culture l.OO 

.American (Jueen 50 

The American Boy 1.00 

Irish Bee Journal 35 

Poultry News 25 



$.78 
1.00! 
1.39 
1.3 
1.3 
.60 
1.00 

.ea 



PINEAPPLE CULTURE 

If you are located in the World Famed Pineapple Belt of the Indian River — is 
very profitable in South Florida. 

I have an excellent list of the most desirable properties suitable for the culti- 
vation of either pineapples or oranges, on the river, both improved and unim- 
proved, 

OUR CLIMATE IS UNEXCELLED ANYWHERE ON EARTH. 
If yq(u want a winter home, a pineapple farm or an orange grove in Florida I 
should be pleased in assist any reader of The Bee-Keeper in consummating the 
wish. Write, or come and see me. 

JA^IES E. ANDRESVS, Fort Pierce, Florida 



A Novel Premium 




They subsist wholly upon air. No earth retiuired, only 
an occasional sprinkling of water is necessary. We 
will send a nice Air Plant free to anyone favoring us 
with two new subscribers to The Bee-Keeper, for 
one year. 



♦»♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦^♦^^♦♦4- 

TO OUR 



FREE 



SUBSCRIBERS 



THE GREAT 



AMERICAN 
FARMER 

OF INDIANAPOLIS^ IND., 

X One of the leading agricultural journals of the nation, edited by an 
able corps of writers. 

This valuable journal in addition to the logical treatment of all 

agricultural subjects, also discusses the great issues of the day, there- 

^ by adding zest to its columns and giving the farmer something to think ^ 

"/^ about aside from the every day humdrum of routine duties. ^ 

FOR A LIMITED TIME t 



By special arrangement with the publishers we are enabled to offer 
all Bee-Keeper readers the American Farmer one year absolutely free. 

TWO FOR THE: PRICE OF ONE 

Every new subscriber who sends us fifty cents to pay for" The 
Bee-Keeper one year may also have the American Farmer, without 
extra charge. Every old subscriber who pays up in full and one year 
in advance is also entitled to a year's subscription to the Farmer. 

YOl ARE INVITED TO TAKE IMMEDIATE ADVANTAGE OE THISLOFFER 

ADDRESS : 

The American Bee= Keeper 

Falconer, New York 



THE ONLY GERMAN AGRICULTURAL MONTH- 
LY IN THE UNITED STATtS Jt^^^^^^^ 

FARM UND HAUS 

The most carefully edited German 
Agricultural journal. It is brimful of 
practical information and useful hints 
for the up-to-date farmer; devoted to 
stock raising, general farming, garden- 
ing, poultry, bee-keeping, etc., and con- 
tains a department for the household, 
which many find valuable. Another de- 
partment giving valuable receipts and 
remedies called "Hasarzt," in fact every 
number contains articles of real prac- 
tical use. 

Price only 35 CENTS per year. Sam- 
ple copy free. 

Send subscriptions to, 



I Are You Looking for a Home? 

No farmer should think of buying land 
before seeing a copy of THE FARM AND 
REAL ESTATE JOURNAL. It contains 
the largest list of lands for sale of any 
paper published in Iowa. Reaches 30,000 
readers each issue, and is one of the best 
advertising mediums to reach the farmers 
and the Home-Seekers that you can ad- 
vertise in. For Toe. we will mail yo(u the 
Journal for 1 year, or for ten cents in 
silver or stamps we will send you the 
Journal 2 months on trial. Address, 

Farm and Real Estate Journal, 

TRAER, TAMA CO., IOWA. 
10-tf. 



FARM 

& tf. 



UND HAUS 

BLUFFTON, OHIO. 



Attica Lithia Springs Hotel 

Litliia-Sulprmr Water ;iud Mud Baths 
Nature's Own Great Cure for 

...RHEUMATISM.... 

and Kindred Diseases, such as Liver 
and Kidney Complaints, Skin and 
Blood Diseases, Constipation, Nervous 
Prostration, etc. 

A new and up-to-date hotel. Large, airy, 
light and Bnely furnished rooms, with Steam 
Heat, t^lectric Li'.ihts, Hot aud Cold Water 
on eaeh lloor. Rates includine; Room, Board, 
Mud Baths, Lithla-Sulphur Witter Baths and 
Med III. 50 aud 

$3.00 a dav. according to room. 

WRITE FOR BOOKLET. 

Address Box 3, 

tf Lithia Springs Hotel, Attica, Ind. 



Strawberries. 

Young, healthy, fresh, vigor- 
ous stock in prime condition for 
spring planting. 

All 

Leading 



Varieties 

Write for prices and terms. 

MONROE STRAWBERRY CO., 

Box 66 MONROE, MICH. 



Headquarters for Bee-Supplies 

ROOT'S GOODS AT ROOT'S FACTORY PRICES. 

Complete stock for 1904 now on hand. Freight rates from Cincinnati are 
the lowest. Prompt service is what I practice. Satisfaction guaranteed. 
Langstroth Portico Hives and Stnndard Honey-Jars at lowest prices. 

You will save money buying from me. Catalog mailed free. Send for 
same. 

Book orders for Golden Italians, Ked Clover and Carniolan Queens; for 
prices refer to my catalog. 

C. H. W. WEBER 

Office and Salesrooms 2146-48 Central Ave. ^ w IV T/^ | XT IVT A 'X' I f\ |-| I /~\ 
Warehouses-Freeman and Central Aves. wli>^li>i>/\Ii, UniW* 



La Compania 
Manufacturera Americana 

ofrece los mas reducidos precios en to 
da clasc de articulos para Apicultores. 
Nucstra Fabrica cs una de las mas 
grandes y mas antiguas de America. 
Especialidad en Colmcnas, Ahumadores 
para Colmcnas, Extractorcs, etc. In 
ventores y perfeccionadores de muchos 
articulos de suma utilidad en la Apicul- 
tura. Enviamos gratis nuestro catalogo 
y precios a quienes lo solicitcn. Dirija- 

nse a. 

THE AMERICAN MFG. CO., 

Jamestown, N. Y., E. U. A. 




The only strictly agricultural 
paper published in this State. The 
only agricultural paper published 
every week. It goes to every post 
office in State of Tennessee and to 
many offices in Kentucky, Alabama, , 
Georgia, Mississippi, Arkansas, 
Texas, Florida and Louisiana. It 
is the official organ of the Agricul- 
tural Department of Tennessee and 
Live Stock Commission. Subscrip- 
tion $1 per year in advance. 

Tennessee Farmer Pub. Cor, 
itf Nashville, Tenn. 

BEGINNERS. 

sho". ' have a copy of 

The Amateur Bee-keeper, 

a 70 page book, by Prof. J. W. Rouse; written er 
pecially for amateurs. Second edition just ou' 
First edition of 1,000 sold in less than two years 
Editor York says: "It i« the finest little book pub- 
lished at the present time." Price 24 cents; by 
mail 2S cents. The little book and 

The Progressive Bee-keeper, 

^^L lire, proeresRire, 28 page monthly journal,) on* 
year for B.')C. Apply to any first-claas dealer, or 
address 

LEAHY MFG- CO,, HiB»iM».ue, m.. 



The Eecord. 

The Oldest and Leading Belgian 
Hare Journal of America and 
England, 

R. J. Fi.NLEY, Editor and Publisher, 

The only journal having 
an English Belgian Hare 
Department. 

Ojie copy worth the yearly 
subscription. 

If interesteo, aon t fail to 
send 2-cent stamp for sample 
copy at once. Address, 

R. J. FINLEY, 

'' MACON , MO. 



To gubtcrlbem of 
THE AMERICANBEEKEEPER 

And Others! 

Until Further Notice 

We WUl Send The 

Country 
Journal 

to any tddress In the U. S. A., one 
year for 10 cents, proTlding you 
mention American Bee-Keeper. 

The Country Journal treat* on 
Farm, Orchard and Garden, Poul- 
try and Fashion. It's the beat pa- 
per printed for tlw price. 

Address, 

The Country Journal, 

Allentown, Pa. 

2tf 



W. B: VAUGiHAN 

NEWBURGH, N. Y. 

Agent for The W. T. Falconer Mfg. 

Go's. 

BEE=KEEPERS' SUPPLIES. 

Jy-4 Catalogue free. 



Sunshine 



is gaining ad- 
miration as a 
popular litera- 

ry family 

■~~— ~'"^"'~""'~~^~ MAGAZINE. 
It entertains its readers with good short stor- 
ies, sketches and poems by the most famous 
authors of the day and is a magazine of supe- 
rior merit. 

It is a welcome visitor in every home. 

Price 25 cents a year. 

We wish to haye our magazine in your 
vicinity and as a special offer for new readers 
we will send you 

Sunshine for I Year for lOc. 

Think of it. less than one cent a copy. Can't 
you act as our agent ? 

ADD. MAYES PUB. CO., 
LOUISVILLE, - KENTUCKY. 



ATHENS, GA. 



Subscription, .... 50 Cents a Year. 



Published the First of Every Month 

and Circulates in Every 

Southern State. 



Al»\ KltTISING RATKS ON APPLI- 
CATION. 



50 YEARS' 
EXPERiENCE 




Trade Marks 
Designs 
Copyrights Slc. 

Anyone sending a sketch and description may 
*julckly ascertain our opinion fpoe whether an 
Invention is probably patentable. Communica- 
tions strictly conBdential. Handbook on Patents 
sent free. Oldest agency for securing patents. 
- Patents taken through Munu & Co. receive 
special notice, without c harg e, in the 

Scientific Hmerican. 

A. handsomely illustrated weekly. Largest cir- 
culation of any scientific Journal. Terms, 13 a 
year : four months, $1. Sold ty all newsdealers. 

MUNNiCo.^eiBroadway. New York 

Branch Office, 625 F St.. Washington, D. C. 

When writing to advertisers mention 
'JJip Aiuericiin Bee-Keeper. 



National Bee-Keepers' Associatioa, 

The largest bee-keepers' society in the 
world . 

Organized to protect and promote the 
interests of its members. 

Memb ership Pee, $1.00 ■ Year. 

N.E. FRANCE, Platteville, Wig., 

General Manager and Treasurer. 



Clubbing Offers 

Here Is a Sample: 

Modern Farmer $ .50 

Western Fruit Grower 50 

Poultry Gazette 25 

Gleanings in Bee Culture 1.00 

$2.25 
All One Year for only $1.00. 

Write for others just as good, or bet- 
ter. 

SAMPLE FREE. 

New subscribers can have the Amer- 
can Bee Journal in place of Gleanings, 
if they wish, or all for $1.60. Renew- 
als to A. B. J. add 40c. more. 

MODERN FARMER, 

The Clean Farm Paper 
St. Joseph, Mo. 



BEEKEEPERS 



INSIST ON 



LEWIS 



SEND FOR NEW 
CATALOQ FOR 1904 



GOODS 



68 



Q. B. LEWIS CO. 

WATERTOWN, WIS., U. S. A. 



FIGHTING ROOSTERS 

Mystify and amuse your 
friends. These are two gen- ; 
nine game roosters with | 
feathers, they fight to a 
finish, and are always ready 
to fight. The secret of their 
movements i8 only known to 
the operator. Will last a life- *i< 
time. 10c per pair, 3 for 25c, 
postpaid. Address 

ZiiWO SUPPLY COMPANY 




Indianapolis 



BOX J. 



Indiana 






I 



ROOT'S GOODS 



QUALITY— They are made from good materials. You 
are never disappointed and disgusted by receiving 
goods inaccurately cat, and roughly made, from 
inferior stock. 

(^* e^* t^* «^^ ^* ^* ^^ 

INTERCHANGEABLENESS — This accuracy with 
which goods are made allows a customer to order 
goods year after year, and each lot will fit the 
others as new parts fit in repairing an Elgin watch. 

^t ^f <^ ^f «^ «^ «^ 

PROMPTNESS- —With our immense manufacturing 
facilities, the adoption of standard goods, and the 
establishment of agencies and branch-houses 
throughout ihe various parts of the country, we 
can get grodb to you with wonderful promptness. 

(^ e^ e^ «^ <^ e^ «^ 

COST— -No goods of like quality are sold at lower prices 
than we sell them, while the shipping of them in 
car lots to the branch houses and agencies, allows 
the customer to get them at factory-prices within 
a short distance of hib home. Send for a catalog, 
and li t of dealers, and save freight and time by 
ordering: from your nearest dealer. 

The A. L Root Co, 

Medina, Ohio 




I n , 



r''! ;,t the Posioffice, Fort Pierce, Fla.. ns second-class mail matter. 




Vegetables, Fruits and Farm 
Products in Florida subscribe 
for the FLORIDA AQRICUL= 
JURIST. Sample copy sent 
on application. 

E.O. Painter Pub. Co. 

JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA. 



promptly obtained OR NO FEE. Trade-Markj, 

I Caveats. Copyrights and Labels registered. 

I TWENTY YEARS' PRACTICE. Highest references. 

I Send model, sketch or photo, for free report 

Ion patentability. All business confidential.! 

1 HAND-BOOK FREE. Explains everything. Tells 

How to Obtain and 8eU Patents, What Inventions 

Will Pay, How to Get a Partner, explains best 

mechanical movements, and contains 300 other 

inbjects of importance to inventors. Address, 

H. B. WILLSON & CO. aK,, 

790 F Street North, WASHINGTON, D.C^ 




BARNES' 

Foot Power Macbinery. 

This cut represent! our 
Combined Machine, which 
IS the best machine mad« 
for use in the construction 
of Hives, Sections, Boxes, 
etc. Sent on trial. Send for 
Catalogue and Price List. 
W. F. & J. BARNES CO., 
913 Ruby St., RockforiLlll. 



My Breath. 

Shortness of Breath 
Is One of the Com- 
monest Signs of 
Hea rt Dis ease. 

Notwithstanding what many physic- 
ians say, heart disease can be cured. 

Dr. Lilies' Kcw Heart Cure has per 
manently restored to health many 
thousands wl.o had found no relief In 
the mediclne.s (allopathic or homoeo- 
pathic) of re-ular practicing physicians. 
It has proved itself unique in the his- 
tory of medicine, by being so uniformly 
successful in curing those diseases. 

Nearly always, one of the first signs 
of trouble is shortness of breath. Wheth- 
er it comes as a result of walking or 
■ running up stairs, or of other exercises. 
If the heart is unable to meet this extra 
demand upon its pumping powers — ^there 
is something wrong with it. 

The very best thing you can do, Is to 
take Dr. Miles' New Heart Cure. It 
will go to the foundation of the trou- 
ble, and make a permanent cure by 
strengthening and renewing the nerves. 
"1 know that Dr. Lliies' New Heart 
Cure is a great remedy. For a number 
of years I suffered from shortness of 
breath, smothering spells, and pains In 
my left side. For months at a time I 
would be unable to lie on my left side, 
and if I lay flat on my back would nearly 
smother. A friend advised using Dr. 
Miles' New Heart Cure, which I did 
with good results. I b-g-an to improve 
at once, and ai'ter taking several bottles 
of the Heart Cure the pains in my side 
and other symptoms vanished. I an: 
now entirely well. All those dreadfu. 
smothering spells are a thing of th( 
past."— F. P. DRAKE, Middletown, O 
If the first bottle does not help you 
I the druggist will refund your money 



itHiffiiipm 



The only Pipe made 

that cannot he told 

from a cigar. Holds 

a large pipe full of 

tobaccu and lasts for years. Agents' outfit and a 25-cent satupU 

by mall for lOe., and our~Big Bargain Catalog Free. Address, 



ZENO SUPPLY CO., JOPLIN, MO- 




A Boon 
For 



Pooltrj Keepera 



How we make our hens pay 400 
per cent, profit, new system, our 

own method, fully explained in 

our IlluMtrated Poultry Book, which contains 
Poultry Keepers' Aoe't and Kits Record showing 
gains or losses every month for one year. W orlh 2.'^ 
I'ts, sent to you for 1 Oc. If you will send names of 5 
poultry keepers with your order. Address, 
U. S. VIBliERT. I*.B. 36, ("linlonville. <'()nn 



T?"PTr'TP Write to us for Free fria 
£ HtlUili Package of Dr. Miles' Anti- 
Pain Pills, the New Scientific Remedj 
for Pain. Also Symptom Blank. Oui 
Specialist will diagnose your case tel 
you what is wrong, and how to right It 
Free. DR. MILES MEDICAL CO. 

LABOHATORIES. EI^KHART, INI 



"We h.-jve an avvfu! appetite for orders." 
The W. T. FALCONER MFG. CO. 
l'.ec-keepers' Supplies Jamestown,' N. 

Send us your name and address for a cata 
logue. 

The subscription price of the ROCK 
MOUNTAIN BEE JOURNAL is 50 cent 
We will send it with THE BEE-KEEPE 
one year for only 75 cents. 



Bee Hives 
Sections 

EVERYTHING 



THAT IS USED BY BEE-KEEPERS CAN BE 
PROCURED OF US AS CHEAPLY AS ANY- 
WHERE, AND WE KNOW. 

Our Goods are Superior 

BOTH IN MATERIALS AND WORKMAN- 
SHIP TO THOSE OF ANY COMPETITOR. 

One Trial Will Convince You 

THAT'S ALL WE ASK. WE KNOW YOU 
WILL NEVER BUY OF ANYBODY ELSE. 

Our new illustrated catalog and price list is now 
ready. Send for one on a postal card. 



The W. T. 
FALCONER JVIANFG. CO., 

JMMEISTOWNi, N. Y. 



THE BEST PRINTED PAPER 
J. J. IN FLORIDA ^ ^ 



Located in the Heart of the Cel- 
eui-ated Pineapple Belt and sur- 
rounded bj' many of the finest 
orange groves on the Indian Riv- 
er Fort Piert-e is the largest and 
most important town in Brevard 
county and 

The FORTP^I ERCE NEWS 

is the best paper in the county 
and the best weekly in Florida. 
It contains reliable information 
about this section in eveiT issue. 
Only $1.00 a year. Write for 
sample copy. *'" 

The News, Fort Pierce,Fla. 



Beeswax 
Wanted 



We will pay 29 cents cash or 31 cents 
in goods for good quality of Beeswax, 
freight paid to Falconer, N. Y. If you 
have any, ship it to us at once. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 
THE W. T. FALCONER MFG. CO. 




The Rural Bee-Keeper 

vou how to make money with bees. 
^ The first number coniains valuable infor- 
*\v. »X Koo-inners bv Harrv Lathrop. A. U. 
Cepard M V^Kaey 'anlotherl Shook Swann- 
fnl or How to (>.ntrol the Swarming Impulse, 
i^'w 7 Vntohinson- Co-Operation Among 
sL-Keepers V Walter' R. Ans^ll ; The Provost 
Kal'nfthe south At-rican war by Captam 
Thomas, who is a subject of Kmg Ed warn , ine | 

aLou? April lou' Advertising forms close 20th of 

P'"''w1'a?e now ai work on the^ May number and | 
can Assure vou that the second n«™b'-'': " ','' ^^ I 
more interesting and more valuable tha.i the , 
nrst It will l.e the purpose of THE RURAL 
RFF KFEPER to champion the cause of the 1 
nV;^,^-,tr; bee-keeper to show him the way 

information in one year for hftj cents. 

W. H. PUTN AlVl, River Falls, Wis. 



PPFF !c^fptrtriv^EKfci/i«s 

rKt^t:' theVst monthly Y'^P^Y'loo oC; 
lished,andwewinsendyousamples.>^l^^^ 

I'^SrIES: Dept.H'D^^ Grand Rapids, Mich. 



DON'T KILL 

YOU RSELF. WASH! NG THE ~ - 

WAY, BUT BUY AM E M P I RE 

V^ A S H E R, vDxth tcfttc* IM 
frailest woman can do an or- 
dinary waihina in one hour, 

vithout wetting her handn. - - 

Sample atwholetalf Price. Satisfaction Gnarftnteeo.! 
No pan until tried. Write for jriuttraled Cata^iM» 
9ndprice» ofWringeriJromng TabU», Clothe* HeeM 

MAPS. 

A vest pocket Map of your State 

New issue. These maps show al 
the Counties, in seven colors, a 
railroads, postoffices — and man 
towns not given in the postal guid 

~ rivers, lakes and mountains, wit 

index and population of countie 
cities and towns. Census— it g\v< 
all official returns. We will sei 
you postpaid any state map y 

[ wish for 

I 20 cents (siive) 



Hit 



JOHN W. HANN, 

Wauneta, Ni 



CLUBBING LIST. 
We will send The American 
with the— 
Rocky Mountain Bee Journal.. 

What to Eat 

Bee-Keepers' Review 

Canadian Bee Journal 

Gleanings in Bee Culture 

American Queen 

The American Boy l-^_ 

Irish Bee Journal 

Poultry News 

Rural Bee-Keeper, 

Poultry Success, 



Bee-Keei 

Price B 

..$ .50 ? 

. 1.00 1 

. 1.00 1 

. 1.00 1 

. 1.00 : 

. .50 



35 

.25 
.50 
.50 






Homes in 

Old Virginia. 

It is gradually brought to light 
that the Civil war has made great 
changes, freed the slaves, ^nd in 
consequence has made the large 
land owners poor and finally freed 
the land from the original owners 
who would not sell until they were 
compelled to do so. There are some 
of the finest lands in the market at 
very low prices, lands that produce 
all kinds of crops, grasses, fruits, 
and berries; fxne for stock. You 
find green truck patches, such as 
cabbage, turnips, lettuce, kale, 
spinach, etc., growing all the win- 
ter. The climate is the best all th» 
year around to be found, not too 
cold nor too warm. Good water. 
Healthy. Railroads running in 
every direction. If you desire to 
know all about Virginia send 10c. 
for three months subscription of 

the VIRGINIA FARMER to 

Farmer Co., Emporia, Va. 



There is do trade or ijrofession better catered to 
oy good journals thu.n that of the farmer. Unia- 
telligent nnprogressiveness has now no excuse. 



A BATH 



luxur" 



taken ib an 

Folding BATH 

Used in any room. 
AfiEN'TS Wanted. 
Catalogue Free. 

^Thb empire 
^washer co., 
%/amestown,n.y. 



FMPIRE 

^ Portable 




m 



»*;*><>=»**s-$*-^t^*?»^*di^-$-5!ja 



BEE=SUPPLIES 

Bee Hives, Sections, Smokers, 
Bee-Veils, Frames , 

And everything used by bee-keepcr.s. 
Largest stoclc in the Central States. Low 
freight rate.s. Catalogue free. 



iyA C. M. SCOTT & CO. 

1001 E. Washington St., Indianapolis, Ind. 



THE DIXIE HOME MAGAZINE 

10c a year. Largest.Brlghtest and Finest Illustrated 
Magazine in the World for 10c a year, to intro- 
duce it only. 

It is bright and up-to-date. Tells 
all about Southern Home Life. It is 
full of fine engravings of grand scen- 
ery, buildings and famous people. 
Send at once. 10c. a year postpaid 
anywhere in the U. S., Canada and 
Mexico. 3 years 50c. Or, clubs of 6 
names 50c., 12 for $1. Send us a club. 
Money back if not delighted. Stamps 
taken. Cut this out. Send today. 
THE DIXIE HOME, 
Birmingham, Ala. ' 

When writing, mention the Am. BeeKeeper. 

na/e want 

Every reader of the American Bee-Keeper to 
write for a free sample copy of the 

ROCKY MO'JNTAIN BEE JOURNAL 

Tells you about Western methods, co-opera- 
tive honey selling and the graet big crops that 
have made the Alfalfa regions famous. Ad- 
dress the publisher, 

H. C. MOREHOUSE, 

Bouldei" Oolo. 



When writing to advertisers mention 
The American Bee-Keeper. 



f8:e:93C8:8:82»0<:e:8:8:e:e:e:8:8:e:8^^ 
PINEAPPLE CULTURE 

If you are located in the World Famed Pineapple Belt of the Indian River— is 
very profitable in South Florida. 

I have an excellent list of the most desirable properties suitable for the culti- 
vation of either pineapples or oranges, on the river, both improved and unim- 
proved. 

OUR CLIMATE IS UNEXCELLED ANYWHERE ON EARTH. 
If yqlu want a winter home, a pineapple farm or an orange grove in Florida I 
should be pleased in assist any reader of The Bee-Keeper in consummating the 
wish. Write, or come and see me. 

JAMES E. ANDREWS, Fort Pierce, Florida. 



AGENTS Wanted 'washing Machines. 



You can double your money every time you sell one 

and they sell easily. We have sold over 150,000 in the last fourteen years, 
are cheaper than e'l'er. Catalogue Free. 



They 



The Empire Washer Co., Jamestown, N.Y. 



The Tovs^a 

Horticultural 

Paper. 

Monthly, 
50 cents " 
per year. 

It is unique, 
planned on 
original lines. 

You cannot 
be up-to-date 
in fruit growing unless you read it. 

Balance of this year free to new 
subscribers. 

THE FRUITMAN, 

Mt. Vernon, Iowa. 




ttx 



The Nebraska Farm Journal 

A monthly journal devoted to 
agricultural interests. Largest 
circulation of any agricultural pa- 
per in the west. It circulates in 
Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa 
and Colorado. 



Itf 



C. A. DOUGLASS, prop. 
1123 N St., Lincoln, Neb. 



W. M. Gerrish, R. F. D., Epping, N. H., 
keeps a complete supply of our goods, and 
Eastern customers will save freight by order- 
ing of him. 

The W. T. P'alconer Mfg. Co. 



AUSTRALIANS. 

NOTE the address— 

Pender Bros., 

WEST MAITLAND, 
New South Wales, Australia. 

The largest manufacturers of Beekeepers' 
Supplies in the Southern Hemisphere, 
and publishers of the AUSTRALASIAN 
BEEKKEPER, the leading bee journal south 
of the equator. 
Sample copy and 64-page catalogue, FREE 
(5-tf 



When writing to advertisers mention 
The American Bee-Keeper. 



CASH FOR YOl 

The American Bee-Keeper is in the market to buy arti- 
cles on bee-keeping- subjects. Articles with photographs 
to illustrate are especially desired. We will pay well for 
good work. We want reporters in all parts of the world. 
Give us an opportunity to bid on your pen productions 
and the results of your photographic skill. Address, 

THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 

Fort Pierce, Fla. 



I Special Notice to Bee=keepers! r 

I BOSTON 

nj Money in Bees for You. 

^ Catalog Price on 

ROOT^S SUPPLIES 

Catalog for tlie Asking. 



F. H. Farmer, 182 Friend St., 
Boston, Mass. 

Up First Fliglit. 







P ROVIDENCE nU EENS^ 
ROYE THEIR IJoALITlES 

TO BE 

UNEXCELLED 

Head your colonies with them. 
Use them to invigorate your stock. 
They will increase your profits. 
Produced by many years of careful 
breeding. A circular will be sent 
on request. 

LAWRENCE C. MILLER, 

P. O.Box 1113. Providence, R. I. 

Put Your Trust in Providence Queens 



CAVEATS, TRADE MARKS, 
COPYRIGHTS AND DESIGNS. 

[ Send your business direct to "Washington, i 
saves time, costs less, better service. 

My office close to U. S. Patent Office. FREE prelimin- , 
• ary examinations made. Atty's fee not due until patent j 
is secured. PERSONAL ATTENTION GIVEN~19 YEARS i 
ACTUAL EXPERIENCE. Book "How to obtain Patents," < 
, etc., sent free. Patents procured through E. G. Siggera • 
(receive special notice, without charge, in the] 

INVENTIVE ACE 

(illustrated monthly— Eleventh year— terms, $1. a year, 

918 FSt.. N. W., 
, washington, d. c, 



E.II.SieeEIIS.: 



n. K 



20 per cent. Profit 

Pineapples, Oranges, Grape Fruit 

Make a Specialty for Non-Resident Owners 
and Intending Settlers in the 

Lovely Lake Region of South Florida. 

20 er cent, annual return on investment. 

Pure air, pure water, no mosquitoes. High 
pine and oak land, bordered by fresh water 
lakes, suited to all citrus fruits and pineapples. 
Good title. Time payments. Address for de- 
scriptive matter, W. E. Pabor, Manager Pa- 
bor Lake Pineries, Avon Park, Fla. tf 



If, EINGHAM 

5 has made all the im- 
provemoiitd in 

Bee Smokers and 
Honey Knives 

made in Lhe last 20 years, undoubtodl v 
he makes the best on earth. 

Smoke Engine. 4 inch stove, none too lara- fent 
postpaid, per mail *J 60 

3M> inch ] in 

Knife, 80 cents. 3 inch i.uo 

2\i inch 'JO 

r. F. Bingham, ?'°';^,;••■. '^ 

Farwell, Mich. Lutle Wonder, 3 ^n. .65 



Pateot Wired Comb Foandation 

has no sag in brood frames. 

TMn Flat Bottom Foondatlon 

has no Fish-bone in Surplus Honey. 

Being the cleanest is usually worked the 
quickest of any foundation made. The talk 
about wiring frames seems absurd. We furnish 
a Wired Foundation that is Better, Cheaper 
and not half the trouble to use that it is to 
wire brood frames. 

Circulars and sample free. 

J. VAN DEUSEN <£ SONS, 

Sole Manufacturers 
Montgomery Co., Sprout Brook, N. Y. 



L J. STRINGHAM, 

105 Park Place, 
NEW YORK . 
Furnishes everything a bee-keeper uses. We endeavor to have 
our Hne of suppHes include the most practical articles. Full col- 
onies of bees. Nuclei colonies and queens in season, Discount 
J for early orders. 
Apiaries. Glen Cove, L. I. Catalog free. 



Bee Supplies Exclusively 

A complete line of Lewis' fine Bee I Bingham's Original Patent Smokers 
supplies. «^d Knives. 

Dadant's Foundation. I Root's Extractors, Gloves, Veils, etc. 

Queen Bees and Nuclei in Season. In fact anything needed in the "Bee- 
Line," at 

FACTORY PRICES HERE IN CINCINNATI 

Where prompt service is yours, and freight rates are lowest. Special dis- 
count for early orders. Send for cata log. 

THE FRED W. MUTH COMPANY 

(We're Successors to Nobody, nor Nobody's Successors to Us.) 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 
51 WALNUT STREET 



3 and 5=Banded Italian 
and Carniolan Queens. 

Say friends, you who have support- 
ed' us during the past season, we 
desire to express our thanks for 
your patronage in the past, and 
respectfully solicit a continuance of 
your valued favors through the sea- 
son of 1904. 

Our queens now stand upon their 
merits and former record. We are 
preparing for next season, and seek- 
ing the patronage of large apiarists 
and dealers. We do not claim that 
our queens are superior to all oth- 
ers but that they are as good as 
the best. We will furnish from one 
to a thousand at the following 
prices- ""^sted of either race, $1; 
one uute d, 75c., 5 for $3.25, lO 
for $6, 15 for $8.25, 25 for $12.50, 50 
for $23.50, 100 for $45. 
For descriptive circulars address, 

JOHN W. PHARR, Prop., 

New Century Queen Rearing Co., Ber- 
clair, Goliad Co., Texas. 



9 



American 




BEE 



Journal 



16 -p. Weekly. 

_ ^ Sample Free. 

aS" All about Bees and their 
profitable care. Best writers. 
Oldest beepaper; illustrated. 

Departments f< r beginners 
and for women bee-keepers. 
Address, 

OEORQE W. YORK & CO.. 
144 & 146 Erie St. Chicago.Ilu 



Subscription Agencies. 

Subscriptions for the Ameri- 
can Bee-Keeper may be entered 
through any of the following 
agients, when more convenient 
than remitting to our offices at 
Fort Pierce, Florida, or James- 
town, N. Y.: 

J. E. Jonhson, Williamsfleld, 

.11. 

The Fred W. Muth Company, 

51 Walnut St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

T. Phillips, Johneonville, N. Y. 

John W. Pharr, Berclair, Tex. 

W O. Victor, Wharton, Texas, 

Miss S. Swan, Port Burwell, 

; Ontario. 

\ G. A. Nunez, Stann Creek, 

• British Honduras. 

[ Walter T. Mills, Burnham, N. 

> Rochester, Kent Co., Ivan House, 

I England. 

\ G. J. S. Small, Marton, Wang- 

[ anui New Zealand. 

I H. H. Robinson, Independencia 

* 16 Matanzas, Cuba. 
[ 




Vol. XIV 



MAY, 1904. 



No. 5 



PLACE FOR THE NEXT MEET- 
ING OF THE NATIONAL BEE- 
KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 



By Frank Benton. 



AS A MEMBER of this organiza- 
tion I am of the opinion that 
stronger reasons can be present- 
ed in favor of holding the next annual 
convention in St. Louis than in any 
other place. 

1st. There will not be the least 
doubt as to railway rates, and they 
will be lower than can be secured by 
the Association itself, even if the re- 
quired number to secure reductions on 
the certificate plan from the various 
sections of the country could be got 
together in any other city. 

2nd. Everyone wants to go to the 
grand World's Fair which will be held 
in St. Louis in 1904. 

3rd. Many good bee-keepers who are 
able to give more information to oth- 
ers than they are likely to get them- 
selves at such a meeting, would hard- 
ly feel disposed to pay their fare to a 
distant point for the sake of present- 
ing in person their views, which they 
could give to the public through the 
medium of printed .iournals, unless 
there should be at the terminus of 
their journey some other attraction in 
addition to the convention. 

4th. St. Louis is central. It will 
appeal to bee-keepers fi'om the East 
and the West, from the North and the 
South. It is not too far Bast for the 
Rocky Mountain and Pacific Coast 
bee-keepers, nor too far West for those 
from the middle and Eastern i-egions. 

5th. It has never had a national bee- 



keepers' meeting, although nearly an 
of the important cities about it have 
been thus favored, some of them even 
having three or more conventions 
apiece, Chicago, Indianapolis, Cincin- 
nati, Lexington, Lincoln, and even St. 
Joseph ("which is in the state of Miz- 
zouray"). New Orleans and also At- 
lanta have each had a bee-keepers' 
convention, which was, in each case, 
intended to be national or international 
in scope, and besides numbers of bee- 
keepers from the ad.iacent region, they 
did attract some also from the North. 

Gth. Accommodations of the right 
sort for holding a convention in St. 
Louis can efisily be secured through 
proper application in time and a defi- 
nite fixing of the date of the meetinjir 
long enough beforehand. 

7th. Dozens of suggestions present 
themselves to tlve mind of anyone at 
once as to the lines and oi)portunitie,s 
which will be afforded to make a 
creditable showing for the industry, 
and of the scope of tlie work of the 
national society which represents it in 
this country. And these will be mani- 
festly greater in connection with such 
an exhibition of apiarian products 
and implements as might be made at 
the St. Louis Exposition, than would 
be the case were Cincinnati. San An- 
tonio or Salt Lake City selected. 

When the great Louisiana purchase 
Exposition has passed, I shall be 
luartily in favor of holding a meeting 
in Texas, a a or»e in Utah. In this 
connection it mav be of interest to 
know where the thirty-four conven- 
tions have been held. Indianapolis 
lias had 3: Cleveland, Louisville. Pitts- 
burg and Toledo. 1 each; Philadelphia 
and New York, 2 each: Chicago, 4; 



88 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



May, 



Cincinnati, 2; Lexington, 1; Toronto, 
2; Rochester, Detroit, Columbus, 
Brantford, Keokuk, Albany, Washing- 
ton, St. Joseph and Lincoln, 1 each; 
Buffalo, 2; Omaha, Denver and Los 
Angeles, 1 each. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C, January, 1904. 



AN OBSERVATION HIVE. 



By D. D. Alley. 

I AM a beginner in bee-keeping. I 
have two eight-"L" frame hives in 
my back garden and an observa- 
tion hive in my dining room vrindow. 
I keep them more for the pleasure af- 
forded in studying their habits than 
for the amount of honey produced. 

Yonkers is a city of over 50,000 in- 
habitants and is practically an over- 
flow from the gi-eat city of New York, 
south of it. The lawns are kept mow- 
ed as close as the beard on a monk's 
face. White clover blossoms are as 
scarce as snowflakes are in Florida. 
In spite of the lack of pasturage, my 
bees managed fo fill the sections with 
some of the finest honey I have ever 
eaten. 

My observation hive has been a 
source of great pleasure and profit- 
able study to myself and friends, one 
of whom has facetiously referred to 
it as "Alley's Bug House!" It was 
constructed to hold two fninics "' 
size. On the 1st of July, I placed in it 
one frame of bees witli a queen and 
one frame with a starter only. In a 
short time this frame was filled with 
comb and brood. In the meantime, 
brood from the old frame had hatched 
out and by the first of August the 
littlf' hive was packed with bees. I 
wrote to the editor of a prominent bee 
journal, explaining the conditions and 
asking for advice to relieve the crowd- 
ing, as I did not want to lose the bees. 
He sugtrested that I "remove a frame 
of brood and replace it with one emp- 
ty conili." adding, "We snpnose. of 
course, that you are keeping this hive 
for pleasure and pronalily do not in- 
tend to winter them. "This advice 
would be all right if 1 luid a large ap- 
iary; l)ut. i)ractieally. it meant in my 
case to throw away the V)ees, and I did 
intend to try aiid winter them over. 

I immediately set to work .-imi co' - 
structed a new hive, the walls of 



which were in the for mof two L's, 
the front and right side being station 
ary. The left side witn the back can 
be shoved in and out on the bottom 
board, and it is held in place by two 
iron 14 inch rods passing through the 
upper edge of the sides. These rods 
also act as supports for the frames. 
This hive may be contracted to one 
frame or expanded to hold a dozen or 
more. I have successfully prevented 
the propolizing of the movable side, by 
rubbing over the edges with sculptor's 
"plasteriue," a substance used by 
sculptors for modeling, in place of 
clay. It never gets hard, it is water- 
proof and seems to be a combination 
of beeswax and powdered sulphur. 
Perhaps the bees do not like the sul- 
phur and so leave it alone. I trans- 
ferred the bees to this new hive, ex- 
panding it and adding a new frame 
with starter from time to time. It 
now contains six frames and the bees 
have every prospect of wintering suc- 
cessfully. I inclose a photograph 
showing the hive in position. 
Yonkers, New York, Nov. 11, 1903. 



OUR CALIFORNIA LETTER. 



Things Apiarian on the Pacific Coast. 



By Heni*y E. Horn. 

AFTER basking and roasting in al- 
most uninterrupted sunshine for 
over six months. Southern Cali- 
fornia has once more experienced the 
blessings of rain. True, we did not get 
much, yet we are thankful now 
for anything, and there is some pros- 
pect for more later on. The farmers 
say it is too late now to raise grain and 
they expect to cut the stuff for hay. 
Of coiirse, bee-keeping is looking up 
some. It would not take much rain, 
now, to give us some kind of a crop. 
One good soaking of two or three 
inches would gladden the heart of 
many an apiculturist. Bee-keeping 
here has not been the unintermittent 
success people at distant places seem 
to think. Indeed, to be honest about it, 
it has rather been an intermittent 
failure for the last six years — intermit- 
tant to the extent of just one middling 
good success, and one lesser one. Last 
year was the most tantalizing season 
I have ever gone through. Not want 
of rain; drv winds and burning sun 




"ALLEY'S BUG HOUSE. 



IK) 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



May, 



spoiled our hopes that time. To that 
we are getting used; but misty nights, 
cold sea-fogs, and raw breezes, and all 
the time the hill slopes abloom with 
sages, the undulating background car- 
peted with yellow and blue and pur- 
ple and white; every colony in prime 
shape and strength for harvest work, 
but unable to go out. When there is 
no bloom the weather Ts as fine as one 
could imagine, and when we have 
bloom in superabundance the weather 
is as bad as can be — wouldn't that jab 
you? Well, it did me. 

The bees have come through our so- 
called winter all right, and are in good 
condition everywhere. There is con- 
siderable brood-rearing going on, but 
pollen is yet scarce, as is, also, new 
honey. The willows, eucalyptus, 
almonds and early peaches furnish 
about all there is. In many places a 
judicious feeding of rye-meal would 
probably assist towards more exten- 
sive brood production. In about three 
or four weeks more the orange bloom 
will set in and, as it lasts about four 
weeks in good weather, strong col- 
onies, well managed, and almost, if 
not altogether, house an average 
honey crop. Of course, that is tiiie 
only of those running for extract. The 
comb honey producers have too much 
swarming to contend with and conse- 
quent scattering of forces to get much 
orange honey. But if one has a super 
full of partly drawn comb from last 
year, all nicely cleaned, and the comb- 
faces pared off a quarter inch, one can 
do pretty well, too, with comb honey. 
But the faces must be pared or sliced 
ofF, else tlie cappings will show dark, 
no matter how clear the honey may 
be. 

A Pasadena millionaire seems to 
think that there is lots of money to 
l)e made in apiculture yet. for he has 
lately bought up all available apiaries 
in this neighborhood— some thousand 
colonies. And the repoi't is that xie 
has bought up all he could get in other 
places in South Calif ornTa as well. The 
prices paid for average stock is said 
to have been about three dollars. 
Some bee men seem to think that 
honey production cannot be brought 
under the dominion of the modern 
spii-it of capitalization, hence this mil- 
lionaire's experiment will ve watched 
with interest. 

An aggravating case of foul brood 



infection happened in East Rivex'side. 
A well known apiarist sold his apiary, 
and then started afresh with a few 
colonies to raise up another — a model 
apiary. For that purpose he bought 
new dove-tailed hives, new frames, 
new fixtures generally; then he put 
bees into them, and then he imported 
directly from their home the best pure 
Itiilian queens. So far all went well. 
But one day, some time later, he no- 
ticed, in looking through a colony some 
cells showing up wrong. He went to 
the next hive, and to the next; and 
everywhere he found the same wrong- 
looking cells, the coffee-brown, sticky, 
ropey stuff where a young bee ought 
to be. Looking around among his 
neighbors for possible causes, he came 
upon one, also calling himself a bee- 
man, who had cut foul-brooded combs 
out of their frames and dumped the 
cornipted mass behind a bush in the 
open, where thousands of bees fed on 
it. That also-beeman has no use for 
bee papers, but he was persuaded in 
short order to subscribe to constable 
papers. 

Riverside, Cal., March 9, 1904. 

LATER. 

THE weather has been rather 
favorable with us this past 
month. We have had consider- 
able rain, warm days between, and 
no cold nights or frosty mornings. The 
orange bloom is settmg in well, the 
sage is growing fast, the hill slopes 
are becoming fresh green, balmy air 
is all around, a mild sun overhead. A 
little longer and ours will again be a 
land of rare beauty and of pure de- 
light. Farther up the coast, especially 
in Ventura County, Avhere live and 
operate our apiarian captains, Men- 
delson, Mclntire, et al. the precipita- 
tion to date has been sufficieui to pro-^ 
duce at least an average crop of this 
world's best sweets, provided, of 
course, that the weather clerk sends 
along, some time later, a spring 
shower or two. Farther up still, in 
the central and northern counties, peo- 
ple were praying for sunshine about ^ 
the same time that Los Angeles 
preachers i)etitioned heaven for rain — 
and with about as much success. They 
have been having old times again up 
there; torrents of rain, rushing rivers, 
flooded lawlands, and no end in sight, 
But the climax has been reached in 



1904. 



rHE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPEU. 



91 



the high Sierras, suow-clad summer 
and winter, the batUe ground of the 
primeval elements ever since the ice 
age retreated polevi^ard. Snow Irwenty 
to eighty feet deep. Canons leveled 
brimful overnight, whole towns laid 
away in nature's own funeral shroud 
till spring and resurrection. They say 
that apiculture up there, or along the 
higher slopes, is wonderfully produc- 
tive, that tile honey flow lasts all sum- 
mer through, and is as certain as nat- 
ural law. But bees cannot live there 
in winter, with forty feet of snow 
piled on top of them, or exposed to the 
terrific blasts of the -winter storms. A 
few venturesome men move apiaries 
up from the foothills most every spring 
or early summer, and return in the 
fall loaded to the guards with honey, 
wax and increase. But moving api- 
aries hundreds of miles every year is 
not everybody's business, and they 
say that there ^ is yet considerable 
room up in the California Alps for api- 
arists of the strenuous type. 

On the whole then, the prospects for 
a crop of honey are rather good at 
present in this State. 

ONE FOR DICKEL. 
At the first spring overhauling of 
my apiary, about six weeks ago, 1 
came to a colony that had become 
queenless for some reason or other. 
Ordinarily it is best to unite such a 
one with another queenright colony. 
But this was pretty strong, able to 
raise a queen and make honey besides, 
when the time would come. So they 
were given a frame of brood and shut 
up — and forgotten. On examination 
a little less than three weelvs later a 
young virgin was found, a lot of de- 
stroyed queen cells, all the rest of the 
brood either hatched or capped over, 
but near the center o fthe comb a 
worker cell — just one — was sealed over 
round, raised up. There was a drone 
in that cell without the least doubt. 
There was no intention at that time 
of testing the Dickel theory; it flashed 
into my mind only when I looked at 
tliat raised cell. They say that mira- 
cles do not happen any more; that is: 
because the beholder's eyes are veiled. 
That incomprehensible, eccentric, ut- 
most methodical busybody, the worl^er 
bee, able to convert an ordinary bee 
egg into either a perfect male, a per- 
fect female, or a sexless worker, as it 



sees fit, — isn't that a miracle of the 
very first order? Does that happen 
again in the whole wide domain of 
nature? 

Weissman has been reported as de- 
nying the correctness of the Dickel 
theory. Weissman is an authority on 
biology, ranking very high. I wonder 
what he would make of that little 
round-capped cell of mine out in Pig- 
eon Pass Canon. As I now remember, 
this same thing has happened to n:i 
before, but I never knew its meaning 
or importance. 
REFUSE BEET SUGAR FOR BEES. 

There was mailed to me by a near- 
by sugar mill a circular advising me 
to buy some of their lumpy leftover 
beet sugar for bee feed. There .s, of 
course, nothing unusual in that. But 
at the bottom of the leaflet there ap- 
pears an indorsement, signed by H. 
J. Mercer, secretary California N. H. 
P. A., recommending said lumpy beet 
sugar as being healthier as well as 
cheaper to feed than honey, with no 
danger of foul brood from its use, at 
which this humble scril^e has wonder- 
ed a gi'eat deal. "Healtliier" than 
honey, the bees' very own special food, 
lumpy beet sugar? If sugar is health- 
ier than honey, honey must be lens 
healthy than sugar. The only thing 
that would or could make honey less 
healthy than sugar is the possibility of 
its carrying the spores of the foul 
brood disease. Mr. Mercer does not 
say why. But he later on expressly 
mentions sugar as dangerless with re- 
gard to foul brood, thus leaving the 
impression behind that the iloney in 
the marlvet is veiy likely largely foul- 
brood-spore infected goods, and hence 
not good for bee feed, nor, by impli- 
cation, for man food, either. But foul- 
broody colonies are not productive, and 
therefore furnish no honey for the 
market, and this Mr. ]\Iercer must 
know. "No danger of foul bi-ood from 
its use" — directly, no, but indirectly, 
sugar may become a very strong fac- 
tor in the taking of the disease. In 
years gone by Europeans practiced ex- 
tracting honev to the last dron. and 
feeding up with sugar instead. Honey 
sold ff)r twice the price of sugar, thus 
making that .svstem of robbery seem 
a proifital)le one. But close observers 
found that sugar-fed colonics soon 
lacked the vim and Vigor of those fed 
on honey, and that they, moreover, 



92 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



May, 



and for that reason, were much more 
liable to foul broo-d infection. The 
albumenoids of the honey, vitally nec- 
essary to bee life, are not found in su- 
gar. Besides sugar is not directly food 
tor bees anyway. Only after its chem- 
ical inversion does it become so, but 
that act requires the expenditure of 
vital energy on the part of the work- 
ers^ and hence reduces rather than 
adds to their store of it. Nor is sugar 
cneaper. At five cents a pound its 
price, less freight, is just level with 
that of honey, the only true bee feed 
in existence. 

It may be stated witnout the addi- 
tion of anr extr;i s;i.r("isiii that :Mr. 
Mercer is a bee man and an officer of 
an organization worlcing for "ihe sole 
piiriKisc of extending tiie honey mar- 
ket and of maintaining a good price 
for it! 

Mr. Fletcher, of Pasadena, the man 
wl'o li;is \:v"-\ bnyinti' U)) ;M)i:iries 
wholesale in Southern California for 
the last six months, now owns twelve 
thousand colonies, scattered over ,six 
counties. He will probably not bor- 
row any trouble from anybody for 
some time to come. 

Riverside, Cal., April 8, 19u4. 



HIVE CONSTRUCTION, ETC. 

A Very Inte'-esting Letter Addressed to the "Irish 
Bee Journal." by a Venerable Expert. Thoroughly 
Familiar with Apiculture on Both Sides of the 
Sea. 



By Dr. W. A. Smyth. 

THE large number of bee-keepers 
at home and abroad, who have 
1 — ^„ in+,-v,.cwefQf1 in Ttr Smvtb's 



been interested in Dr. Smyth's 
scientific articles will be pleased to 
have a picture of the doctor in his api- 
ary. Our desire was to publish an "in- 
terview" but circumstances having ren- 
dered it impossible at present to ac- 
cept a very cordial invitation to Done- 
niana. Dr. Smyth has been good enough 
to supply the following letter to ac- 
company the illustration. We hope on 
a future occasion to supply our read- 
ers with notes of a visit to Donemana, 
and of an inspection of tne wonderful 
microscope and scientific curiosities* 
there. Dr. Smyth has been a fast 
friend of the Irish Bee .Tournal. and a 
most valued contributor to our col- 
umns. His articles have been re-pub- 



lished in the foreign bee papers, and 
have attracted the attention of some 
of the foremost bee-keepers of the day. 
We are deeply indebted to him for 
much of the remarkable success which 
has attended the effort to produce 
here a bee joui-nal worthy of the sub- 
ject to which it is devoted, and of the 
eounti-y of its birth. Dr. Smyth writes: 
"A photogi-apher from Derry, nine 
miles distant by cycling road, and five 
in a bee-line, happened to call one 
evening seeking a chance to practice 
his art, and hence this picture. 

"From boyhood 1 have been inter- 
ested in bees, but I never kept any un- 
til after reading Langstroth's work — 
it might be called a poem— on the 
honey bee. I spent a day with Lang- 
stroth at Oxford, Ohio, in 1867, and 
the same year he sent me to New Or- 
leans, a dozen of his hives, and half 
a dozen Italian qupens. The Italian 
bees, as a rule, were very gentle, but 
all colonies were not alike in disposU 
tion or color. Lanstroth told me that he 
thought the Italian bees were a hy- 
brid race, as their shape, markings, 
and disposition were not at all fixed 
or uniform. 

"1 lost most of the queens from dis- 
e:ise which I attributed at the time to 
excessive manipulation. I frequently 
took out the comb with the 
queen on it. without using any 
smoke, and the queen would 
continue laying eggs in the cells with- 
out being in the least disconcerted 
by exposure to the light or by num- 
bei-s of persons around her. Foul- 
brood is common in Louisiana, prob- 
ably owing to the dampness of the 
climate, but for some i-cnsons it is not 
so infectious or disposed to spread as 
it is in Ireland. 

"I never attended ciosely to super- 
ing hives so as to get much honey. My 
fi'iends could always make use of all 
the honey I could get from the bees. 
I have liot kept bees for profit, but 
from an interest in their marvellous 
work and ceaseless toil, and to study 
their wonderful instincts of labor and 
or.ganization, and their surprising in- 
telligence, which Maeterlinck has so 
dwelt upon Avlthout in the least ex- 
aggerating it. The briefness of their 
life, as contrasted with the object and 
results of their labor, led Maeterlinck, 
however, to ask the question: 'Why 
do bees want to live"* 



19()4. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPEK. 



93 



"May it not be that all living cells 
struggle and fight for life, the hope ol 
higher things and better days as a 
property of living cells, and insepar- 
able from them, animates all life from 
the lowest to the highest, ana is real- 
ly what Maeterlinclv calls the 'spirit 
of the hive' ? 

"The first hive in the picture (five 
Langstroth hives on the left not 
shown) is the hive exhibited at Cork, 
and the village carpenter, Taylor, who 
made it, is nearly in the rear of it. He 
has distinguished himself as the first 
to attempt making a hygienic hive; 
but whether he thought of the sweet 



improvement, however, on the hives 
of 1867. The fioor-board is fixed to 
the hive, wnich is ob.1ectionable. The 
iron legs were made so that weights 
could be placed on them for security 
against storms. The legs ai"e half 
an inch from the sides of the hive, 
The inside breadth is fourteen inches, 
and takes nine frames at one and a 
half inch spacing or ten frames at one 
and three-eighths inch spacing. The 
bees certainly do better on 
the ten frames, and I think 
Eangstroth was right when he 
concluded that one and three-eigths 
inches is the best allowance for combs 




DR. SMITH'S APIARY, DONEMANA, IRELAND. 



smiling goddess of health or her illus- 
trious father Esculapius, while making 
it, is problematical. 

"The second hive in the picture is a 
'combination hive' made fiteen yeai's 
ago by Fulton, a very expert carpen- 
ter and bee manipulator, living near 
Claudy, Ala. The hive takes fourteen 
frames and a divison board. It is a 
well-made hive that has many advan- 
tages, and only one fault. It is not 
hygienic, and is not now stocked with 
bees. The next is the Langstroth hive, 
one of a dozen from the late T. G. 
Newman, of Chicago, in 1895; not an 



in the brood chamber. The two stand- 
ing hives are of simple construction. 
One of them, with frames across the 
entrance, has double walls at the 
sides; the other, with frame ends to 
entrance, has double walls front and 
back. 

"In hives with double walls, if the 
inner walls should happen to be tight 
— and the bees will endeavor to make 
them so — and the outer walls open to 
some extent, allowing circulation of 
air, the double walls do not seem to 
do any harm. Some bee-keepers say 
that their bees do best in hives with 



94 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



May, 



cracks and openings in the walls. The 
badly-built, chinky homes of the poor 
are often more hygienic than the care- 
fully built palaces of the rich. The 
open au- treatment of disease consists, 
simply, in getting the patient away 
from the microbes growing In dead 
air spaces. There are ten microbes 
growing in the mouth for one growing 
in the nose; the nose is better venti- 
lated. 

"The disease, appendicitis, arises 
from a dead air space in the intestines, 
for which we can find no use, and 
which evolutionists say that nature in 
time will eradicate. Is it not now 
time for bee-keepers to eradicate dead 
air spaces in their bee hives, as a hygi- 
enic measure? Measures belong to 
man, but principles and time belong 
to Gk)d." 

Donemana, Co. Tyrone, Irejand. 



FERMENTING HONEY. 



Something of Its Treatment and Culinary Uses. 



By Mrs. S. A. Smith. 

IN the December issue of the Ameri- 
can Bee-Keeper I see that Mr. G. A. 
Nunez, of Honduras, asks about 
fermenting honey. 

From what he writes, I think as 
you do, that the trouble is caused by 
some member of the palm family. Per- 
haps .iust enough honey is gathered 
from it to cause fermentation ^■^hen 
mixed with honey from another 
source. 

We have always had Just the same 
trouble with honey from the cabbage 
palmetto ti-ee. While saw palmetto 
honey is cured and ready to extract 
almost as soon as stored, the honey 
from cabbage palmetto is never cured 
in the hive. I have left it in the hive 
a year, and at the end it was no bet- 
ter than in the beginning, fou can 
see the honey in the cells work just 
like yeast. 

The way we treat such honey is to 
place it on the ffre and slowly heat, 
and keep it hot at least six hours. We 
never got it so hot that it would boil, 
and I think you could place your hand 
in it without burning. A scum w'd 
rise, which we remove. After this 
treatment we have no more trouble. 
The flavor of the honey is very much 
improved. Before heating it has an 



acid taste; after heating it has a car- 
amel flavor. 

(^ne customer, who used five gal- 
lons of honey a year, would take that 
kind every time he could get it. But 
for baking I always keep a supply un- 
cooked, for the acid is just what is 
needed. 

I make all fruit cakes and plum 
puddings from it, and everyone who 
eats them Is sure to ask how they are 
made, and of what. I always use 
soda instead of baking powder, and as 
honey cake must be baked slow, that 
is much better, becuse it is slower to 
fall than the baking powder. 

The acid and soda make a complete 
raising combination and is yery much 
ahead of baking powder, and is ver> 
cheap, too. 

The cakes and puddings made frora 
this honey would keep for months, 
and improve every day. The only 
trouble I ever had was that the rest 
of the family would not agree with me 
about keeping them, and for once 
their motto was, "Never put off until 
tomorrow what you can do today." 
Their idea is to consume that which is 
good and keep that which is not. 

At our neighborhood parties and pic- 
nics where cake is needed. I am al- 
ways asked, "Will you please bring a 
honey cake?" I -Vv^ish the whole pub- 
lic was educated to its use. If they 
were, there would be a good market 
for all we could produce. For bakers' 
use, it would be the cheapest and best 
of any honey, for no cream of tartar 
would be needed in using it, and that 
is the most costly part of baking pow- 
der. 

Mr. H. C. Gifford, of Vero. Fla., told 
me that his plan of disposing of such 
honey was to keep it untiT cold weath- 
er, when it would eandy and would 
sell for as much in the open market in 
the north as our best saw palmetto 
honey. 

Another Florida bee-keeper told me 
he had an awful time with it, on ac- 
count of its bursting the barrels. 

I wish everyone knew the worth of 
honey for cooking. The cost per 
pound may be more than sugar, but it 
is nevertheless cheaper to use in mak- 
ing cake, because cheaper fats and 
less eggs may be used than when su- 
gar is, and what is more, the cake or 
pudding may be eaten without harm 
by those with the weakest stomachs, 



v.xu. 



'^HE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



J);") 



and they seem to be complete food. 

Where there are children, nothing 
could be better. They like and need 
sweets, and if you add good milk to 
the bill of fare, you will have one no 
child will ever find fault with. 

If less sawdust and straw, under 
the name of "breakfast foods," were 
used, and more honey cakes made and 
consumed in their place, there would 
be less sickness and weak stomachs 
than at present. 

Grant, Fla., Jan. 10, 1904. 



GENERAL NOTES. 

By C. S. Harris. 



CYPRIANS ARE VICIOUS. 

By Dr. O. M. Blantou. 

IN THE MARCH number of the Am- 
erican Bee-Keeper i find an ar- 
ticle by Mil Arthur C. Miller in re- 
gard to the nature of the Cyprian bee, 
in which he seems to infer that it is 
my bad management of the smoker in- 
stead of the ill-temper of the bees that 
causes the trouble. 

With thirty yeai's' experience as an 
apiculturist I have learned the abuse 
of the smoker and avoid using it as 
much as possible. 

How is it, that after going through 
fifteen black a,nd one Carnio-Cyprian 
colony without a sting, I should be at- 
tacked by almost the entire Cyprian 
colony and repeated day by day three 
consecutive times? Not only that, but 
a week after, when passing the hive, 
they would rush out at me. 

Knowing the trouble I would prob- 
ably have I reloaded my smoker and 
pusned a few rags over the wood and 
gave tuem the gentle puu of smoke, 
but as soon as I attempted to remove 
a comb they rushed by thousands at 
me. 

I next day tried tobacco wrapped 
in rags, with the same result, proceed- 
ing with the greatest care. 

As a dernier resort I used sulphur, 
which subdued them until I could re- 
move the surplus honey. This all oc- 
curred when there was a large flow of 
honey on. There never was a time I 
used more caution. 

Mr. Miller's strain of bees must be 
quite different from mine. I have the 
experience of Mr. A. I. Root to tally 
with mine and it is useless to claim for 
the Cyprians gentleness, because he 
has a comparatively gentle colony. 
Greenville. Miss.. :Miirch 12. 1904. 



BEES MOVING EGGS. 
I think that W. W. McNeal is right 
in supposing that the eggs were car- 
ried by the bees from the brood nest 
to the super, through queen-excluding 
metal. I had an experience some 
years ago which convinced me that 
bees do move eggs. See A. B.-K. for 
October. » 

"IMPROVED QUEEN REARING" 

Mr. Geo. W. Phillips' review of Mr. 
Alley's book, in Gleanings for Novem- 
ber 15th, and his criticisms of the 
methods of Queen-rearing there given 
appears to me both very good and very 
fair. While, undoubtedly good (lueens 
can be reared by Mr. Alley's methods, 
they are too "puttering" and "fussy'' 
for the average man, particularly 
when at least just as good queens can 
be reared by much more simple meth- 
ods. 

BALL OP BEES WITH QUEEN. 

Again I find myself with Dr. Miller, 
and arrayed against Editor E. R. Root, 
in the matter of a ball of bees being 
found about a clipped queen on the 
ground at swarming time. It is sel- 
dom, in my experience, that a clipped 
queen mv ' > return to the hire 

and unless I am present at the time 
of swarming, I generally lose the 
queen, sometimes finding her dead 
near the hive. Occasionally I have 
found a small cluster of bees with the 
queen, biit usually she is entirely un- 
accompanied. Certainly not once in 
a dozen times do I find a bee with her. 
FRAME SPACING. 

The discussion upon this subject has 
always been a puzzle to me. I use a~ 
loose hanging frame and it seems sec- 
ond nature to space it properly. I have 
no trouble with bulged or badly built 
combs. I sui»pose if one had to have 
incompetent or careless help thei'e 
might be trouble in this respect. Pro- 
polis is very bad with me and I simply 
could not use the seemingly popular 
self -spacing frames with any comfort, 
and I have yet to see any self-spacing 
frame which eipials the lose hanging 
frame for general use. 

MOSQUITO HAWKS. 

In the October issue of Gleanings 
Mr. H. F. Stafford asks a question 
in regard to mosquito hawks, and the 
editor calls on his Southern subscrib- 



9« 



THE AMKHICAX BEiC-KKEPEU. 



Maj\ 



ers for help in the uiMtter. I h;ive been 
watching for something on the suhjeet, 
but so far have not seen anything. 1 
am satisfied that at times I ]o,se (jueens 
at tlie mating period, in considerable 
numbers, by the attacks of these in- 
sects. Fortunately it is the general 
habit of the moscpiito hawks in this 
locality to fly only iu the early morn- 
ing and evening and on dull or cloudy 
days, and this is a partial safe-guard. 
but occasionally they will be about 
in hundreds. I might almost say thou- 
sands, upon days which the queens 
find good enough for Hight. and at 
such times my i)ercentage of loss is 
always heavy. It is true I have never 
seen a queen taken by one of these 
hawks, but I have had workers snap- 
ped from my hands and have caught 
the robber with the bee fast in its 
jaws. 

These moii(iuito hawks ari' always 
numerous during the season of bay 
bloom and I have sometimes doubted 
if the nectar secured from it compen- 
sated for the accompanying loss of 
bees. Bay bloom does not open until 
late in the afternoon, unless the day 
be cloudy, and then the whirring of 
wings and snapiiing of the powerful 
jaws of these air pirates in the apiary 
is to me a very distressing sound. I 
have never found any way of combat- 
ting them. 

Holly Hill, Fla., Nov. 26, 1903. 



NEW INVENTIONS. 

747.0.3."). Comb Foundation for Bee- 
hives. Hugo A. Feldmann, Holyoke, 
Mass. Filed April 27. 1!)03. Serial 
No. 1. ■"14,472. 

Claim. — A comb foundation for bee- 
hives consisting of a wa.x cellular 
comb-sheet of rectangular form and a 
fi'anie having witnm one end member 






Writing under date of Ajiril 21st 
Mr. D. H. Coggshall, of Groton, N. 
Y., says: "I think we shall lose fully 
one-half of our bees. In fact, I 
think one-half are dead at this writ- 
ing, and I believe it will be so all over 
the state." 




a groove, the frame having grooves 
within the inner faces of its opposite 
side members, and having a slot 
through its other end member extend- 
ing from near one end to the other of 
such member, the end portions of 
which .slot match with the grooves in 
the adjoining side members, said 
comb-shfeet having marginal support- 
ing engagements in said grooves and 

slot. " ' 

ONE "BOY ON THE FARM." 



Our stall' contributor, Mr. Adrian 
Getaz, writing April 22d. tells of a 
disastrous freeze which visited this 
State on the 20th. idtinio.. utterly 
freezing young iieaches and pears al- 
ready formed, and also the apple 
bloom. He says the honey cro]) ^y\]\ 
be almost a failure there. 



A Youthful Bee-keeper of the Pine-Tree State Who 
is an Interested Subscriber to The Bee-Keeper. 



Whatever may be the extent of the 
honey crop, present Indicajtions are 
that an excellent market awaits it. 



Can you use a few sample copies? 
We'll be pleased to send them. 



By Rev. C. M. Herring. 

THE mother here introduced— 
Mrs. A. F. Cromwell — is a wid- 
ow, of character and influence, 
whose home is on a farm in a rural 
district in the town of Topsham, Me. 
The farm is quite remote from 
neiglibors, partly surrounded by for- 
ests, having a rich and jn-oductive soil. 
It is a home of beauty, having a large 
supply of fruit trees, vines, white clo- 
ver, and other sources in which is 
stoi-ed the iirecious nectar ,so invint- 
ing to the labors of the bee, while 
the surrounding forests are inter- 
.spersed with wild berries, motmtain 
ash, and basswood, all of which make 
the farm a rich one for the production 
of honey. Besides, there is one other 
source of supply which Is not common. 



1!:K)4. 



rHE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



There is a lily pond uear at hand, 
which is white with its sweet blos- 
soms, nearly all snnnner, on which the 
bees were found to cluster in large 
numbers, and it is presumed they 
gathered honey from this source. 

Such Is the home of the widow, who 
has a little son — Bernard A. Crom- 
well — 13 years old, who has an inquir- 
ing mind, of quick perception, and is 
a child of promise. Over this boy the 
mother watches with parental care, 
iind seeks to guide his opening powers 
to noble ends. Almost any sacrifice 
would not be too great for her to 
make, in order to save her child from 



ning nil aitinry. IhT mind, and that of 
her boy, was full of investigation, and 
both were greatly delighted as the 
work went on. At this writing, the 
result of the summei''s work is fully 
known. 

The one colony purchased last 
spring has increased to four, and the 
three swarms are now heavy with 
their stores for winter. The first 
,swarm has given five pounds of sur- 
plus honey; and the old mother col- 
ony has given forty-hve pounds, worth 
twenty^five cents per pound. The 
three swarms are worth $12, and the 
fift.v pounds of honey are worth $12.50. 




MASTER CROMWELL AND HIS GOOD 
MOTHER. 



the influence of bad boys, and the cor- 
rupting vices of the city. She would 
like it, when he is grown up, if he 
would be inclined to cultivate the soil 
for a living and become an intelligent, 
honest and aggressive farmer. To pro- 
mote such a result she would pre- 
occupy his mind with a love for rural 
life in his early days. She would 
encourage in him the possesion of a 
little patch of ground to cultivate, as 
his own, to have his chickens, his pet 
lamb, his "bossy," and his bees. 

With such wishes and ideas, this 
mother purchased from me a colony 
of bees, and began the work of run 



The 



making the whole gain $24.50. 
outlays amount to about $9. 

The lesson here found is worthy the 
notice of evei-y farmer or mother who 
has a family of children. For all, the 
honey is a wholesome luxury, and for 
the children it is vastly better than 
candy. And then, the intellectual and 
moral lessons involved are most stim- 
ulating and elevating, as well as re- 
munerative in dollars and cents. 

If I were a farmer I would look 
after my harvest of honey as I would 
my havest of hay. 

Brunswick, Me., Nov. 30, 1903. 



4» M 4 MMM MM»M M » M -f >-♦-♦-►< 4 » ♦ ♦ m ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ M ♦ ♦ 

T . . ■ 1 ■"■ 




THE 



Bee -Keeping World 



staff Contributors : F. GREINER and ADRIAN GETAZ. 

Contributions to this Department are solicited from all quarters of the earth. 



^ 4I4»»»»»|HMMMM»M ♦♦♦♦♦»♦♦♦»♦♦♦»♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦» 

brick. It is a tenement hive. The 
partition walls are of unburned brick 
and wood, and the cost per colony is 
from two to three marks. In 1881 at 
an exhibition a hive was exhibited 
made of ground cork and plaster paris. 



ARGENTINA. 

The Agricultar Moderno reports a 
bee-keeper in the Province Ardoba, of 
averaging from 300 to 400 pounds of 
honey per hive each year. From other 
parts of Argentina It has been report- 
ed to the gleaner of this that the yields 
were very meagre and that bee-keepers 
were considering the advisability of 
importing the Italian bee, hoping by 
this measure to increase the yields per 
colony. 



This hive received the first premium 
at the time, but has not come into gen- 
eral use. — Central Blatt. 



The winter has been mild in Ger- 
many and favorable for the bees. 



HOLLAND. 
Rev. Richard, in Amsterdam, advo- 
cates to locate hive enti-ances in the 
tops of hives, instead of at the bottom. 
He observed a great difference in the 
yields of his two colonies which were 
of uniform strength, one, however, 
had the entrance at the top and giving 
large returns, the other with the en- 
trance low giving small returns. When 
a change was made and the entrances is 
were given at the top in both hives, 
the yield after that remained practical- 
ly uniform. 



IRELAND. 
An Irish Avriter laments that more 
bees are not kept in Ireland. The land 
jtroduces now but 700.000 pounds of 
honey and could be made to produce as 
much as 40,000,000 pounds. He ad- 
vises his Irish brothers not to emi- 
grate to America, but to stay at home 
and go into bee-keeping. — Leipz Bztg. 



GERMANY. 

The manufacture of honey is de- 
scribed in Praxis der Bzcht, as fol- 
lows: A quantity of flour is brown- 
ed in a kettle. According to the kind 
of honey wanted, the flour is browned 
more or less. Water is added little by 
little and the mess is constantly kept 
stirred. When of the right consistency 
saccharine and honey are added and 
also some essence. The mixture is 
then ready to be put up in tins. 
(Sounds like a hoax.) It is said that 
the makers of this fine honey have now 
established a plant in Chicago, 111. 



TUNIS. 

The material for bee hives used by 
the Tunisians is very inexpensive and 
nothing more or less than Mother 
Earth. However, the soil must be of 
a certain nature, a soft porous stone. 
Square holes are cut into the ground, 
80 cm. long, 40 cm. wide and 30 cm. 
deep. These holes are cut very smooth. 
Bars are used for the bees to fasten 
their combs to. Each cavity is covered 
with sticks, and a covering of earth. 
An entrance is left in the center of 
each hole. About 50 such hives are lo- 
cated together under one roof. The 
Tunisians use smoke to handle their 
bees and do not protect themselves 
against stings in any way. — Revue In- 
ternationale L' Apiculture. 



H. Bro<ltman, in Billerbeck, had had 
a hive patented which is made of 



SWITZERLAND. 

The bee-keepers in Switzerland are 
making the effort to preserve the pu- 
rity of the brown bee. A station has 
been established for the rearing of na- 
tive bees. American bee-keepers, 
friends of the brown bee here may soon 
find an opportunity to procure the. 
black or German bee in its purity. 



1904. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



99 



DENMARK. 

Judging from the Danske Biauls-Ti- 
tende, a Damsh agricultural bee jour- 
nal, bee-keeping in Denmark is carried 
on according to American principles. 
Doolittle's conversation translated 
from Gleanings, are often reproduced 
in this paper. The Danish bee-keep- 
ers' societ.v receives a yearly appro- 
priation from the State. 



BRAZIL. 

Editor Schenk of the Braz. Bienen- 
phledge, reports of never before having 
harvested such beautiful orange honey, 
and in such quantities, as the past 
honey season. The trees blossomed un- 
usually early and very profusely, thus 
affording the bees a gi-and opportunity 
for seven weeks to gather orange blos- 
som honey. — From Bienen Vater. 



' SPAIN. 
The heirs of Mr. Enrique de Merca- 
der-Belloch have decided to continue 
the publication of El Colmenero Es- 
panol and have secured for editor Mr. 
Pedro Villuendas Herrero. 



FRANCE. 

Mr. Baichere says that the honey- 
suckle (that is the European kind) 
produces a considera1)le quantity of 
nectar but that the flowers are so detp 
that the bees cannot reach it. How- 
ever, some kind of bumble bees are in 
the habit of cutting holes near the hot- 
toTu of the flowers to reach the acctur. 
The holes once made are used by the 
bees and other insects. Tlie honey 
from the honeysuckle is white and of 
an excellent taste. — L'Apiculteur. 

A correspondent of the Apiculteur 
says that somebody had soAvn a piece 
of buckwheat. Half of the field had 
been manured, and the other had re- 
ceived a good dose of lime. Hardly a 
bee was seen on the blossoms of the 
manured part, while they were very 
numerous on the other. This seems to 
sustain an opinion often expressed in 
Europe: that the limestone lands pro- 
duce more nectar than the others. — L'- 
Apiculteur. 

The same paper quotes from an Eng- 
lish .iournal the assertion that to cui*e 
rheumatism it is necessary to get 12 
stings per square inch. The question is 



asked, which is the worse — the cure 
or the disease. — L'Apiculteur. 



Dr. Clement, at Lyons, France, has 
made some experiments on the effect 
of formic acid on the human system. 
He took, four times a day, eight to ten 
drops of formic acid in water. After 
the first day the effects became appar- 
ent, and increased during the following 
three or four days. There is a certain 
excitation of the muscular system 
shown by a need of active movement. 
Also a considerable resistence against 
fatigue and tired feeling. With the use 
of formic acid, hard work or exercise 
can be much more easily performed. 
And the tired feeling often experienced 
the next morning after a day of hard 
work disappears completely. As the 
honey contains some formic acid, the 
suggestion comes of itself. — La Re- 
vue Eclectique. 



Mr. Alphandery gives a description 
of the cheapest bee hive stand I have 
yet heard of. Only two pieces, perhaps 
IxG inches, or about, placed one across 
the other so the ends come under the 
four corners of the hive. To bring them 
to the same level, each piece is notched 
half way at the middle. The lower one 
is ])Iaced the notch upward. The up- 
per one on it with the notch downward 
slipping in it. This description is not 
very clear, but with a little reflection 
the reader will understand what is 
meant. — Gazette Apicole. 



BELGIUM. 
Some time ago. I spoke of a discus- 
sion concerning the existence of laying 
workers, which had taken place in 
some of the European bee journals. 
More recently Mr. Mercier, of Thiri- 
mont, Belgium, experimented on the 
subject. He says that when the queen 
and all the unsealed brood are re- 
moved, no laying worker appears; at 
least it has been so in his experiments. 
He thinks that when all the larvae 
are too old to produce queens the ex- 
cess of jelly or royal jelly, is distribu- 
ted among the larvae and these or 
some of these become the laying work- 
ers. It might be well to state that 
other experiments made before did not 
turn out that way. In several cases, 
queen and unsealed brood were re- 
moved in order to make sure that no 



100 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



May, 



imperfect queen could be raised; but 
nevertlieless laying workers appeared 
and in large numbers at that. Mr. 
Mercier also recalls the fact that in 
queenless colonies wintered over never 
develop laying workers. — Le Progi-es 
Apicole. 



Mr. Simouart of Quievrain, Belgium, 
relates an experience with laying work- 
ers. After the fact was ascertained, 
he united that colony with one having 
a queen. As usual in such cases the 
drones were destroj^ed at once; but 
what caught Mr. Simonart's attention 
is the fact tJiat during the next six days 
a portion (about half in all) of the 
workers of the laying worker colony 
was destroyed, more or less every day. 

When two colonies refuse to unite, 
the bees of one are usually entirely de- 
stroyed or nearly so, and that is done 
within two days at most. But in this 
case, half the population is accepted, 
while the other half, or about, is grad- 
ually destroyed. Mr. Simonart thinks 
that such being the case, the destroyed 
bees were those engaged in laying or 
the actual laying workers. He thought 
that these killed bees had somewhat 
larger abdomens than the others. There 
could be no mistake as to which popu- 
lation the killed bees belonged to. as 
one colony was pure blacks, and the 
other pm-e Italians. — Le Progres Api- 
cole. 

Mr. Philijipe says that cotton waste, 
such as is used by the railroad engin- 
eers, is one of the best fuels for ihe 
smoker. — Le Proges Apricole. 



ITALY. 

In a previoiis contribution I stated 
that the leaves of the lime ti*ee bruised 
in the hand, attract the bees, and are 
used in Southern Italy to induce a 
swarm to settle where it is wanred. 
The same item has reappeared ;igain, 
but this time it is the Ismon trp^) that 
is named. The two kinds ar? so near 
alike that there could not be any dif- 
ference. fOur Florida friends are in- 
vited to ti-y. Perhaps the orange tree 
leaves might do.) A Germaji paper 
suggests that where the lemon tree 
does not grow, the bark or peelings of 
a lemon might be a good substitute. — 
L'Apiculteur. 



ALGERIA. 

Mr. Bourgeois says that while the 
Punic bees are usually vex-y cross, yet 
at times they can be liantlled as easily 
as any others. He adds that as hnney 
gatherers they are some'.vhat superior 
to the Italians and Carnoiians, at least 
so far as such as he had are concerned. 
— L'.\picultuer. 



RUSSIA. 

It is stated in "Ung. Biene" that 
bees were kept more extensively in 
Russia a thousand years ago than now. 
At Emperor Ivan's time the exports 
of honey were 810,000 kg. At the 
jiresent time the number of colonies 
kept are 5,106,722, the amount of hon- 
ey they produce 65,418,880 pounds, the 
wax represents 10,797,760 pounds. 
Russia consumes more honey and wax , 
than she produces A great deal of 
these products are imported from Hun- 
garia. 

It is known that the honey fully ri- 
pened contained in the hives during the 
winter, is too thick for immediate use. 
It was formerly admitted that the wa- 
ter evaporated from the bees and con- 
densed against walls of the hives fur- 
nished the water necessary to dilute 
the honey. Berlepsch was the first to 
discover that such water contains nox- 
ious matters evaporated with it and is 
not used by the bees. Lately a Rus- 
sian apiarist, Mr. Tseselsky, discover- 
ed that the bees are in the habit of 
uncapping the honey in advance. This 
Avhen uncapped, absorbs the moisture 
of the air, and is thus diluted. Com- 
paring the freshly uncapped honey 
with that uncapped several days be- 
fore, he found that the last had ab- 
sorbed one-half to two-thirds of its 
weight of water. The lower the tem- 
pera tin-e, the more water had been ab- 
sorbed. He also insists on a sufficient , 
ventilation to carry away the noxious | 
gases, and other products of the bodies 
of the bees, and bring in the necessary 
moisutre to dilute the honey. — L'Api- 
cultenr. 

ALGERIA. 

The most extensive bee-keeper in 
Algeria is Mr. Bourgeois. He now owns 
several thousand colonies bought fron 
the Arabs and French colonists and 
transferred in modern hives. The Eu- 
ropean process of transferring consists 



1904. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



101 



in drumming tlie bees and queen from 
tlie old hive in tlie new, putting a 
queen excluder on the new hive, and 
finally tlfe old hive on top of the new. 
stopping all openings except the en- 
trance to the new hive. The object of 
the drumming is to make sure of 
having the queen in the new liive. 
Twenty-one days later the old hive 
can be removed and demolished. 

Mr. Bourgeois found the drumming 
part almost impossible, partly on ac- 
count of the awkward shape of the 
hives in common use and partly on ac- 
count of the viciousness of the Alger- 
ian (or Punic) bees. He then follow- 
ed successfully the following process: 
Put a virgin queen in a cage and the 
cage in the hive from which you want 
to drive the bees. The old queen will 
try to destroy the virgin and finally 
finding herself not able to do it. will 
lead out a swarm. All that is to be 
done is to put the swarm in the new 
hive. Mr. Bourgeois does not say 
whether x,e used a queen trap or not. 
Anyway, this is certainly a good way 
of securing a queen which cannot be 
found by the usual processes. 

I am not siu-e that the process would 
be as successful with other races of 
bees as "Mr. Bourgeois found it. 

The Punic bees are not only very 
vicious, but also inveterate swarmers. 
They are first-class honey gatherers, 
but cap their honey quite greasy. They 
are the blackest race of bees known. — 
Adrian Getaz. 




lUack River N. Y., March 21, 1904. 
Mr. Editor: 

In the American Bee-iKeeper for 
.T.Miuary, 1904, Brother A. C. Miller 
says that bees pack pollen with their 
iii.iudibles. I dont' tlnnk so. I think 
aiiii am almost sure that they use 
thoir front feet. 

If you will take a new drawn comb 
and pull a bee out of a cell when they 
arc at work packing pollen, you will 
find the imi)ression of her feet all over 
tli«' top of the cell of pollen. If you 



cannot, use a magnifying glass. I hope 
we shall know who is right some time. 
There has been too much theory and 
not facts published in our bee books. 

Some hives are better for comb honey 
than others, but one would think to 
hear some of these patent hive men 
talk, or read their articles, all you 
need is their hive. I wish to tell the 
beginner as W. L. Coggshall did years 
ago: First, the location; 2d, the bee- 
keeper; last, the hive. I often hear 
a novice say if I had a hive so and so, 
I could get a lot of honey. I never 
could find any kind of business that 
would run itself without hard work 
and brains. As this has been a hard 
winter for bees up here in New York 
state, especially for those out of doors, 
there will be more or less weak colo- 
nies this spring, and as I have found 
in years of experience it don't pay to 
double them up early in the spring, 
unless they are queenless. Tuck them 
up nice and warm until the honey 
flow opens. Then, and not until then. 
That is the time we have got to have 
sti-ong colonies for comb honey: for 
you cannot produce fancy comb honey 
unless your colonies are strong. I 
found out years ago by two colonies 
uniting when they swarmed, that not 
only stored more than double the honey 
but nicer in every way. I use the L. 
dovetailed hive, eight frames. 1 use 
two stoi'ies if the queen is a good one. 
Don't use a queen more than two years. 
I find this plan the safest, wiien I 
get the first brood nest well filled with 
eggs, and brood I put the other under, 
not on top. If you put it on top the 
bees will fill it with honey before the 
queen can fill the combs witu eggs, but. 
by putting it under, the bees will not 
crowd the queen. This has been my 
experience. A young, vigorous queen 
will not hesitate to go down to the 
empty combs. How I do pity poor old 
Dame Nature. Undeveloped worker 
bee, she not only mothers the young 
but gathers the food and builds the 
combs. And yet man says she is un- 
developed. Geo. B. Howe. 

Brunswick, Me.. April 9, 1904. 
Dear Brother Hill: 

I wish to express my thanks to our 
friend A. C. Miller, for his instructive 
article in the April number of the Bee- 
Keeper, in which he gives us the re- 



IJ THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



102 

suits of bis experiments on wintering 

bees. 

I believe bis conclusions are sound, 
and important to all bee-keepers. It is 
ti.e strong colony tbat will stand tbe 
frosts of winter. 

But tbere is one otber conclusion, 
drawn from bis experiments, wbicb he 
does not mention, and wbicb. to me, is 
very convincing. 

It seems it was the Bingham hive, 
not so very strong of itself, which ex- 
cited his admiration, and to which he 
calls special attention. 

This hive had four sections in its di- 
visable brood chamber, each one of 
which, rising one above the other, had 
frames 51/2 inches deep which is equiv- 
alent to one set of frames 22 inches 
deep. The fact that it bad four parts 
does not change the condition. 

This hive then, which beat all the 
rest, had frames 22 inches deep, which 
proves my notion tbat the deep frame 
is better for wintering bees than the 
shallow. Yours truly, 

C. M. Herring. 

Haverhill. N. H., April 11, 1904. 
Editor American Bee-Keeper: 

My brother and I have been together, 
subscribers of the Bee-Keeper for tbe 
last year and have read it with great 
interest. This spring I find that I have 
lost thirty per cent of my bees. In the 
colonies that were dead, wherever the 
bees were on the comb it molded it 
quite badly. Now if the ends of the 
cells where the mold is, is cut oi¥, will 
it be all right to use again? I do not 
want to do anything that will bring 
disease among my bees. Please let 
me know anything that Avill help to 
keep bees in a healthy condition. I 
want to use what old comb I can, but 
not to tbe detriment of my bees. 

Tbanking you in advance for any 
favor. I remain, your truly, 

P. .1. Burbeck. 

It will be all right to use tbe moldy 
combs as indicated, or a hive-body full 
of them might be set over a good strong 
colony to clean up and care for until 
needed. Tbe greater danger, in hand- 
ling such stuff, arises from tbe prob- 
ability of inducing robbing in tbe api- 
ary, by unduly exposing tiie honey. If 
due precaution is taken against this 
menacing evil, no other bad results are 
liable to follow. — Editor. 



May, 



Hegg, Wis., March 23, 1904. 
Editor Bee-Keeper: 

I wish to ask a favor in regard to 
honey: First, do you think it best to 
extract or to sell the honey in the 
comb, when the market is poor for 
comb honey? Second, is it necessary 
to have loose bottoms in tbe hives, for 
desti'oying queen cells? If you can give 
me a little advice upon these questions 
in the Bee-Keeper, I will be very thank, 
ful. Sincerely yours, 

Theodore Qualley. 
If tbe object of the producer is cash, 
it is, oliviously, tbe part of wisdom to 
produce tbe kind of honey most readily 
converted into cash. Tbe production 
of merchantable extracted honey does 
not require so much skill as does the 
production of comb honey of a high 
grade; and it is less expensive perhaps, 
as well. We should say, "go in" for 
tbat wbicb sells most I'eadily at a 
profitable figure. 

As the writer is accustomed to han- 
dle bees, it is very rare tbat we have 
to manipulate a colony expressly for 
tbe purpose of destroying queen cells; 
and we fail to see tbat a loose bottom- 
board woTild in anywise facilitate the 
work when it is necessary. We prefer 
a loose bottom, however, and to have 
iipjter and lower stories alike, and in- 
terchangeable. As a means of pre- 
venting swarming, it is not safe to 
depend upon the efficiency of removing 
tbe queen cells tbat may be along tbe 
bottom bar of tbe brood chamber. 
Others may be located higher up, and 
out of reach; and it is, therefore, nec- 
essary to withdraw tbe frames for 
examination; hence we think the mat- 
ter of bottom boards, permanent or re- 
movable, has no practical bearing up- 
on tbe question. — Editor. 

Cornplanter, Pa., March 1, 1904. 
Editor American Bee-Keeper: 

I am a beginner in bee-keeping, and 
would like to ask you liow I may keep 
my bees from sticking tbe super to the 
bod.v of the hive. Last summer they 
would stick them together so it was 
very bard to get them apart at all. 
The bees are in ordinary dove-tailed 
hives and have wild feed. I tried 
greasing the super but with poor suc- 
cess. Yours ti-ul.v. 

Alice E. Holmes.. 

Though it is a habit common to 



1904. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



103 



honey bees to propolize all cracks and 
small openings about their abode, 
where hives are accurately made it 
seldom occurs, we believe, that any 
particular difficulty arises therefrom. 
Some localities yield propolis in greater 
abundance than others, and some bees 
are more lavish in its use than are oth- 
er strains. Bee-keepers generally let 
them stick the supers as tight as they 
please, and then with a chisel or other 
similar instrument, pry it loose when 
removing the crop. It is said, however, 
that an application of hot paraffine 
upon the points of contact is an effec- 
tual preventive. — Editor. 

Markham, Ont, April 12, 1904. 
Editor Bee-Keeper : 

We have had a terribly severe winter 
here, and losses in bees are abnormal- 
ly large throughout Ontario. Only three 
or four days to date that bees could fly 
freely. No doubt conditions are mucli 
different with you. Cordially yours, 
J. L. Byer. 

Wheelersburg, O.. April 12, 1904. , 
Friend Hill: , 

Our bees have wintered quite well, 
but the spring continues cold and back- 
ward. Peaches and pears are blooming 
thoi%h it is snowing a little today, and 
it is so cold that the bees do not dare 
stick their noses out of the hives. Well, 
my bees are on deep combs with plenty 
of honey, so I am not worrying. 
As ever yours, 

W. W. McNeal. 



always proved satisfactory in our win- 
tering experience out of doors.— Edi- 
tor. 



Upperco, Md., April 13, 1904. 
American Bee-Keeper : 

Please answer in the next issue of 
the American Bee-Keeper, Is rye meal 
as valuable as natural pollen for bees? 
Is it as healthy as natural pollen? 

What size should the entrance of a 
good colony of bees be, through the 
winter on summer stands? 

I remain yours very respectfully, 
D. H. Zencker. 

Rye meals is regarded as a very good 
•substitute for pollen. It is, perhaps, 
as good as any known. So far as we 
Tsnow no reports have been made of 
detrimental effects upon the bees 
through its use. Bees prefer the nat- 
ural product, however, when it is ob- 
tainable. An entrance three or four 
Inches wide by three-eights high, has 



MARKET REPORT. 

New York, April 18.— There are no 
new features in the honey market. 
Some white honey selling at from 12 
to 13 cents, off grades at from 10 to 

11 cents, and no demand for dark 
honey whatever. Market is very quiet 
on extracted of all grades and prices 
are rather irregular. Beeswax very 
firm at from 29 to 31 cents.— Hildreth 
& Segelken. 

Kansas City, Mo., April 15.— Market 
for honey has improved during the 
last ten days and we believe all old 
stock will be cleared up by middle of 
May. The supply is limited with good 
demand. We quote our market today: 
Fancy comb, $2.35; choice, $2.25; Ex- 
tracted dull at 5 to 6 cents. Beeswax 
in good demand at oOc. — C. C. Clemons 
& Co. 

Buffalo, N. Y., April 15.— Cannot en- 
courage shipments to Buffalo now. De- 
mand and trade very dull. Quite fair 
stocks will have to sell low to clear 
up. Fancy, 12 to 13c; lower gr'ades, 6 
to lOc. Extracted, 5 to 7c; Beeswax, 
25c to 32c.— Batterson & Co. 

Chicago, April 7.— The market 4s 
heavily supplied with comb and ex- 
tracted honey, neither of which are 
meeting with any demand, especially 
is this true of the comb. Prices are 
uncertain as those having stock are 
anxious to sell it; therefore it is diffi- 
cult to quote prices. The besT: grades 
of white comb bring lie to 12c, any- 
thing off from choice to fancy is not 
wanted. Exti-acted white, according 
to quality sells 6c and Tc, amber, 5c 
and 6c. Beeswax, 30c and 32c. — R. A. 
Burnett .fc Co., 199 S. Water St. 

Cincinnati, Ai^m IS. — The honey 
market here is re-assimiing activity, 
and judging from present indications, 
and the lateness of the season, the last 
season's crop will be consumed before 
the arrival of the new. We offer am- 
ber extracted in barrels and cans 
at 5 1-2 to 6 1-2 and white clover 6 1-2 
to 8 cents according to quality and 
package. Fancy comb honey sells at 

12 and 15 cents. Beeswax wanted at 
30 cents.— The Fred W. Muth Co. 



104 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



May. 




PUBLISHED MONTHLY 
THE W. r. FALCOMER MANFG. 

PROPRIETORS. 

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THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 
Fort Pierce, Fla., or Jamestown, N. Y. 

Articles for publication or letters exclusively 
for the editorial department should be ad- 
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Subscribers receiving their paper in blue 
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A red wrapper on your paper indicates that 
you owe for your subscription. Please give 
the matter your early attention. 




THE PARALYSIS PROBLEM. 

Our esteemed coutempornry the 
Smithlaiul Queen usually quite affable, 
niKl always interesting, appears to he 
Itjiinfully s'oaded by our editorial com- 
ment on ])age 84 of the last issue, 
Avherein we called attention to the fact 
that it had erroneously credited an ar- 
ticle to Arthur C. Miller, which had 
been written for The, Bee-lteeper by 
Mr. Pofjpleton. 



By way of explanation, it is stated 
that the editor of the Queen had noth- 
ing to do with the matter. The article 
was selected by the printer, not because 
of its "eternal fitness," but just be- 
cause it did fit the space required to 
fill the pape.r 

Brother Atchley says :'Tt has ap- 
peared for some time that Bro. Hill 
has had a crow to pick with the Queen 
or its editor. What about I am unable 
to solve." The fact is. there is not a 
bee journal published in this or any 
other country towards which The 
Bei'-Keeper has kindlier feelings than 
the Southland Queen and Bro. Atch- 
ley ought not to bristle up and show 
fight simply because The Bee-Keeper 
fails to absorb all its pet hobbies; and 
sometimes calls attention to its errors 
Miiich afPect us directly. 

As to paralysis, Bro. Aatchley says 
fiuTher: "With all due respect and 
love for Mr. Pojipleton and Bro. Hill, 
I l)eg to say that neither Mr. Popple- 
ton nor rile Ree-Keepei* has i)ut forth 
any more light on bee paralysis than 
all we old bee-keepers knew twenty 
years ago, and I am too busy now to 
take this mattei- u]!. and esjiecially 
through a paper that uses its influ- 
ence and partiality to make its points 
unfairly. If Mr. Poppleton desires to 
do so I will meet him before a body 
of competent bee-keepers at St. Louis 
next October and debate the question 
of bee paralysis and allow the judges 
to decide whicli is right. It may be 
that drones and queen have paralysis 
sometimes, but Mr. Poppleton ought 
to know that bees often feed queens 
and drones, and the vile .rotten pollen 
mess can be fed as well as honey,. 
I can read phiinly between the lines 
that Bro. Hill convinced against his 
will Avould b(» of the same opinion 
still.'^ 

We do not know just who were "all 
we old bee-keepers," of twenty years 
ago. Mr. Poppleton and the writer 
were upon the bee-keeping stage about 
that time; and if any one then knew 
that an outward application of sul- 
phur was a certain cure for bee par- 
al.vsis, we think the information was 
held sacredly secret. Maybe Mr. Atch- 
ley Avill tell us who had experimented 
with bee paralysis at that time. 

The oidy "point" we have endeavor- 
ed to make in this connection, is the 



1904. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



105 



one that sulphur is a cure for paraly- 
sis. We have labored to make this 
point for the benefit of our readers, 
because we believe it to be a valuable 
point to those whose bees are afflicted 
with this malady. We believe both 
the American Bee Journal and Glean- 
ings have given the information 
imparted by Mr. Poppleton through 
these columns, very prominent men- 
tion, the latter even extending assur- 
ances of gratitude for our having spe- 
cifically called its attention to this val- 
uable information. Many other of the 
world's most prominent bee-keepers 
have acknowledged the value of the 
article, notwithstanding the fact that 
the Queen would have it appear that 
it contained nothing new. 

Who is trying to make its points un- 
fairly? 

ARE YOU MAD? 

The present incumbent of The Bee- 
Keeper's editorial chair has held it 
down now these six or seven years 
past, and just once has he been accus- 
ed of wilfully wounding the feelings 
of those with whom he has dis.cussior. 
The missive is just to hand and states, 
in substance, that we should curb the 
natural propensity to crue'lly thrust 
our rusty pen through the vitals of 
those who differ with us, and that 
when we are old we will not be com- 
forted by reflecting upon the "smart 
things" we have said publicly in our 
youth. 

In view of this serious charge, we 
popose to hold a "court of inquiry," 
and urgently invite every reader -who 
has, or ever has had, a grievance alonsr 
this line, to turn in his evidence with- 
out delay. Send it to either th'i New 
York or Florida office— either will do, 
just so we get it at an early date. The 
result may be the reformation of a 
I vindictive and malicious disposition 
upon the pf rt of the editor, or it ^nay 
cause him to abdicate the chair in fa- 
vor of some one less vicious. However, 
we should like to know just exactly 
how many persons it has been our mis- 
fortune to offend in the way suggested, 
and if they will inform us we shall en- 
deavor to afford them redress and sup- 
ply a balm of Gilead for their wounded 
feelings. 

Our esteemed critic unwittingly i)nys 
tribute to the brilliancy of thought 



springing from the mature mind, by 
his reference to the "smart things"' we 
have said, for he evidently does not 
know that our once red hair is today 
sprinkled with white, and with eyes 
growing dim we look bade over part 
of a century and contemplate with 
great cheer the possiblity of having 
ever said anything smart in our youth. 



SHALL WE ADVANCE? 

With reference to the editorial Item, 
pages IS and 19 of our January issue, 
wherein is discussed the limits of legit- 
imate journalism, as relates to bee cul- 
ture, a Florida correspondent takes oc- 
casion to confirm the sentiments there 
quoted. Says our contemporary is 
right ^and that "All I read the papers 
for is to find out how to get a good 
yield and how to sell at a living price." 

Ever since the world has had bee 
journals they have, doubtless, all been 
aiming to supply, such information. 
America has had at least one journal 
that has been at it continuously for 
some forty years, and many others 
have since joined the ranks. Does our 
esteemed correspondent observe any 
marked improvement in the "living 
price" proposition, as a result of Avhat 
has been accomplished by skimming 
the surface of our fleld with the old 
•vooden plow? Is it thought advisable 
to continue repeating mere mechanical 
methods of production an.l pointing 
first to this city and then to that, as a 
market for our honey, and meantime 
watch the steady decline of prices in 
the face of a rapidly increasing ]iopu- 
lation and decreasing fields of foraj^e 
for the bees? 

As it appears to The Bee-Keei)er, a 
very large per cent of honey producers 
are criminally indifferent in reuard to 
the business end of their voeatioii. 'J^hey 
seem quite content to sit by and see 
their product crowded into the corner 
and crushed into the earth by com- 
peting commodities much less worthy 
of success. 

Is it not inconsistent to expect of a 
bee journal the ability to direct its pat- 
rons to markets more profitable than 
we have, and which are steadily be- 
coming less profitable because of the 
bee-keeper's own lack of business en- 
terprise? Too many bee-keepers ap- 
pear to forget the fact that they are 
living in the twentieth century, and 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPEB. 



106 

that business methods have materially 
changed since their grandfather's day. 
Competition is Iceen and exacting; and 
unless there is a grand awakening 
among the producers of honey at an 
early date, those now living may see 
their vocation, sacrificed beneath 
the ponderous wheels of a modern jug- 
gernaunt, styled "commercialism." 

Success in the production of honey 
presupposes a general knowledge of the 
business, of course; but specific infor- 
mation in regard to many minute -le- 
tails is imperative, and the dissem- 
ination of such information usually 
devolves upon bee jonrnals. An api- 
ary infected with foul brood is, doubt- 
less, less profitable than if it were in a 
healthy condition. In view of the pre- 
valence of this malady, does it not be- 
hoove the bee-keeper to inform him- 
self as to the advancement of science 
and practice in relation to its treat- 
ment? Florida, to as great an extent 
as any other State in the Union, has 
reason to thank heaven that among 
her bee-keepers are some who are not 
afraid of acquiring a surplus of apia- 
rian information. It is but a few years 
past that the foul brood scourge broke 
out and bee-keeping interests of the 
east coast were seriously^ menaced; 
but, by the prompt action of one pro- 
gressive apiarist, its ravages were staid 
and the last vistage of the infection 
eliminated from the state. 

Knowledge, specific and general, is 
the foundation. "Good yields and liv- 
ing prices" will be a spontaneous out- 
growth. 



May, 

come a new bee paper, and Bi'othov 
Putnam has demonstrated ids alnlity 
to get up a creditable claimant for 
support. 

As Mr. Putnam invites n-iticisia, we 
presume it is in order for us to indi- 
cate the weak point of the Uural 
Bee-Keeper, as it appears from our 
point of view: The habit of sand- 
wiching in items in reference to r.oods 
offered" for sale by the iuiblis'iey of 
any trade journal, savors too distinct- 
ly of the "house organ" type of publi- 
cations which is being turned down by 
the postoffice department, and it leaves 
a disagreeable taste in the mouth of 
the reader who reads for ueneral in- 
formation and not to learn of the mer- 
its characteristic of any particular line 
of goods. 

Catalogues and price lists of supplies 
we believe to be somewhat out of pla«;a 
in the editorial columns of a modern 
trade journal. Commercial ".nforma- 
tion and literary merit ought to be 
dished up separately. That is, so be- 
lieves the American Bee-K?eper. 

We wish the new comer abundant 
success. 



THE RURAL BElMvEEPFJl. 

We are in receipt of the first number 
of The Rural Bee-Keeper, River Falls, 
Wis., a monthly journal published at 
50 cents a year, by W. H. Putnam, 
and containing 16 pages and cover. 
Said "cover" is dated March. 1904. 
while the other pages proclaim "April" 
as the date of issue. It is difficidt, 
therefore to tell just when the "Rural" 
was born. However, it is gotten up in 
very creditable style, and starts off 
with a very handsome array of adver- 
tising, which is essential to the life of 
any periodical. 

We do not agree with some of tlie 
older bee journals that the journalistic 
field in our line is overstocked, and 
we are therefore always pleascnl to ^^-el- 



We are in need of more good articles 
and photographs of interest for publi- 
cation, and we are willing to pay for 
creditable material. It is not rehashes 
of threadbare axioms that we need (we 
have an ample supply); but rather new 
ideas and points that will be of inter- 
est to others who keep bees. We are 
still looking for those scribes of bee- 
dom who are to light the way in the 
future. 



Someone said "one swallow does not 
make a summer," and it is as true that 
one colony of bees is insufficient to 
prove or disprove the characteristics 
of any race or strain, but as to the 
Funics being vicious, as is frequently 
stated, we cannot refrain from stating , 
that our Punic colony is as docile as 
were ever any strain of golden Ital- 
ians; and up "to present writing they 
have been better honey gatherers tnan 
any stock in our yard. It is too early 
to speak positively as to their other 
virtues or vices, but, to be candid, we 
cannot at present restrain a feehne 
somewhat akin to enthusiasm in regar( 
to these bees. 



1904. 



TIfE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPEK. 



107 



The Bee-Keeper has arranged with 
Mr. R. M. Bundy, Clevehind, Ohio, 
who is a microscopical expert, to uiake 
examinations for bacteria in svispicioiis 
specimens. The charge will be $1 for 
each specimen examined. We will en- 
deavor to give proper cave to any honey 
or brood supposed to contain lo'il brood 
or other disease genus wli^ioh onr read- 
ers may send us, and report t lie result 
in the Bee-Keeper. 



more frequently. All are welcome, 
whether living in the North, South, 
East or West. 



Twenty-two years ago last winter, 
\\'. Z. Hutchinson made bee hives, 
using old lumber from the hay mow as 
bottoms, lath for sides, and shingles 
as a roof, and he is to this day advo- 
cating the home-made hive. This is 
evidence prima facie that Brother 
Hutchinson is endowed with forbear- 
ance, patience, calmness, composure, 
endurance, fortitude, leniency, long- 
sufPering, resignation, submission and 
sufferance to a degree that amply mer- 
its all the success he has achieved in 
the realm of apiculture. We no longer 
wonder, however, that he has decided 
to withdraw from the ranks of the 
practitioner and henceforth confine 
his efforts to the mere advocacy of 
hand and home-made hives. The 
quietude of the Review sanctum is a 
solace worthy of his virtues. 



The possession of an observation 
hive would put an end to guessing in 
many instances, and enable the apiar- 
ian student to speak with confidence 
upon points now more or less obscure. 



I like the Bee-Keeper very much and 
enclose $1 .50 on subscription account. — 
L. H. Dawson. 



A Texas subscriber who writes of hla 
appreciation of The Bee-Keeper, thinks 
more .space should be given to the dis- 
cussion of matters relative to the 
South, and asks if a page may not be 
devoted to the novice in bee culture. 
We have repeatedly assured our 
friends, the beginners, that our col- 
umns are opeii to them, and their let- 
ters always receive careful attention. 
If more w^ould write, more space would 
be devoted to their letters. They need 
not be restricted to one page; we shall 
try to take care of all seekers after 
apiarian knowledge that may apply. 
We hope to hear from the beginners 



I like the way The Bee-Keeper is 
conducted, and admire it fearless way 
of setting forth matters pertaining to 
our pursuit. — T. S. Hall. 

Cent=a=Word Column. 

The rate is uniformly one cent for each 
word each month; no advertisement, however 
small, will be accepted for less than twenty 
cents, and must be paid in advance. Count 
the words and remit with order accordingly. 

FOR SALE— A Hawkeye, Jr., Camera com- 
plete. Uses both film and plates. Cost $3.00, 
will sell with leather case for J.3..50 cash. 
Address Empire Washer Co., Falconer, N. 
V. 

A TANDEM BICYCLE (for man and lady) 
cost $150, in first-class condition, was built to 
order for the owner. Tires new. Will sell 
for $25 cash. Satisfaction guaranteed. Ad- 
dress J. Clayborne Merrill, 130 Lakeview, 
ave., Jamestown, N. Y. 

AGENTS WANTED to sell advertising nov- 
ties, good commission allowed. Send for 
catalogue and terms. American Manufac- 
turing Concern, Jamestown, N. Y. 

WANTED— To exchange six-month's trial 
subscription to The American Bee-Keeper 
for 20 cents in postage stamps. Address, 
Bee-Keeper, Falconer, N. Y. 

LEOTA APIARY.— Pure honey for sale at 
all times. Thos. Worthington, Leota, 
Miss. 4t 



POULTRY SUCCESS. 
The Twentieth Century Poultry 
Magazine. 

I-'ifteenth year, 32 to 64 pages. Beautifully 
illustrated. Best writers. Up-to-date and help- 
ful. Shows reads how to succeed with poul- 
try. 50 CENTS PER YEAR. Special Intro- 
ductory Offer Ten months, 25 cents, including 
large illsutrated practical poultry book free. 
Four months' trial 10 cents. Stamps accept- 
ed. Sample copy free. 

POULTRY SUCCESS CO., 

Dept. 36. Springfield, Ohio. 



The Bee=Keepers' Review 



For 1904 



THE Review never had more sub- 
scribers, better correspondents, 
greater mechanical facilities, or 
a more experienced editor; in short, it 
was never more fully equipped, than 
at present, for helping bee-keepers. It 
will use all of these advantages the 
present year in talking up and discus- 
sing two of 

The Most Important 
Subjects 

connected with bee-keeping, viz., the 
production of large quantities of honey, 
cheaply, and the selling of It at a high 
price. The first few issues of this 
year will be especiallyi devoted to the 
discussion of the first-mentioned topic, 
then, in July or August, marketing 
will be taken up and continued through 
the year. I do not mean that other 
important matters will not be touched 
upon, but that special attention will 
be given to these two. 

For instance, last year, Mr. F. E. 
Atwater, of Boise, Idaho, with only 
one helper, 

Managed 11 Yards 

scattei'ed from seven to eighteen miles 
from home, and in the January Re- 
view he had a long article describing 
the hives, implements, and methods, 
that enabled him to accomplish this 
feat. 

Mr. E. D. Townsend, of Remus, 
Michigan, is 

The Most Extensive 



Apiarist 



in this State; managing out-apiaries 
with the least possible amount of 
labor, much of it unskilled at that, and 
making money out of the business, and 
he is telling the readers of the Review 
"how he does it." Four articles from 
his pen have already appeared and 
there are three more on hand. More 
will follow on marketing and winter- 
ing. 

Another correspondent, over the find- 
ing of which the Review is congratu- 



lating itself, is Mr. E. W. Alexander, 
of Delanson, New York. He has had 
nearly 

Fifty Long Years of 
Experience 

with bees. His looks are white, but 
liis eyes are bright, his step elastic, 
and he still has the fire and enthusi- 
asm of youth. His views on overstock- 
ing are certainly radical, and it is pos- 
sible that they are not applicable in 
evex-y locality, but some ideas that he 
advances, and the experience that he 
gives, are certainly worthy of con- 
sideration. This month he tells how 
to make the most out of weak colonies 
in the spring, and how sometimes it 
is possible by the right kind of feeding 
in the spring, to change what would 
have been a season of failure into one 
of profit. A simple, inexpensive, con- 
venient method of feeding is describ- 
e-d. The next month he will describe 
his tank and methods for disinfecting 
combs from colonies infected with 
black brood. By his thoroughness, he 
has been successful on a large scale. 

The beginning and the end of the 
lioney season are 

Critical Points. 

To induce the bees to promptly take 
possession of tlie supers, to wind up 
the season with nearly all of the sec- 
tions completed, yet lo*-e none of the 
honey that the bees can store, are 
most desirable accomplishments; and 
James A. Green, of Grand Junction, 
Colorado, has sent me an article tell- 
ing how all these things may be man- 
aged by what he calls his "Combina- 
tion System." It appears in the April 
issue of the Review. 

Mr. M. A. Gill, of Longmont, Colo- 
rado, last year, with the assistance of 
his wife, and one other helper, man- 
aged 1,100 colonies, increased them to 
l.fiOO and shipped. 

Two Carloads of Comb 
Honey. 

Within the next month or two the Re- 
view will publish an article from Mr. 



Gill in which he tells exactly how he 
manages — particularly in regard to the 
swarming-problem. 

Sold 20,000 Pounds. 

When it comes to the marketing 
question, I have on hand an article by 
Mr. H. O. Ahlers, of West Bend, Wis- 
eonsin, in whicli he tells in detail how 
he has built up a ti-ade in selling ex- 
tracted honey direct to consumers, in 
which he last year sold 20,000 pounds, 
and most of it at 12 cents a pound. 

The Honey Harket 

is something that many of us have 
neglected as too small to be worth 
noticing, especially if ir is only a 
small town, but our energetic General 
Manager -of the National Association, 
Mr. N. E. France, of Platteville, Wis- 
consin, manages to sell about 8,000 
pounds a yeai*, if I remember aright, 
in his little home city, of only 4,000 
inhabitants. He does no peddling, it 
is all sold at the groceries, butcher 
shops, and the like, and he so manages 
as to get eight cents a pound for it. 
What that management is, how the 
honey is put up, the paclcage, in fact, 
the whole modus operandi will be de- 
scribed by Mr. France in the Review, 
long ere the time comes to put this 
year's crop on the market. 

A Honey=Route, 

in something the same line as a milk- 
man has a route, hns been inaugurat- 
ed and put into practice for several 
years by Mr. C. F. Smith, of Cheboy- 
gan. Michigan. There is no peddling 
about it. On certain days, except dur- 
ing the busy time of the year with the 
bees, Mr. Smith goes over a certain 
route, calling at certain houses and 
delivering a certain amount of honey. 
In this way he sells all of his own ex- 
tratced honey at 13 cents a pound, 
and then buys and sells thousands of 
pounds besides. How the honey is 
put up, how the route was established, 
how he knows at which houses to call, 
and how much honey to bring, etc., 
will be told to the readers of the Re- 
view in an article that Mr. Smith is 
now preparing with much care as to de- 
tail and helpfulness. 



So much In the way of retailing 
honey, and we now come to the sub- 
ject of selling honey direct to retail 
dealers, instead of sending it to com- 
mission merchants, who, in turn, sell 
to the retailers. This is 

A big Field, 

and one that has been little worked, 
but I have found a man who has had 
a lot of experience in this line, Mr. 
S. A. Niver, formerly of New York, 
but now of Chicago. For several years, 
quite a number of extensive bee-keep- 
ers near Gorton, New York, turned 
their crops of comb honey over to Mr. 
Niver, who graded and crated it, and 
then packed a case with samples, and 
went out as a "drummer" selling direct 
to the retail trade, goiug over the same 
ground more tnan once, taking orders 
and collecting for the honey. I have 
an article from Mr. Niver telling of his 
success. It is long, readable, full of 
humor, and of suggestions for some 
man to go and do likewise. Mr. Niver 
is now at work prepai*ing an article on 
retailing honey to city customei's. 

The foregoing are only a few of the 
good things that are in store for the 
readers of the Review — these are 
given simply as samples. The pros- 
pects for 

Making Money 

in bee-keeping were never brighter for 
the man who will arouse himself, 
wake up to the changed conditions of 
things, and take advantage of the 
changes. One thing is certain, if you 
are a bee-keeping specialist, if bee- 
keeping is your business, you can't 
afford not to 

Read the Review. 

It will lead you, and encourage you, 
ind fill you vdth ideas, and tell you 
how to do things — suow you how to 
enlarge your business and make 
money. 

Send $1.00 for the Review for 1904, 
and long ere the year is out you will 
ndmit that it was the most profitable 
investment you ever made. 



W. Z. HUTCHINSON 

FLINT, MICHIGAN 




T 



HE A. I. ROOT CO., MEDINA, OHIO. 
Breeders of Italian bees and queens. 



GEO. J. VANDE VORD, DAYTONA, FLA. 
Breeds choice Italian queens early. All 
queens warranted purely mated, and satisfaction 
guaranteed . 



CH. W. WEBER, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
• (Cor Central and Freeman Aves.) Golden 
yellow, Red Clover and Camiolan queens, bred 
from select mothers in separate apiaries. 



T 



HE HONEY AND BEE COMPANY, BEE- 
VILLE, TEXAS. Holy Land, Camiolan, 
Cyprian, Albino and 3 and 5-banded Italian 
queens. Write for our low prices. Satisfaction 
guaranteed.. 



I B. CASE, PORT ORANGE, FLA., has fine 
J • golden Italian queens early and late. Work- 
ers little inclined to swarm, and cap their honey 
very white. Hundreds of his old customers stick 
to him year after year. Circular free. 

CWARTHMORE APIARIES, SWARTHMORE, 
•^ PA. Our bees and queens are the brighest 
Italians procurable. Satisfaction guaranteed. 
Correspondence in English, French, German and 
Spanish. Shipments to all parts of the world. 

WZ. HUTCHINSON, FLINT, MICH. 
• Superior stock queens, $1.50 each; queen 
and Bee-Keepers' Review one year for only $2.00. 



lOHN M. DAVIS, SPRING HILL, TENN.. sends 
J out the choicest 3-banded and golden Italian 
queens that skill and experience can produce. 
Satisfaction guaranteed. No disease. 



PUNIC BEES. All other races are dis- 
carded after trial of these wonderful bees 
Particulars post free. John Hewitt & Co., 
Sheffield, England. 4 



NEW CENTURY QUEEN-REARING CO., (John 
W. Pharr, Prop.) BERCLAIR, TEXAS, is 
breeding fine golden and 3-banded Italian and 
Camiolan queens. Prices are low. Please write 
for special information desired. 

M CORE'S LONG-TONGUED STRAIN 
''^ of Italians become more and more popu- 
lar each year. Those who have tested them 
know why. Descriptive circular free to all. 
! Write J. P. Moore, L. Box 1, Morgan, Ky. 4 



CLONE BEE CO., SLONE, LOUISIANA. 

'^ Fine Golden Queens, Leather-Colored Ital 

ians'and Holy Lands. Prices low. 



HOMESEEKERS 

AND INVESTORS, who are interest 
ed in the Southern section of the 
Union, should subscribe for THE 
DIXIE HOMESEEKER, a handsome 
illustrated magazine, describing the 
industrial development of the South, 
and its many advantages to homeseek- 
ers and investors. Sent one year on 
trial for 15c. 

Address, 

THR DIXIE HOMESEEKER, 
West Appomattox, Va 



When writing to advertisers mention 
The American Bee-Keeper. 



American 




BEE 



Journal 



16 -p. Weekly. 
Sample Free, 
j^" All about Bees and their 
profitable care. Best writers. 
Oldest beepaper; illustrated. 
Departments for beginners 
and for women bee-keepers. 
Address, 
GEORGE W. YORK & CO.. 
144 & 146 Erie St. Chicago.Ill. 



SH/NEf 

The Empire Washer Company, Jamestown, 
N. Y., makes a Shine Cabinet, furnished with 
foot stand, blacking, russet dressing, shoe 
rubber — in fact, all articles and materials need' 
ed to keep shoes looking their best — pnd it is 
made to be fastened to the wall of the toilet 
room or kitchen. It does away with the vexa 
tious searching after these articles which is 
altogether too common. A postal will bring 
>ou details of this and other good things. 



THE ONLY GERMAN AGRICLLTURAL MONTH- 
LY IN THE INITED STATES JiJi^j^^J^^^ 

FARM UND HAUS 

The most carefully edited German 
Agricultural journal. It is brimful of 
practical information and useful hints 
for the up-to-date farmer; devoted to 
stock raising, general farming, garden- 
ing,, poultry, bee-keeping, etc., and con- 
tains a department for the household, 
which many find valuable. Another de- 
partment giving valuable receipts and 
remedies called "Hasarzt," in fact every 
number contains articles of real prac- 
tical use. 

Price only 35 CENTS per year. Sam- 
ple copy free. 

Send subscriptions to, 



FARM 

& tf. 



UND HAUS 

BLUFFTON, OHIO. 



I Are You Looking lor a Home? 

No farmer should think of buying land 
before seeing a copy of THE FARM AND 
REAL ESTATE JOURNAL. It contains 
the largest list of lands for sale of any 
paper published in Iowa. Reaches 30,000 
readers each issue, and is one of the best 
advertising mediums to reach the farmers 
and the Home-Seekers that you can ad- 
vertise in. For 75c. we will mail yau the 
Journal for 1 year, or for ten cents in 
silver or stamps we will send you the 
Journal 2 months on trial. Address, 

Farm and Real Estate Journal, 

TRAER, TAMA CO., IOWA. 
10-tf. 



Attica Lithia Springs Hotel 

Lithia-SulpDur Water aud Mud Baths 
Nature's Own Great Cure for 

...RHEUMATISM.... 

aad Kindred Diseases, such as Liver 
and Kidney Complaints, Skin and 
Blood Diseases, Constipation, Nervous 
Prostration, etc. 

A new and up-to-date hotel. Large, airy, 
light and finely furnished rooms, with Steam 
Heat, t^lectrie Lights, Hot and Cold Water 
on each rtoor. Rates including Room, Board. 
Mud Baths, Lithia-Sulphur Wuter Baths and 
Aittid- ii( I- (n< I lud 

$3.00 a dav, according to room. 

WRITE FOR BOOKLET. 
Address Box 3, 

tf Litbia Springs Hotel, Attica, Ind. 



Strawberries. 

Young, healthy, fresh, vigor- 
ous stock in prime conditioi? for 
spring planting. 

All 
Leading 



Varieties 

Write for prices and terms. 

MONROE STRAWBERRY CO., 

Box 66 MONROE, MICH. 



Headquarters for Bee-Supplies 

ROOT'S GOODS AT ROOT'S FACTORY PRICES. 

Complete stocli for 1904 uow on hand. Freiglit rates from Cincinnati ai'e 
the lowest. Prompt service i« what 1 practice. Satisfaction guaranteed. 
Langstroth Portico Hives and Standard Honey-Jars at lowest pricis. 

You will save money buying from me. Catalog mailed free. Send for 
same. 

Book orders for Golden Italiaa.s. Red Clover and Carniolan Queers; for 
prices refer to my catalog. 

C. H. \Y. WEBER. 



Office and Salesrooms 2146-48 Central Ave. 
Warehouses— Freeman and Central Aves. 



CSNCINNATI, OHIO. 



La Compania 
Manufacturera Americana 

ofrece los mas reducidos precios en to- 
da clase dc articulos para Apicultorcs. 
Nuestra Fabrica es una de las mas 
grandes y mas antiguas de America. 
Especialidad en Colmenas, Ahumadores 
para Colmenas, Extractores, etc. In 
ventores y perfeccionadores de muchos 
articulos dc suma utilidad en la Apicul- 
tura. Enviamos gratis nuestro catalogo 
y precios a quienes lo solicitcn. Dirija- 
nse a. 

THE AMERICAN MFG. CO., 

Jamestown, N. Y., E. U. A. 




The only strictly agricultural 
paper published in this State. The 
only agricultural paper published 
every week. It goes to every post 
office in State of Tennessee and to 
many offices in Kentucky, Alabama, 
Georgia, Mississippi, Arkansas, 
Texas, Florida and Louisiana. It 
is the official organ of the Agricul- 
tural Department of Tennessee and 
Live Stock Commission. Subscrip- 
tion $1 per year in advance. 

Tennessee Farmer Pub. Cor, 
Btf Nashville, Tenn. 

BEGINNERS. 

shoi'.i have a copy ot 

The Amateur Bee-keeper, 

a 70 pa£;e book, by Prof. J. W. Rouse; written er 
pecially for amateurs. Second edition just on' 
First edition of 1,000 sold in less than two years 
Editor York says: "It is the flaest little book pub- 
lished at the prosr-ut time." Price 24 cents; by 
mail 28 ceiits. The little book and 

The Progressive Bee-keeper, 

,'a live, proeresx've, 28 page monthly journal) on« 
year for li.")C. Apply to any first-class dealer, or 
address 

LEAHY MFG. CO,, Higsin.^ji,, ».. 



The Record. 

The Oldest and Leading Belgian 
Hare Journal of America and 
England. 

R. J. FiNLEY, Editor and Publisher, 

The only journal having 
an English Belgian Hare 
Department. 

One copy worth the yearly 
subscription. 

If interesteo, aon t fail to 
send 2 -cent stamp for sample 
copy at once. Address, 

R. J. FINLEY, 

^' MACON , MO. 




To Subscribers of 
THE AME RICAN E I E= H E I I K 

And Others! 

Until Further Notice 

We Will Send The 

Country 
Journal 

to any address in the U. S. A. one 
year for 10 cents, providing you 
mention American Bee-Keeper. 

The Country .Journal treats on 
Farm, Orchard and Garden, Poul- 
try and Fashion. It's the best pa- 
per printed for the price. 

Address 

The Country Journal, 

Allentown, Pa. 
2tf 



W. B. VATTGHAN 

NEWBURGH, N. Y. 

Agent for The W. T. Falconer Mfg. 

Go's. 

BEE=KEEPERS' SUPPLIES. 

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GOODS 



68 



Q. B. LEWIS CO. 

WATERTOWN, WIS., U. S. A. 

Eastern Agent, Fred W. Muth Co., 51 \Va! 
nut St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fl G hTiNG roosters 

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I postpaid. Address 

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AND QUICK DELIVERY 

The busy times for bee-keegers is almost here. If you 
have not yet ordered your g^oocls, there is no time for de- 
lay. You can't wait now for some factory to make your 
goods, nor for long- shipments bv freight, with endless 
delays at transfer-points, while the bees are idle for 
needed sections, hives, foundation, or storage-room. You 
will find it to your advantage to order vour goods from 
near home, of some dealer who has them on hand, and 
can ship them at once. Bv so doing vou will not only get 
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THE A. 1. ROOT CO. 

Medina. Ohio, has established agencies all over the coun- 
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lowing are some of the more important 

AGENCIES 



\ickery Bros., Evansville, Ind. 
\-l. Grainger & Co., Toronto, Ont. 
Walter S. Pouder. Indianapolis, Tnd. 
John Nebel & Son, High Hill, Mo. 
Tieo. E. Hilton, Fremont, Mich. 
I'rothero & Arnold, DuBois, Penn. 
M. H. Hunt & Son, Bell Branch, 

Mich. 
RawHngs Implement Co., Baltimore, 

Md - 



(Iriggs Bro.s., Toledo, Oho. 

Nelson Bros. F"ruit Co., Delta, Colo. 

Jos. Nysevvander, DesMoines, Iowa. 

Carl F. Buck, Augusta, Kansas. 

A. F. McAdams, Columbus Grove, ('. 

C. H. W. Weber, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

F. H."^ Farmer, 182 Friend St., Boston 

M^ss. 
I^. A. Watkins Sldse. C(j., Denver. 

Colorado. 



Ill jidilitioii 16 the foregoing there are hundreds who handle our 
siodd.s in sninll lots. Besides this, we have the followins;- 



BRANCH=HOUSES 



Syracuse, N. Y. 

riiiladelphia, Penn., 10 Vine .St. 
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Havana, Cuba, San Ignacio 17. 
St. ]'aul. Minn., 1024 Miss. St. 
Washington, D. C, 

1100 Md Ave., S. W 



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This cut represents oui 
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It contains reliable information 
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sample copy. tf. 

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THE RURAL BEE=KEEPER 

A MONTHLY BEE JOURNAL 

Devoted to the interests of the bee-keepers of 
America, will teach you how to make money 
with bees. May number tells about feeding 
bees. We are now at work on our June num- 
ber and can assure you that this number will 
be more interesting and more valuable than 
its predecessors. Swarming and how it is 
being controlled to the cash benefit of the 
bee-keeper is the subject upon which the 
June number will treat. It will be the pur- 
pose of the Rural Bee-Keeper to champion 
tJie caiuse of the small coimtry bee-keeper, to 
show him the way to make money out of 
bees, by first showing how to produce the 
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The South and East will grow in apiculture 
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clination to favor the user of his product 
with favorable prices. Write for catalog and 
terms to agents. 

V9. H. PUTNAM, 

River Falls, Wis. 



Beeswax 
Wanted 



We will pay 29 cents cash or 31 cents! 
in .sTOods for good quality of Beeswax, 
freight paid to Falconer, N. Y. If you 
have any, ship it to iis at once. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 
THE W. T. FALCONER MFG. CO. 




DON'T KILL 

YOURSELF, WASHING THE. 

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MAPS. 

A vest pocket Map of your State. 

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wish for 

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When writini? to advertisers mentioiLi 
The American Bee-Keeper. 



Homes in 

Old Virginia. 

It is gradually brought to light 
that the Civil war has made great 
changes, freed the slaves, ^nd in 
consequence has made the large 
land owners poor and finally freed 
the land from the original owners 
who would not sell until they were 
compelled to do so. There are some 
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ter. The climate is the best all th» 
year around to be found, not too 
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Healthy. Railroads running in 
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know all about Virginia send 10c. 
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Th«r« is BO trade or profession better catered to 
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A BATH 



IS a 
luiuc 



wlier 
tukea lb au 



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^ Portable 
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Used in any room 
Agents Wanted 
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^Thb empire 
^washer co., 

Jamestown,n.y. 




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ifi Bee Hives, Sections, Smokers, vl^ 

2> — ^ i» 

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I jy4 C. M. SCOTT & CO. I 

/<> 1004 E. Washington St., Indianapolis, Ind. ^ 



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THE 2(Hh CENTURY POULTRY 
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SHiNE.i 

The Empire Washer Company, Jamestown, 
N. v., makes a Shine Cabinet, furnished with 
foot stand, blacking, russet dressing, shoe 
rubber — in fact, all articles and materials need- 
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tious searching after these articles which is 
altogether too common. A postal will bring 
>ou details of this and other good things. 



American 




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Sample Free. 

MS- All about Bees and their 
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Departments for beginners 
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Address, 

aeORQE W. YORK & CO.. 
144 & 146 Erie St. Chicago,Ii.i.. 



f^i-vf^f-i Send 10 cents for one year's sub- 
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Paper. 

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planned on 
original lines. 

You cannot 
be up-to-date 
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Balance of this year free to new 
subscribers. 

THE FRUITMAN, 
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The only Pipe made 
that cannot be told \ 
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ZENO SUPPLY CO., JOPLIN, MO- 



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A monthly journal devoted to 
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Itf 



AUSTRALIANS. 

NOTE the address — 

Pender Bros., 

WEST MAITUND, 
New South Wales, Australia. 

The largest manufacturers of Beekeepers' 
Supplies in the Southern Hemisphere, 
and publishers of the AUSTRALASIAN 
BEEKEEPER, the leading bee journal south 
of the equator. 

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CASH FOR YOU 



The American Bee-Keeper is in the market to buy arti- 
cles on bee-keeping- subjects. Articles with photographs 
to illustrate are especially desired. We will pay well for 
good work. We want reporters in all parts of the world. 
Give us an opportunity to bid on your pen productions 
and the results of your photographic skill. Address, 

THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 

Fort Pierce, Fla. 




Vol. XIV 



JUNE, 1904. 



No. 6 



QUEEX REARING. 



The Method Used by a Texas Breeder. 
By Johu W. PhaiT. 

OUR way to prepare a colony for 
cell-building is to remove the 
queen and all the brood, and 
two hours later give them prepared 
cell-Clips, or else transfer the larvae 
into the lower cells of a newly drawn 
comb. We prefer the former, how- 
ever, as they are better to handle. We 
use the Doolittle plan, not because it 
is better than the Alley or Atchley sys- 
tem, but because it is more convenient. 
In order to get good cells and a lot of 
them built, there must be a honey flow 
on, or else it is necessary to feed your 
colony from two days previous, to 
four days after the operation is per- 
formed. By this time the cells will be 
sealed and you can transfer them to 
the nursery cages or give them a lay- 
ing queen. But, before giving the lay- 
ing queen you should give them a 
frame of cell-cups or a newly drawn 
comb which has been grafted with lar- 
vae from your breeder. This should 
be done twenty-four hours before giv- 
ing the queen. They will begin feed- 
ing the larvae much sooner than will 
a colony just made queenless. 

Now go to another colony that you 
■wish to set to cell-building and take 
' away its queen and brood and bring it 
to this colony, and take lae frame of 
cells which they have started to the 
colony from which you took the brood 
and queen. By this means, the colony 
has been queenless but five days. 

After getting a lot of good cells 
built, the next thing is to care for 



them. Our cell cages are prepared as 
follows: Take a strip of wood, three- 
fourths by one-half inch and cut 
length to fit between end-bars of brood 
frame. Now cut half way through the 
strip saw kerfs to make twenty com- 
partments, which are separated by 
partitions made of section material 
and fitted into the saw kerfs. Now cut 
a piece of wire cloth to nt eacn side. 
To provision these you can bore a hole 
in each compartment and use soft 
candy; or you can shave a piece of 
comb down to the mid-rib and fill with 
honey, allowing it to rest on the bot- 
tom bar. 

Now cut little caps to just fit be- 
tween the partitions and will fit tight. 
These ought to come a little above the 
wire-cloth side-walls. Now dip the caps 
into melted wax and stick your cells 
fast, and place them in the cages until 
you have it full; then fasten it in a 
brood frame with a small nail. If 
you use cages that have holes in the 
bottom-bars, you can put three in one 
frame. 

Now, to get these cells hatched is 
where the trouble comes. Be sure you 
place the nursery where the bees will 
cover it entirely. Do not place it in a 
queenless colony, as some have ad- 
vised. Put it between frames of open 
brood where it will get the warmth 
and moisture. This gives us the best 
hatch. When hatched, they are ready 
for the nuclei. 

I know there are many who want 
their cells to hatch in the nucleus hive, 
but we hold our queens in the nursery 
cage until they are four days old, then 
sucessfully introduce them by using 
fresh queenless bees every time. Here 



110 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



June 



is where auotlier great mistake lias 
ahvuys beeu witli me, and I know I 
learned it from others, and that is hav- 
ing a permanent nucleus. For best re- 
sults never use the same bees for ac- 
companying more than one queen in 
the nucleus hive. Some one is ready to 
say, "That would be a great waste of 
bees." This is another mistake. When 
your queen begins laying, bring in 
your nucleus, bees and all, shake them 
into another hive, give them a fram,^ 
of brood and a laying queen and you 
will soon have a good colony. Another 
says; 'That is handling a lot of bees 
to get one queen mated." Here I want 
to say that this is where another mis- 
take comes in. Two tablespoonfuls of 
bees are plenty to accompany a queen 
while in the nucleus hive. Some claim 
that our queens will not be as good by 
that process. It is the rearing, not the 
number of bees in the colony at mat- 
ing time that counts as to quality. 

To get queens mated with few bees 
it is best to have small boxes or hives. 
I use a frame four of which fit into 
a brood frame. By this means I am 
able to get them filled with honey eas- 
ily, and when I want to use them I 
put them In boxes made to fit, stock 
them with bees and run in a virgin 
queen four days old, haul a hundred or 
so out to a mating yard, and seven 
days later prepare another load and 
haul them out and bring back the ones 
I took before. If the weather has 
been favorable they will be laying. If 
not, I can pitch them out in any old 
place until they are ready to mail. 

Now, the success of this plan is in 
using a few bees to mate a queen and 
the using of these bees but once for 
this purpose. 

The Swathraore plan was far ahea.'l 
of the old plans; but this plan is as 
far ahead of Swathmore's as was his 
ahead of those prior. The reason is 
this: While he used a colony to mate 
eleven queens. I mate one hundred 
with the same amount. 
Fraternally submitted. 
Berclair, Texas, Nov. 4, 1903. 



When W. L. Ooggshall established 
his apiary in Cuba, he started from 
New York with 200 colonies and ar- 
rived with exactly the same number. 
This noteworthy achievement is a re- 
sult of practical knowledge. They 
were confined fifteen days. 



FORMING NUCLEI. 

By W. W. McNeal. 

WITH the permission of the edi- 
tor I will here state some 
things that I have found out 
about forming nuclei. 

I regard a few good, strong nuclei as 
being a very necessary adjunct to the 
apiary; in fact, it seems to me now 
that I could hardly get along without 
them, but as a rule, I find it does not 
pay to try to form them before the ar- 
rival of settled warm weather. One 
queen will produce more bees in a col- 
ony where conditions are normal than 
will a half dozen queens were said col- 
ony divided up into that many small 
ones, while the weather is yet cool and 
unfavorable. Haste will surely make 
waste in all work of this kind if the 
day on which it is done is not warm 
and the colony or colonies have not 
been prepared for it. 

The usual diificulty encountered is 
the disposition on the part of the bees 
to return to the old location whereupon 
many bees are sure to be lost if a 
cold rain were to blow up at the time. 
So, again. I would say, wait till the 
air is warm and sweet with the scent 
of bud and blossom before you at- 
tempt to launch a nucleus colony for 
profit Instead of pleasure. 

Now, as to getting a colony ready 
for dividing its forces, it is very nec- 
essary to create a desire to swarm. 
You see there attachment for home is, 
by this means, broken and all we have 
to do is to scatter the little colonies 
about the yard where we want them 
to remain. The parent colony should 
be made very strong by systematic 
feeding begun as early in the season 
as practicable. Not more than one 
super should be given for the more 
room the colony has the longer will 
preparations for swarming be retard- 
ed. However, when queen cells are 
started, either naturally or from ar- 
tificial cell-cups as the apiarist dic- 
tates, they shoiTld not be taken from 
the colony till the young queens are 
ready to emerge. 

Of course, the colony will swarm if 
the weather is suitable, as soon as the 
cells are capped, but they must not be 
allowed to have their own way at that 
stage of the game. Those queen-cells 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



1904. 

must be kept good and warm for prop- 
er development, and this can only be 
done by keeping the colony together 
till they hatch. Just enough bees 
should be taken from the swarm to 
start a nucleus with the old queen, 
while the remainder are to be returned 
to the hive from whence they came. 
Now if there is any available hatching- 
brood tha^ can be spared from other 
colonies in the yard, give it to the now 
queenless colony or colonies that the 
desire to swarm may become rampant. 
This will cause the workers to 
guard the unhatched queen-cells from 
the attacks of the first queens that 
emerge from the cells; otherwise they 
might be allowed to destroy a portion 
of the cells were the weather to tiu-n 
cool about that time. An entrance- 
guard of perforated zinc should be at- 
tached to the hive to prevent the 
swarm running away in the event that 
other matters demand your attentio'i 
much of the time when the bees do. 
This treatment insures strong, vigor- 
ous queens whereas if the colony were 
broken up as soon as the cells are cap- 
ped, the embrygo queens are tumbled 
about in their cells, and then the cells 
are often deserted by the bees on cool 
nights after they have been placed in 
the little colonies which invariably re- 
sults in very inferior queens. Bees 
that do not have a desire to swarm, 
but instead are devoted to home in- 
terests, having a good laying queen, 
are very presistent about returning to 
the old location. In such cases it is 
almost impossible to hold the older 
bee with the nuclei if neighboring 
hives are close to where the parent 
hive was and resemble it in appear- 
ance. 

Tall grass, weeds, or little sticks of 
wood placed against the front of the 
hive, in fact anything that obstructs 
the entrance somewhat, is a great 
help, for it causes the bees to turn and 
mark their new location upon leaving 
the hive. But it is better to break 
the tie that binds them to home and its 
sweetness before any artificial increase 
is made in crowded apiaries. 

Wheelersburg, O., April 12. 1904. 



Ill 



THE PREVENTION OF IN- 
CREASE. 

By C. Theilmann. 

MUCH has been said and written 
in regard to methods to prevent 
the increase of colonies. I 
have tried a number of these witliout 
satisfaction, but during the past eight 
or ten years I have practiced a plan 
which is very satisfactory to me. It 
is as follows: 

By way of preparation, I clip one 
wing of each queen in the apiary be- 




We are arranging a Honey Dealers' 
Directory for continuous publication 
in these columns. If you buy or sell 
honey, please write for particulars. 



MR. THEILMANN. 

fore they become very populous in the 
spring, as they are then easier found. 
This prevents the escape of swarms, 
as the queens cannot fly, and they are 
easily picked up on the ground as they 
crawl about before the hives when 
swarming. They are caged and l;iid 
before the entrance until the swarm 
comes back, which it will do as a rule. 
Even if four or five swarms cluster 
together, they will separate and go 
back to their respective hives if the" 
queens are not with them. Thp caged 
queens are either killed or left at the 
entrances until some place is found 



112 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



June 



where they may be used to advautage. 
If they are good oues, they are some- 
times left at the entrances two to 
four weeKs, aud then introduced to 
other colonies which are headed by in- 
ferior queens. 

Only a few days ago a queen was 
introduced successfully which was 
been cared for at the entrance of a 
hive from the lirst until the twenty- 
ninth of July and the yt)ung daughter 
was meantime laying briskly within. 

On the seventh of eignth day after 
swarniiug 1 go through the hive, and 
as a rule find one or more queen-cells 
hatched out, then I cut out all the re- 
maining cells; or even if none are 
hatched, I cut them all out just the 
same and lay a number of the ripest 
oues before the entrance for the bees 
to care for until hatched. The "first 
to hatch enters the hive and becomes 
the reigning (lueen — killing all the 
young queens that may enter after she 
has taken possession. 

If cells are cut out before the sixth 
or seventh day after swarming, the 
workers may start other cells from the 
latest lai'vae; that is, the youngest lar- 
vae iti the hive. 

The critical time is when the young 
queen takes her flight, as often the 
bees swarm out with her and may be- 
come mixed up with other swarms 
which may be in the air at the same 
time, and thus all may escape with the 
young queen. However, if no other 
swarms are out at the time, they usu- 
ally go back to their own hive all 
right. But if they do get mixed in 
this way, I allow them to cluster and 
put them into a swarm-box and divide 
them among the hives from which they 
came. If I am doubtful as to whetht-r 
any one lot has a queen, I simply give 
them one or two of the cells cut out, as 
mentioned in the foregoing, and of 
which I have a lot on hand in the ap- 
iary at swarming time. In this way 
there will be but few queenless col- 
onies in the yard after swarming time; 
and the colonies can be kept strong, 
which is absolutely necessary for the 
production of comb honey. 

Theilmanton, Minn., Aug. ,3, 1003. 



THE "AVESTERN ILLINOIS' 



Our offer of the American Farmer 
one year free to all subscribers M'ho 
pay a yenr in advance for The Bee- 
Keeper, still holds good. 



Report of April Meeting. 
By J. E. Johnson. 

THE beekeepers' society that was 
organized in Galesburg, Ills., 
last January, met in the coun- 
ty court room in Galesburg April 30th. 
To broaden the scope of the organiza- 
tion, the name was changed to "West- 
ern Illinois Bee-keepers' Association." 
The question box was the principal 
feature of the meeting, it being the 
best way to draw all present into the 
discussion. The question of wintering 
was pretty thoroughly discussed. We 
have had a very hard winter on bees 
and an exceptionally backward, cold 
spring. 

Reports on wintering were as fol- 
lows: One bee-keeper had last fall 
seventy colonies in chaff hives, winter- 
ed on summer stands and lost all but- 
seven. It was thought that moisture 
collected and froze and closed the en- 
trances. This man was an up-to-date 
bee-keei)er of thirty years experience. 
One inember had eleven colonies last 
fall in single walled hives packed with 
cushion on top. No other protection 
except good wind-break. He left en- 
trance three-eights deep open clear 
across the hive and only lost two col- 
onies. Nearly all lost a part of their 
bees. I myself lost nineteen out of 
fifty-five colonies, mostly from spring 
dwindling. Only lost eight or nine up 
to April 1. One member Avintered six- 
ty colonies in cellar. Set them out 
Felu-uary 6 and had three weeks of 
zero weather afterwards and only lost 
seven colonies: but they became pretty 
weak from spring dwindling. We had 
no warm days from November 7 till 
February 5; so that bees had not a 
real good flight for nearly three 
months 

.Judging from average results it 
would seem that bees must have con- 
siderable ventilation even in extremely 
cold weather. 

I had three third swarms in hives, 
a La Aikin. two Ideal supers of eight 
frames each, and they came through 
the strongest of any I have. One was 
covered with newspaper on three sides 
the other two only cushion on top of 
frames. Tliere was some chance for 
air to come in between papers, and 



1904. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



113 



bees could move easier between lower 
and iiyyer combs. Owiug to early cold 
weather 1 did uot cover, but oue-balf 
my hives with newspapers. Those 
covered on four sides suffered most 
from dysentery and dampness. Eight 
colonies in cellar came out well, but 
lost three from dwindling. 

I have concluded — judging from my 
experience of this exceedingly hard 
winter — that I shall next fall cover all 
hives with four or iive thicknesses of 
newspaper on east, north and west 
sides of hive; but leave south side with 
out. I live on a hill with no wind- 
break. We have not known that there 
was any foul brood near us, but one 
new member reported that he has had 
foul brood for -fifteen years only about 
eighteen miles from Galesburg. In 
fact foul brood killed all his bees about 
ten years ago, so he had given up bee- 
keeping, but last year bees came and 
took up their abode iu his hives so he 
now has sixteen colonies. Bees showed 
no sign of disease last fall but this 
spring one colony shows disease. We 
shall endeavor to wipe out the disease 
if possible. 

Our meeting was very interesting 
and all members felt well repaid for 
coming. We are gradually adding new 
members, in fact one man sent mem- 
bership fee and asked to join although 
he lives in an adjoining state ilowa). 
So Ave have begun to feel real proud 
of our new association. Gatesbu'— is 
a town of about 20,000 population, sev- 
eral railroads and several suburban 
street car lines so that people can 
reach that point conveniently. We 
voted to join the National Association 
in a body. Onr next meeting will be 
at the court house on the third Tues- 
day of September, litO-t. 

All bee-keepers within reach of 
Galesburg should attend. All are cord- 
ially invited. 

Williamsfield, 111., May 10, 1904. 



ANTICIPATED SW^ ARMING. 

By Adrian Getaz. 

WHAT we call here now "brush- 
ed" or "shook" swarms are 
called in Europe "anticipated"' 
swarms. Two methods have been in 
use there for quite a number of years. 
The first is called anticipated swarm- 
ing by single permutation. It is ex- 



actly the process used here and needs 
not to be described. The second is 
much the best and is called anticipated 
swarming by double permutation. 

To explain it as clearly as possible, 
let us suppose that the apiary contains 
only two hives and an unoccupied 
stand thus. 
Hive No. 1. Hive No. 2. 



Stand No. 1. Stand No. 2. Stand No. 3. 

When the time to operate comes the 

hive No. 2 is placed on stand No. 3. 

The queen and all the bees of hive No. 

1 are driven out and put in a new hive 
on their own stand. They constitute 
a swarm just in the same condition as 
those made by single permutation. The 
hive No. 1 thus deprived of its bees 
and queen is then placed on stand No. 

2 and receive there the ifield bees of 
the hive No. 2. We have then: 

Swarm Hive No. 1. Hive No. 2. 



Stand No. 1. Stand No. 2. Stand No. 3. 

Eight days later the hive No. 1 being 
without queen, will have a number of 
queen cells. It is then put on stand 
No. 3 and the hive No. 2. brought back 
to its place. We have finally: 

Swarm. Hive No. 2. Hive No. 1. 



Stand No. 1. Stand No. 2. Stand No. 3. 

Now for the advantages of this 
method: The swarm on stand No. 1 is 
in the same condition as those obtain- 
ed by single permutation. But the 
hive No. 2 on stand No. 2 will give a 
much greater stn-plus than would a 
forced swarm. It has had a field force 
and a brood nest all the time. Having 
not to rebuild a brood nest it can work 
in the surplus boxes much more than 
a forced swarm; and finally the ab- 
sence of its queen during the eight 
days that the brood nests were ex- 
changed, has killed the swarming fe- 
ver completely. 

As to the hive No. 1. now on a new 
stand, it has no field force, has lost a 
large number of emerging bees while 
it was on stand No. 2 and will requeen 
out of its queen cells without danger 
of swarming. 

This method is the invention of Mr. 
De Vignole, of Belgium. I might add 
here that there is no hunting of queen 
and no queen cells to cut out when us- 
ing it. 

Knoxvllle. Tenn. 



Tell others of your successes and 
failures and the reasons. 



114 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



June 



PENNSYLVANIA STATE BEE- 
KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

Pursuant to a call for a convention 
of tne Bee-Keepers in i'euusylvauia a 
number of persons met at Williams- 
port on April 12, and organized the 
Pennsylvania State Bee-Keepers' As- 
sociation with the following officers: 
President, Prof. H. A. Surface, State 
College; 1st Vice President, E. E. 
Pressler, Williamsport; 2ud Vice Pres- 
ident, W. A. Selser, Philadelphia; 3rd 
Vice President, J. N. Prothero, Du- 
bois; Secretary, D. L. Woods, Muucy; 
Treasurer, E. L. Pratt, Swarthmore; 
Executive Committee, Richard D. Bar- 
clay, State College; Charles N. Green, 
Troy; Prof. E. 2s. Phillips, University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; E. A. 
Dempwolf, York, and John D. Costello, 
Harrison Valley. 

The cheif purpose of this organiza- 
tion is to promote Apiculture in Penn- 
sylvania and it is to be accomplished by 
efforts made along the following lines: 
(1) To secure legislation for the pro- 
motion of bee-keeping. (2) To suppress 
the diseases of bees, especially foul- 
brood, by legislation and by the ap- 
pointment of a competent State In- 
spector with deputies or assistants. (3) 
To secure and promote instruction in 
bee-keeping at Farmers' Institutes. (4) 
To secure a series of lectures at the 
normal session for Farmers' Institute 
Lecturers to be held in Bellefonte next 
October. (5) To make it possible for 
persons to obtain instruction in api- 
culture at the Pennsylvania State Col- 
lege. (6) To induce and promote in- 
vestigation and experimentation in 
apiculture at the Pennsylvania State 
Agricultural Experiment Station. (7) 
To induce and promote investigations 
and publications by the Division of 
Zoology of the Pennsylvania State De- 
partment of Agriculture. (8) To en- 
force the laws of Pennsylvania against 
adulteration of honey. (9) To secure 
laws against spraying fruit trees while 
In l)Ioom. (10) To obtain statistics con- 
cerning bees and bee-products within 
our state. (11) To enter upon a cru- 
sade of apicultural erlucation in this 
State, both for producers and consum- 
ers of honey. (12) To instruct fruit 
growers and farmers as to the practic- 
al value of bees as fertilizing agents 
for their plants, and to show the fact 



that they are wholly beneficial and 
never injurious. (13) To raise the rank 
oi Pennsylvania as a honey-producing 
fetate irom fourth in the Ljnion to first, 
it possible. (14) To band together all 
the bee-keepers of the State for the 
purpose of good fellowship and that 
strength, which is to be obtained only 
by union. (15) To make it possible for 
all persons who are not now keeping 
bees to add to their revenues by the 
production of honey, and to increase 
both the quantity and quality of the 
honey produced in this state. 

The Association desires the name 
and address of every man in the State 
who has one or more colonies of bees, 
and for this purpose invites persons to 
correspond either with the President 
or the Secretary statmg the number 
of colonies or hives kept, and giving 
statistics as to the amount of honey 
and wax produced each year. The 
membership fee is only one dollar per 
year, which also entitles the individual 
to membership in the National Bee- 
Keepers' Association, and gives him 
special protection and assistance at 
any time it may be required. For ex- 
ample^if a member of the National 
Association becomes involved in liti- 
gation the National Association will 
fiu-nish expert testimony and counsel 
such as may be necessary to secure 
equity in the courts of justice. 

This commendable undertaking 
should receive a large membership, 
and all persons interested are invited 
to send their names, addresses and 
fees to the secretary, and these will 
be registered and receipted. 

The next meeting will be held in 
Harrisburg during the first week of 
December when several papers will be 
presented by practical and expert men 
bearing upon the various problems of 
bee culturists in our State. 

Correspondence is earnestly so- 
licited. 

H. A. Surface, President, 
Harrisburg, Pa. 
D. L. Woods, Secretary, 
Muncy, Pa. 



"The sample copy of The Bee-Keep- 
er came to hand yesterday and it is 
just exactly to my taste. "^ — J. J. Eng- 
brecht. 



All supplies necessary for the sea- 
son should be now on hand. 



1904. THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 

W^IRING FRAMES, ETC. 



11[ 



By Robert H. Smith. 

IN THE January number of your 
valuable magazine, Mr. Jameson 
tells of a very attractive manner 
of wiring brood frames. I bave been 
picturing to myself how nice it would 
be to stand in the shade of one of the 
grand old maples back of the house 
swarthed in a fur coat, with the balmy 
March breeze gently slipping icicles up 
and down my spines and the thermom- 
eter registering zero or below. So 
much for nonsense, now for business. 
Mr. .Jameson's plan is indeed an ad- 
mirable one, I should think for a M^arm 
climate like California, or for New 
York either, if the brood-frames are 
wired during the warm months: but 
nearly every bee-keeper likes to get 
his hives ready during the winter 




SMITH'S WIRING DEVICE. 

when the work in the "yard" isn't 
crowding him. I think my plan will 
ap])eal to such as these. 

I have a small table-like contrivance 
the exact size of the inside of a brood- 
frame. At each end there is a cleat 
nailed which lets the frame slip down 
just half way. My frames are staple 
spaced and for the Hoffman frames 
these end cleats would have to be cut 
away to allow for the projections om 
end bars. 

Underneath this table-top construct 
a box large enough to hold your spool 
of wire when lying on its side. Now 
hold your table in front of you with 
the box at the right hand end and near 
the corner drill a small hole. A slide 
floor can be arranged for the door if 
you like to keep the wire from falling 
out. However, mine has never bother- 
ed me in this way. When you are 
ready to wire, slip your spool into the 
box so as to unwind from the top side. 



thread the wire through the small hole 
■before mentioned, and go ahead. 

I wire my frames in the regular 
manner and drive both tacks to hold 
the wire after the frame has been laid 
on the contrivance that 1 have de- 
scribed, the frame being laid on with 
the top-bar from me and the tacks 
driven in the right hand end-bar in 
every case. 

Have a system and you will be sur- 
prised how much faster you will get 
along than to go at yoiir work hap haz- 
ard. Folding paper trays for section 
cases is another slow job. Try having 
a board cut slightly smaller than the 
inside of your shipping cases, fold the 
paper on this and fasten them with 
sealing wax or something similar.They 
can be folded up during the winter and 
packed away and will all reaay for the 
fruit bloom honey that I hope you will 
get. 

Brasher Iron Works, N. Y., March 
G, 1004. 



CYPRIANS AND OTHER RACES. 



A Reply to Dr. Blanton. 
By Arthur C. Miller. 

FROM i^r. Blanton's article in the 
Bee-Keeper for May, x infer that 
he had a particularly vicious 
strain of Cyprians. On the other hand 
I have what may perhaps be consid- 
ered a particularly tractable strain. 
From observation of the race I believe 
it is more variable in temper than 
any other race except the "blacks." 
In all parts of their worK the race 
shows great uniformity, variation 
seeming to lie almost wholly in tem- 
per. The queens are remarkably pro- 
lific, the workers are excellent honey 
gatherers, rapid and uniform comb 
builders and protect their home from 
robbers in a very gratifying way. Pure 
Cypriiiiis do not n^ake attractive comb 
honey, but for producers of large quan- 
tities they can not be excelled. If the 
race should be bred with the same care 
and selection that has been given t© 
the Italian, I believe it would excel 
anything we now have. Perhaps it 
might be necessary to introduce the 
blood of some race wnich capptd the 
cells whiter in order to improve them 
in that respect, just as ha,s been done 
with the Italians to improve their lay- 
ing and color. Such admixture is »een 



116 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



June 



even in the imported Italians, and it 
is usually decidedly to their advan- 
tage. 

I do not believe that any of the races 
in their purity are in all ways suited 
to all persons and localities, or that 
any one of them is an all-purpose bee. 

I believe the quickest advance can 
be seciu-ed by crossing different races 
and strains, and acting on that belief 
I have for years introduced new biooa 
into my apiaries. I began with a 
sti'ain of Italians which I lilvs^d. ^Alit-i. 



likely to be in an undesirable as a de- 
sirable direction. 

Blacks, Cyprians, Carniolans ana 
Italians all have points of excellence 
and all have faults, and strains of 
each race vary so that it is unsafe to 
extol or condemn any race by the trial 
of only one strain. 

While my article on the use of smoke 
seemed to reflect on Dr. Blanton's 
ability in manipulation, it was not so 
intended. I simply used his record of 
experience with the Cyprians as a text. 




MR. WILLCUTT IN HIS APIARV. 



ever I got a new strain that showed 
promise of virtues, I crossed them on 
what I already had. Later I used 
Carniolans and still later Cyprians. 
The latter seem to be the strongest 
blood of all, and they have proved tUt- 
most valual)le for raising the gra^^i 
of whatever strain they were crosseii 
with. In crossing great care and pains 
must be exercised in selecting in or- 
der to secure the best results, for var- 
iation induced by crossing is (piite a» 



Dr. Blanton has had far more experi- 
ence in handling bees than I have, and 
I have great i-espect for his abilities; 
also I have often received much aid 
from his articles. If I offended him, 
I beg to apologize. 

Providence, R. I., May 17, 1904. 



Do us the kindness to always men- 
tion The Bee-Keeper when you write 
to any of our advertisers. 



imn. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



117 



SMALL PACKAGES FOR EX- 
TRACTED HONEY. 

By A. E. Willcntt. 

IN biiildiiifi" up a home niarket for 
extracted liouey, I find it a bad 
practice to sell in larse packages 
to the consumer. The gallon can is too 
large, for this locality at least. 

I sell more exti-acted honey in quart 
Mason cans, than in any other pack- 



trouble of this kind, but it was when I 
failed to put it u|) in "proper style." 
If the honey is put in the cans hot, 
and the covers well screwed down, I 
have no further trouble with them, 
and the honey does not "ooze out un- 
der the covers'". The covers some- 
times get jammed or imperfect; if 
such covers are used'trouble may fol- 
low. 

In the past, I have had a few cus- 
tomers who preferred to buy honey in 
gallon cans; I suppose on account of 




ANOTHER MEW OF MR. WILLCUTT'S APIARY. 



age, and consider it one of the best 
l>ackages for extracted honey. The 
pint can is a good seller but costs 
nearly as much as the quart and for 
this reason I do not use itas a regular 
package. For a small package I use 
tlie .telly tumbler and this, too, I find 
to be a good seller. And if properly 
put up will not leak. 

I see some are having troul)le with 
the Mason can on account of its lealv- 
ing honey. I, too. have had some 



getting it a little cheaper. Last fall' 
1 called on one of these and tried to 
sell them some honey. But they said, 
'"Xo, I guess not, I think we have 
some of that we got of you a year or 
two ago."' No sale. 

Now, I think that if I had sold this 
l)arty, only a quart can of honey at 
each call, I would still be selling to 
them in "small doses." 

A feAV such cases as the above have 
fully convinced me that the quart can 



118 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



June 



is a large enough package in which to 
retail extracted honey. With one or 
two exceptions, I find that where peo- 
ple commence eating honey in a 
wholesale way, they very soon tire of 
it and ■R'ant no more, for a while at 
least 

Swift River, Mass., Feb. 18, 1904. 



HONEY PLANTS. 

By C. S. Harris. 

SHORTLY after becoming interest- 
ed in bees I made quite a number 
of experiments with the seeds ot' 
various nectar secreting plants and 
plants and weeds from the north, with 
the hope of adding to the natural bee- 
inisturage about me. Tliis, so far. I 
have not succeeded in doing, but it 
may be of interest to mention some of 
the plants tried and the results. 

Sweet clover was the first and per- 
haps the most extensive experimented 
with, but, while it seeded itself, it 
could not contend with the natural 
growth about it and would finally be 
crowded out. It made a vigorous growth 
on our hanimoclv lands nnd even on the 
lighter sand made a fair growth of 
from three to four feet. Unlike its hab- 
it north, it bloomed here the first sea- 
son. The bees gave it but little atten- 
tion. I am speaking of the white flow- 
ered. The yellow variety grows here 
naturally in abundance, but I have 
never seen a bee on it. 

Alfalfa I found vei-y difficult to get 
established, owing to the delicacy of 
the young plants, but I succeeded in 
growing several beds of it five or six 
feet in width and fifty or sixty in 
length. It bloomed nicely and the bees 
worked on it lightly at times. It died 
out gradually within three or four 
years from the time of planting. 

Of catnip, Simpson's honey plant, 
bornce and some other things. I suc- 
ceeded in growing a few plants, but 
they were not of stronc growth and 
not in nuantity enough to attract the 
bees, rieome grows well, particular- 
ly on hammock soil, and is a generous 
yielder of nectar, but would not take 
care of itself and must be cultivated 
for its nectar alone. 

MnstaT'd and seven-top turnins are 
of free crowth on hammock land r>tid 
the bees always work well upon fho 
bloom. The sunflower does finoiy 
soTne seasons, but the seed, as a rule. 



does not fill out well, although the 
bees work faithfully upon the blos- 
soms. 

Crimson clover made a line growth, 
bloomed freely and the bees worked 
strongly upon it. I hope to give it a 
more extensive trial sometime in the 
future. 

Of all the plants I have tested I 
think perhaps the sunflower, crimson 
clover, buckwheat, velvet bean and 
mustard might be worth cultivation 
for their nectar in connection with 
their crop value in other respects. 

I have tried about all of the clovers 
and so-called clovers and think the 
crimson the most promising here. 
White clover grows and seeds itself 
to some extent along th(? road sides in 
low ground, but does not do so well 
in the field. 



Holly Hill. Fla., Nov. 



1903. 



The "Irish Bee Guide'' is the Jiame 
of a new work on apiculture ,1ust from 
the press. Its aiithor is our friend 
and brother editor. Rev. J. G. Digges, 
M.A., of the Irish Bee .lommal. and 
member of the examining board of the 
Irish Bee-Keepers' Association, com- 
posed of experts. The work comprises 
210 pages, with 1.50 illustrations, and is 
the most exhaustive treatise on api- 
culture ever issued in that country. 
We have not yet received a copy, but 
are anxiously awaiting its arrival, as 
we are familiar with Dr. Digges' en- 
tertaining and instructive style. 



The St. Croix Valley Honey Produc- 
ers Association was recently organized 
in Wisconsin. The management of the 
new organization is in the hands of 
that hustling apiarist. Leo F. Hane- 
gan, of Glenwood. In the circular 
which is being put out by the Associ- 
ation the American Bee-Keeper is said 
to be the "l)est bee .iournal for the 
price in the Ignited States." Thanks! 
We hope the St. Croix boys may help 
us to make it even better. 



June is here and we are now ready 
to "do things". 



W. M. Gerrish, R. F. D.. Eppinar. N. H., 
keeps 1 complete supply of our goods, and 
Eastern customers will save freight by order- 
ing of him. 

The W. T. Falconer Mfg. Co. 



■'M--M'>4>.M-^ 




THE 



Bee -Keeping World 



staff Contributors : F. GREINER and ADRIAN GETAZ. 

Contributions to this Department are solicited from all quarters of the earth. 



♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ MMM MM ♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ MMMM ♦♦♦♦♦♦» 



ENGLAND. 

"During a good lioney flow," says 
the British Bee-Journal, "ten thous- 
and bees can can-y into the hive one 
pound of honey at one time. During 
a moderate flow it may take 40,000, 
and where the flow is extra good per- 
haps some less than 10,000. may do it. 
We calculate 20,000 to be the aver- 
age." 

The catkins of the hazelnut bush 
are not visited by bees in England, so 
it is claimed by Skinner in British 
Bee-Journal. It is so in North Amer- 
ica, while in Germany bees gather 
pollen from them. 



By using a regular heating stove (coal) 
the cost of heating his house apiary 
of G.3 hives dxiring a pear (from Nov- 
ember till June) is only about $5.00 
to '$6.00, says Brossard. He saves 
about 50 cents worth of honey per 
hive each year. Besides bees can 
reach the honey in a warmed bee- 
house, no matter in what part of the 
hive it may be. They never starve 
as long as there is a drop left any- 
where. Bees may be fed successfully, 
no matter how cold it is. To increase 
the number of colonies is an easy mat- 
ter, etc. He predicts this method of 
wintering bees to have a promising 
future. 



NORWAY. 



Dr. Astrup found many different 
kinds of insects as high north as the 
83rd desTee of latitude. Among them 
he found honey bees, and he is satis- 
fied that there are bees at the North 
Pole. As the sun does not go down in 
six months at the Pole, he thinks that 
bees would have a splendid opportun- 
ity to gather honey, etc., from the 
bloom. (Central Blatt.) 



GERMANY. 



The winter in Germany has been a 
very mild one. 



Very best "Table Honey" is now be- 
ing offered in Germany in the form of 
a white powder under the name of 
Fructln. 

Brossard speaks in Thalz. Bztg. 
very enthusiastically about heating 
of bee-houses. As is well known, a 
very large number of apiaries in Ger- 
many are house-apiaries, which can 
easily be warmed up, if thought of ad- 
vantage. Renner speaks of water and 
steam heating as being satisfactory. 



Mentzer has the following to say in 
Pfilzer Bztg. about the management 
of bees before swarming time: "At 
the end of M^rch or beginning of 
April the apricot, cherry, plum and 
pear send out their olossoms. Should 
the weather be favorable during this 
time, stimulative feeding is super- 
fluous. It is a good plan to uncap the 
sealed stores from time to time; it will 
increase the activity'. During unfavor- 
able weather every colony should re- 
ceive one-fourth to one-half quart of 
diluted honey daily in order that 
brood- rearing may go on uninteiTupt- 
edly. The greater activity has also 
the tendency to increase the warmth 
inside of the hive, which is beneficial. 
The packing should not be removed 
too early. As soon as a colony covers 
all their combs, more room should be 
given. Great care should be e.'cercised 
in giving combs in the center of the 
brood-nest. The beginner better not 
do so. During the applebioom frames 
filled with comb foundation may be 
given. By the middle of May many 
colonies will be in shape to take advan- 
tage of a honey flow, but they should 
not be allowed to cast swarms thus 
early. By removing a few combs of 
hatching brood, swarming may be 
effectually prevented. By the help of 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



120 

this brood all colonies can thus easily 
be brought to a state of full strength. 
Should a colony cast a swarm, the 
queen is removed aad the swarm 
allowed to go back. A colony thus 
treated will quickly fill up their combs 
with honey. When the locust begins 
to bloom supers should be put on, or 
combs given. Toward the end of the 
honey season .swarms may be ac- 
cepted. But they will have to be 
helped from other colonies in shape of 
brood and combs in order that they 
may get in condition for winter. 

Schles. Imborblatt reports that five 
cases of honey adulteration have late- 
ly been .disposed of by the courts in 
Berlin. Two men were fined each 
500 marks, three dealers each 50 
marks.— Central Blatt. 



June 11 



American hive will find more and. 
more friends across the water. Ger- 
stung constructed a "hive which is be- 
coming quite popular! Strauli shows 
one in the Bienenvater of December, 
which he thinks is a vei-y practical 
hive. The construction is shown plain- 
ly in the accompanying cut. 



AUSTRIA. 



Some years ago a rather animated 
controversy was carried on in the 



GREECE. 

The honey from the Mount Hymet- 
tUfS has always had the reputation of 
being the finest flavored honey in all 
creation. The "Rodomeli" "rose hon- 
ey" has also been noted. It is pro- 
duced upon an island along the coast 
of Greece, which is largely covered 
with wild rose-bushes. From their 
bloom the bees gather a honey which 
is very aromatic and well flavored. 
The rich Turks in Constantinople are 
willing purchasers of this honey and 
pay a high price for it. — Breiden in 
Leipz. Bztg. 

F. Grelner. 




BELGIUM. 



Nordlinger Bztg. as to the advantages 
of the American L hive over the 
Dzierzon hive. Our good esteemed 
friend Stachelhausen on one side — 
Gex-man bee-keepers on the other. 
Since then the American system has 
found some friends in the German 
countries. A similar battle is going 
on in Austria at present, Dzierzon on 
one side, still adhering to his hive of 
half a century ago; Strauli, of Switzer- 
land, Alphonsus and others on the 
other side. It would seem that the 



Mr. Van Hay, one of the staff editors 
of the Bucher Beige, has an article 
mentioning something about the length 
of life of bees. 

He says that the population of a 
colony is renewed tnree or four times 
during the summer, and once between 
October and the middle of April. Or 
that, at least, the field bees disappear 
during the winter, and when the 
spring comes, only tho,se that were 
young when the winter come remain. 
A colony Italianized the 26th of Sep- 
tember had no black bees left the llth 
of April following. It must be remem- 
bered that in Europe, bees are win- 
tered out of doors, and that while the 
summer in Belgium is much colder 
than in our middle states, the winter 
is comparatively mild. — Le Bucher 
Beige. 

Mr. A. Gustin. in making a list of 
apicultural tools, mentions a small 
looking glass. Sometimes one is stung 
on the face, and with thelooking glass 
it is easy to see the sting and take it 
out. — Le Bucher Beige. 



Mr. Burkhardt. in the course of some 
experiments on the proper size of 
hives, or rather brood nests, found in 
large hives and strong colonies from 



1904. THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 121 

40,000 to 01,000 cells occupied by ALGERIA, 

brood. This last figures mean a daily 

egg laying of nearly three thousand Mr. Bourgeois gives a peculiar pro- 
eggs. — Le Bucher Beige. cess to prevent swarming. The usual 

entrance is closed and another one is 

In the spring of 1903. Mr. Wathelet, established between the body of the 
the editor of the Bucher Beige, found hive and the supers. This change also 
several of his colonies weak, and had induces the bees to work in the supers, 
to feed them. Une of the strong col- It might be well to say here that the 
onies began to rob, and consideral)le Euopean apiarists work exclusively 
trouble followed. Finally Mr. Wath- for extracted honey, and that the pro- 
elet put an empty story with twelve cess might not be as successful when 
combs on the robbing colony and fed working for comb honey. — L' Apicul- 
them vigorously, as soon as the teur. 

combs were full, they were given to 

the weak colonies. ^Vhile fed. the PRANCE, 

colony never attempted robbing. The 

bees were undoubtedly "too busy." Mr. F. S. Gassner has invented a 

machine to uncap the combs of honey 
Among the causes of starvation dur- to be extracted. Curved knives are 
ing the winter, some cases of honey placed on a revolving cylinder. Above 
candled solid in the combs are men- the cylinder is a frame holding the 
tioned. Another cause Is a bad dls- comb to be uncapped. As the frame 
position of the honey In the hive, ia pushed In its guides, It carries the 
Occasionally there is a nan-ow strip comb above the cylinder, and the 
of honey at the top of each comb, and knives cut out the cappings, which 
after the bees have consvimed what Is drop into a receptacle below. — L' Api- 
within reach, they cannot pass to oth- culteur. 

er combs, if the weather Is too cold. — 

Lie Bucher Beige. Dio bees transport eggs from pne 

cell to another? The qiiestion is yet 

Mr. Ignotus, in a contribution on debated. The Apiculteur gives three 
spring feeding, raises the question of instances in which they did. In the 
the water consumed in the spring, spring of 1900 a colony belonging to 
The amount needed is considerable. Mr. Harrault, was found queenless. 
The experiments made bv Preuss "Two combs of brood were added. A 
show a consumption of one-eighth to few days later no queen cell was 
one-fifth of a gallon per dav. He esti- found on these combs, but two with 
mates that to bring in one gallon of larvae were found on one of the old 
water, the bees have to make at least eombs. Why the bees transported 
ten thousand trips. Stimulative feed- the eggs on the old comb instead of 
ing should be made with very thin building the cells on the combs given 
honey or svrup. Some apiarists add a is a mystery. Mr. Harrault thinks it 
little bit of salt to the feed. The rea- may be because the combs given were 
son for It is that very often the bees rather on the outside of the cluster 
are seen sipping dirty water around and therefore in a colder place. An- 
the stables; and It is supposed that other instance quoted is that of a 
they prefer it because It contains some queen confined for a few days in a 
salty substances. Others claim that wire cage. Some brood was found be- 
as such water contains organic sub- low the cage. It seems that the eggs 
stances similar to pollen, the bees take laid by the queen dropped through 
it for that reason. It may be noted the meshes and were gathered and 
in connection with the salt question, put in the cells by the bees. The third 
that the honey and the bodies of the case is that of an apiarist finding a 
bees contain ' only an insignificant queen-cell occupied in a broodless and 
amount of salt. As to the amount to queenless colony. The cell hatched a 
be fed, one pound of honey for two queen, so it was not a case of laying 
weeks is enough when no brood is workers. After scratcnlng his head, 
raised; but if there is anything like or rather his memory, the aforesaia 
an amount of brood, two or three apiarist remembered that one day 
times that amount every few days may while working in the apiary, he pusn- 
be necessary.— Le Bucher Beige. ed under the frames of that colony a 



12: 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



June 



small piece of broken comb containing 
a few eggs and some honey. Tliis was 
don^ to save the honey and at the 
same time not leave it in the open to 
start robbing. Evidently the bees 
transported one off the eggs in a suit- 
able place to raise a queen. — L' Api- 
culteur. 




GERMANY. 



We American apiarists are not the 
only ones pestered by the fabrications 
of mixtures and concoctions of glu- 
cose and other Ingredients and the 
selling of the same for honey. In 
Gtermany. several large factories of 
such products are in existence and sell 
openly such products, calling them 
artificial honey or some other names. 
In one of these factories an unlucky 
cat fell In one of the cauldrons where 
a mixture of extra fine (?) honey was 
boiling. Nobody was present at the 
time of the "catastrophe". When the 
contents of the cauldron were nearly 
entirely taken oiit and bottled up, the 
corpse of the unfortuuc^te cat was dis- 
covered. The employees of the estab- 
lishment held an inqiiest over the 
body, and decided to call in the propri- 
etor. That individual, after inves- 
tigating the status of his finances, de- 
cided that he could not afford to lose 
such an amount of "extra fine honey." 
and ordered the bottling and selling to 
proceed. An iniunction was issued to 
all employees to keep the matter a 
profound secret. Like all the pro- 
found secrets, the affair leaked out. 
The proprietor was prosecuted, appre- 
hended and condemned to a fine of 
.1,000 marks ($1,250). What the inward 
feelings of the consumers of the brand 
of "extra fine honey" may have been 
when they read the account in the 
newspapers is not stated. — From Le 
Eucher Beige. 

Adrian Getaz. 



YoDkers, N. Y., May 10, 1904., 
Dear Mr. Hill:— 

As you know, the past winter has 
been very "fierce" up North and my 
two out-door hives lost about half of 
their population. As for the "Bug 
House," its inmates thrived and in- 
creased so fast during March and 
April that they began building combs 
on the glass sides, for want of room, 
so I transferred the whole bunch to a 
regulation hive and put them out of 
doors, and at present they are "as busy 
as hatters" on fruit bloom. 

Dickson D. Alley. 



West Berne, N. Y., May,2 1904. 
Editor Bee-Keeper: — 

I have successfully wintered 104 col- 
onies in cellar— exactly the same num- 
ber I put in last fall. This is some- 
thing that is very seldom done here. I 
have been moving bees during the last 
week, and while the spring has been 
one of the lowest grade, bees are 
strong and in good condition, though 
not breeding heavily yet. I hope dur- 
ing the year to be able to show by pen 
and camera some of my methods of 
keening bees and rearing queens. I 
will prove that the best queens can be 
reared at home and the nuclei wintered 
and used again and again, without rob- 
bing colonies here and there to keep up 
nuclei. T do not pretend to know it all, 
but my writings will be founded upon 
an experience of 15 years. I like the 
American Bee-Keeper very much. 
P. W. Stahlman. 



The Bee-Keeper's Review thinks it 
time for the National Association to 
publish each year a stenographic report 
of its meetings, together with the re- 
port of the genera] manager, for dis- 
tribution among the memborship. It 
Is evidently the duty of the associa- 
tion to do so and it is difPcult to im- 
agine any valid objection to the pro- 
ject. Official information .--s to ihe 
work of the association, in all its de- 
tails, should be furnished each mem- 
ber as promptly as expedient. 



A Seasoned Rustic. — The young 
daughter of a prominent New York 
■financier, who has passed most of her 
years either in the city or at larcre sum- 
mer resorts, recently paid her first vis- 
it to a real country home. She was 
anxious to show that she was not al- 
together Ignorant of riiral conditions, 
and when a dish of honey was set be- 
fore her on the breakf.ist table she 
saw her opportunity. "Ah," she ob- 
served. "T see you keep a bee." — Har- 
per's Weekly. 



1904. 




THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 

Swathmore babies 
borned" everywhere." 



123 
"being 



Tliere's notbiug baa so "good as 
honey" for twice the '•money" and 
glucose is worse than nothing at any 
price. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY. 

THE W. T. FALCONER MANFG. Co. 

PROPRIETORS. 
H. E. HILL, - EDITOR, 

FORT PIERCE, FLA. 



Terms. 

Fifty cents a year in advance; 2 copies S5 
cents; 3 copies $1.20; all to be sent to one 
postoffice. 

Postage prepaid in the United States ant: 
Canada; 10 cents extra to all countries in the 
postal union, and 20 cents extra to all other 
countries. 

Advertisins: Rates. 

Fifteen cents per line, 9 words; $2.00 per 
inch. Five per cent, discount for two inser- 
tions; seven per cent, for three insertions; 
twenty per cent, for twelve insertions. 

Advertisements m'ust be received on or be- 
fore the 15th of each month to Insure inser- 
tion in the month following. 

Matters relating in any way to business 
should invariably be addressed to 

THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 

Falconer, N. Y. 

Articles for publication or letters exclusively 
for the editorial department mav be addressed 
to H. E. Hill, 

Fort Pierce, Fla. 

Subscribers receiving their paper in blue 
wrapper will know that their subscription ex- 
pires with this number. W'e hope that you 
will not delay favoring us with a renewal. 

A red wrapper on your paper indicates that 
yqu owe for your subscription. Please give 
the matter your earliest attention. 




Raising bees for sale, instead of run- 
ning for honey, would probably prove 
pro'titable to those suitably equipped, 
this season. 



Mr. E. H. Dewey, of Great Barring- 
tou. Mass., has assumed charge of Dr. 
Culver's "Brookmede" apiary, and will 
engage in the rearing of queens. 



Prospects for good prices and an ac- 
tive market for the honey crop in pros- 
pect are encouraging to those who 
have successfully wintered their bees. 



Commenting upon Dr. Blanton's re- 
cent remarks concerning Cyprians, a 
correspondent says: "A premature 
grave await the man who persists in 
trying to earn a living with Cyps." 



INIr. Henry Reddert. of Cincinnati, 
has recently invented a section press 
by the use of which two sections are 
squarel.v put together at one operation. 
The inventor says it works to perfec- 
tion. 



Hives for the reception of swarms 
should be kept in the shade. Bees dis- 
like a hot hive: and newly-hived 
swarms frequently abscond as a result 
of this oversight upon the part of the 
bee-keeper. 



To those unaccustomed to its use, a 
generous taste of pure, well-ripened 
honey is the best advertisement possi- 
ble. The "taste' is what leads to the 
habitual use of any commodity or lux- 
ury. It don't pay to be stingy. 



("omi)laints of honey-dew, which 
were formerly so frequent, are now 
seldom heard. 



A favorite topic with apiarian writ- 
ers of the eighties was, "The" Coming 
Bee." However, nothing of great im- 
portance has "come." during the past 
fifteen years or so. If it has. its land- 
ing has been unobserved. 



The poorest salesman in the world 
might be one of the most successful 
producers of honey. Both branches 
should be directed by competent 
hands; and it is difficult to say which 
of the two is the more important. 



It is said that a specimen of honey 
from Trebizond. gathered from the 
rhodoendron ponticum, which is com- 
mon in that vicinity, was sent in 1844 



124 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



June 



to the Zoological Society of London, 
and in 1859 its poisonous qualities 
were still retained. 



Tlie Pacific States Bee Journal cites 
as Its authority for the statement that 
a Honolulu bee-keeper produced 300,- 
000 pounds of honey in a season from 
200 colonies, the last annual report of 
the National Bee-Keepers' Association. 
There are a number of things in that 
report which should be revised before 
reproduction. 



Mr. E. M. Storer, who returned from 
Cuba, as recently noted in these col- 
umns, and purchased an apiary at Wa- 
basso. Fla., writes that he will not 
get honey enough for breakfast from 
the saw palmetto this year. He is now 
making inquiry as to rates for ti-ans- 
porting bees to Cuba. During the past 
poor season in Cuba, Mr. Storer took 
from 900 colonies ten thousand gallons 
of honey and eleven hundred nuclei. 
It appears that Cuba is still in the 
race. 



Perhaps no other question is more 
often asked, in regard to apiculture, 
than, "Does bee-keeping pay?" A hard- 
er question would be difficult to imag- 
ine. Does store-keeping pay? Yes and 
no. Under the same conditions either 
is profitable to certain persons. Under 
the same conditions neither is profit- 
able to others. Some succeed where 
otliers fail. Some fail where others 
would have succeeded. It's so the 
world over, in all brnnches of industry 
and commerce. 



The Modern Farmer and Busy Bee 
makes the following pertinent com- 
ment, with reference to the National 
Association and its doings: 

Let the membership have a report of 
the annual meetings, advertise honey 
everywhere, promote the general inter- 
ests of the industry, go after adulter- 
ators, get laws passed for the promo- 
tion of the industry, see that bee-keep- 
ing sets proper recognition at the 
hands of all fair associations, county, 
state and nation. 



From a recent editorial in the Amer- 
ican Bee Journal, it appears that the 
old Cotton hive fake is again being 
worked. Lizzie must have been hi- 



bernating, and but recently awakened; 
but her schemes to extort money from 
the ambitious, though unwary bee- 
keeper will doubtless fall short of the 
success with which they met "'some 
twenty years ago." Bee fixtures with 
which the name "Cotton" is in any 
way associated have about them an 
unsavory odor in the nostrils of the I 
practical apiarist. It would be well j 
for the uninitiated to "fight shy'' of | 
Cotton goods until their history has j 
been investigated. We have for some 
time had an article in hand, by Mr. 
E. F. Atwater, Boise, Idaho, in regard 
to this hive, which is well known in 
his locality. We hope to publish it 
next month. 



Editor Root, of Gleanings, thinks we 
need have no fear as to the results of 
the iiopular advertisement, "better 
than honey for less money." There is ! 
no fear as to bee-keepers, or others i 
who are familiar with the excellence 
of honey as a food, but it is the mil- 
lions of others who know practically 
nothing of honey who will be duped; 
and their experience with the glucose 
in cans may bar the way to the intro- 
duction of honey, pure and wholesome. 



The time to clip a laying queen is 
the moment you find her. The plan of 
keeping all queens clipped enables the 
operator to control swarms and to 
identify his queens. 



If a hive contains a clipped queen, 
have some exterior mark which to the 
eye of the apiarist means, "Clipped 
Queen". Then, if the record shows the 
date upon which she was clipped a 
case of supersedure will oe readily 
recognized by a sight of of the young 
queen. 



Those who labor so vigorously to 
proclaim the obstacles with which the 
publicatian of a bee journal is fraught 
and consequentl.v advise so earnestly, 
against others embarking in the field, 
we have never known to observe the 
fact that the most beautiful, and one 
of the most valuable .iournals in the 
world is comparatively new in the 
field: nor the additional fact that the 
.iournal having by far the largest cir- 
culation on the whole list of bee jour- 
nals. Is by no means the oldest. The 
adage, "there's always room at the 



LI 104 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



125 



lip- applies as well to apiarian jour- 
uilism as to auy other business, and 
iK're is ample room for improvement 
n any and all tbe bee papers. They 
lie all successful in one particular, 
uul that is the success with which 
Jicy escape the seal of perfection. The 
.Vinerican Bee-Keeper sees opportun- 
ities for the man who has the capital 
uid ability to overshadow everything 
i|iiow in the field, in this line, and it 
I would welcome his advent, heartilj'. 
i We ask not that the earth and the full- 
I luess thereof shall be set apart for our- 
! selves. 



Iveeper, and we hope to have a very- 
complete list of dealers and producers 
constantly under this heading. Better 
advertising means better prices and a 
wider distribution of our ijroduct. 

If you deal in honey, or if you pro- 
duce honey for the market, you are in- 
vited to patronize this department and 
thus keep your business before the 
public. 



OUR QUEEN DIRECTORY. 

The increasing popularity of our 
Queen-Breeders' Directory is attested 
by the increasing patronage it re- 
ceives. Prospective buyers of choice 
queens are invited to consult this de- 
partment; and breeders of responsi- 
bility everywhere are invited to tell 
our readers what they have to offer, 
through the Directory. Good adver- 
tising is the parent of profitable bus- 
iness. 



A HONEY DEALER'S DIRECTORY. 

For the information of honey pro- 
ducers, and as a means of effecting a 
more general distribution of our pro- 
ducts, as well as enabling dealers to 
keep their business before the produc- 
ing fraternity. The American Bee- 
Keeper has undertaken to establish, as 
a regular department in its columns, 
a "Honey Dealer's Directory." In in- 
augurating this special service we 
shall endeavor to include only reliable 
firms, and to arrange them in order. 
by States, to facilitate ready reference. 

Two nonpareil lines will be allowed 
for each announcement, which must 
run one full year. The charge will be 
uniformly $1.2.5 for 12 months. Addi- 
tional words, not to exceed 50 may be 
used at 12 cents each for the full year. 
or one cent a word per month. 

This department is intended, not only 
for those who deal in honey, but Ks 
purpose is to serve as a publicity medi- 
um for producers who sell in quan- 
tities. 

The numerous inquiries received .«!t 

this office, from those having honey 

* for sale bears evidence of the necessity 

for some such a department in the Bee- 



l^HK ROCKY MOUNTAIN 
JOURNAL SOLD. 



BEE 



Just as we were going to press with 
the May edition of the Bee-Keeper, the 
following letter came to hand: 

Boulder, Colo., April 25, 1904 
My Dear Mr. Hill: — 

I have just sold the plant, subscrip- 
tion list, good will, etc., of the Rocky 
Mountain Bee Journal to P. F. Adels- 
bach. editor of the Pacific States Bee 
Journal and manager of the Central 
California Honey Producers' Associa- 
tion. The two journals will be merged 
and published under a new and broad- 
er name and will aim to serve the in- 
terests of the bee-keepers of the entire 
region of the eastern slopes of the 
Rockies to the Pacific coast. 

My reason for lefting go is that my 
main business (honey production) has 
now grown so large as to leave no time 
for side issues. It Tiad become a case 
of "too many irons in the dire." 
Fraternally Yours, 

H. C. Morehouse. 

Thus we have to record the demise 
of one of the most sprightly, practical 
and neat bee journals that have ever 
been published in the United States; 
and while we sincerely wish Mr. More- 
house abundant success as an apiarist 
we deeply regret his retirement from 
the editorial arena. 

Brother Adelsbach is now getting 
out a very instructive journal, of spec- 
ial interest to Pacific Coast bee-keep- 
ers; and if he can maintain the pace 
set by Mr. Morehouse, he has before 
him a great field. 0\ir sincere wishes 
for success are with him. 



THE SULPHUR CURB FOR BEE- 
PARALYSIS. 
In the May Bee-keeper was pub- 
lished an extract from the Southland 
Queen, wherein the editor of that 
iournal stated that neither Mr. Popple- 



126 THE AMERICAN 

tou uor tlie Bee-Keeper iiad giveu tlie 
vvoi-lu auyinmg iu regard to tiie tteat- 
meut or paralysis tliat was uot kuowu 
tweuly years ago. Tiie luiiowmg ex- 
cerpt IS troiu uieauiugs tor April iu, 
wliicii came to liaud just atter our 
forms tor .uay liad closed: 

"Mr. O. O. I'oppietou, or Stuart, Fla., 
wlio gave to ttie world ttie nrst suc- 
cessful method of curing bee-paraly- 
sis, by meaus of powdered sulphur, 
has probably had as good au opportun- 
ity of studying this peculiar disease, 
which has hitherto baifled all efforts 
at cure, as any other man in the Uni- 
ted States, in the March issue of the 
American Bee-Keeper he confirms an 
opinion that has been expressed many 
a time, that bee-paralysis is hered- 
itary, or, rather, he goes on to state 
that the "disease seems to be much 
more prevalent in certain strains or 
families of bees. At least four times 
in the last ten years I have had to des- 
troy utterly certain queens and all 
their daughters, nearly all cases in my 
apiary being confined to these partic- 
ular bees. Certain queens seem to 
transmit the germs of the disease 
through queen daughters to their pro- 
geny.' . 

"He observes, further, that 'colonies 
which hive the disease one season but 
recovered without treatment of any 
kind, are much more liable to have the^ 
disease next season.' And again, 'If 
is the old bee, the field worker, that 
dies.' 

"It may be interesting to mention at 
this time that others have followed 
^ Mr. Poppletou's method of treatment 
with entire success, which is nothing 
more nor less than sprinkling the in- 
fected combs, then repeating the treat- 
ment a week or so later, and again if 
necessary." 

Th© above extract is from the most 
widely circulated apiarian journal in 
the world, and one of the most ably 
and carefully edited. Gleanings evi- 
dently appreciytes the fact that the 
subject under discussion is one of vi- 
tal importance to bee-keepers, and 
therefore, in consideration of frater- 
nal interests, gracefully acknowledges 
the value of Mr, Poppleton's letters, 
as published in the American Bee- 
Keeper. In this respect Gleanings dif- 
fers radically from the Southland 
Queen, which appears to think well 



BEE-KEEPER. 



June 



of everyone, excepting those who fail 
to imbibe all the fine-spun theories 
which take rise in, and ovei^flow from 
Beeville, Texas. 

The point which we are accused of 
w^orking unfairly to make, is simply 
the fact that bee-paralysis may be 
cured by one or two applications of 
sulphur over the bees and combs in- 
fected. This fact we have demonstra- 
ted upon several occasions during the 
past seven or eight years. Mr. Atch- 
ley's theory is virtually that bee-par- 
alysis is simply a case of sour stomach 
or heartburn. If such were the case, 
any outward application would hard- 
ly affect it^a dose of soda would 
doubtless be necessary- 



HENRY ALLEY TAKES A BRIDE. 

Someone has sent us the following 
newspaper clipping relating to a re- 
cent romance in which figured the ven- 
erable queen-breeder of Massachus- 
etts, whom all will wish much happi- 
ness: 

Wenham, Mass., May 14. — The Bee- 
man of Wenham sat in an old rustic 
chair in the garden of his pleasant lit- 
tle farm house on the shady side of 
Larch rd., surrounded by budding li- 
lac and syringa bushes. The air was 
sweet with the fragrance of cheery 
blossoms overhead, and the bees hum- 
med busily to and fro fr®m the cherry 
tree to some near-by maples. 

A short distance away the Beeman's 
wife, and bride of seven days, was 
putting Qut some pansy plants. She 
was a pleasant, healthy looking wo- 
man, past middle age, and her hair 
was slightly gray. 

As he noted all these things the Bee- 
man smiled, his eyes twinkled and his 
face ligiited up. The Beeman's hair 
was gray also. He was 69 years old, 
though still strong and active as a man 
of 50. Constant outdoor work had 
kept him young and looking after his 
boos from whom he had learned many 
lessons, was so pleasant a task that his- 
mind, also, had remained fresh and 
kindly. He was of broad minded, phil- 
osofthic disposition and besides Bee- 
man had formerly been chief of police 
of the town for many years and was 
still one of its leading citizens. 

The Beeman's real name was Henry 
Allev, he had lived in the snug farm- 



1904 THE AMERICAN 

iiuube Oii ojuicu lu.., ior oo ^eura aiiu 
nau KejjL uees -iu ^euiis. xiua uiereuy 
uangs u xjreuy Aew iiiugiuuu rumauce, 
lor i[ was Liie uees who uaa urouyiiL 
lo iiiiii Lue cuiiieiy ui'iue, seen seiung 
out yuusies lu tue gurueu. 

As lieemuu ui w euiiaui, Mr. Alley 
liau uecome Kuovvu an over tUe Uuuea 
Stales anu in «^anaua, too. ne raisea 
Dees uoi to sen tneir iiouey, uut tor 
tue queens or ureeaing oees, tne 
source or every liive. lie liad studied 
tne naoits or Dees tor so long ana 
Knew so inucn aDout tnem tnat lie at 
last succeeded in raising a specimen of 
queen mat would breeu working uees 
w iiicn wouiu yrouuce more noney tnan 
any otner Kina known to bee raisers. 
He aiso wrote tour oooks on bee cul- 
ture wnicii were widely read by those 
mteresteu in tne subject. Tiiroagn tiis 
booKs and tiis bees tiie Beeman be- 
came famous and nis •■Golden Adel ' 
queens began to be sent far and wide. 

Among tlie persons who sent in an 
order tor one of ins queens was a Mrs. 
Margaret Ball of Vernon Center, N.Y., 
anotner fair country town such as 
Weubam. Mrs. Ball was a widow and 
raised bees because she liked them 
and liked to keep busy at out-door 
work. Her family is prominent in Ver- 
non, and her son, the Rev. J. C. Ball, 
has recently been appointed president 
of Kenka (college. 

It was three years ago that the Bee- 
man sent the queen to \'ernon Centre. 
In November, 1902, he received this 
letter : 

"I owe you a debt of gratitude be- 
cause were it not for the progeny of 
the Golden Adel queen I would not 
hav» an ounce of surplus honey. As 
it was I have 125 pounds while my 
neighbors have none. 

"Mrs. Margaret Ball." 

As a matter of fact it was a selfish 
desire that developed the romance. 
Honey, 125 pounds. Thew! The Bee- 
man wanted that bee back. He wrote 
and told Mrs. Ball so, but she was loth 
to sell the queen. This entailed more 
letters, and through them the persons 
became better acquainted and their 
correspondence more friendly. 

The Beeman was a widower, and his 
eldest daughter, Addie, a woman of 



BEE-KEEPER, f, 127 

after all, are not sufficient company 
for a man. 

The bees told him many things 
about his correspondent. For one 
thing, he thought, they tell me that 
Mrs. Ball has a good disposition, for 
she likes bees and bees like her, and 
they never take to anyone that isn't 
pleasant and good. Then again, she's 
industrious or she wouldn't be keeping 
them, and I know she must have 
learned profitable lessons from the pa- 
tient, busy creatures. 

I like bees. 

Bees like Margaret Ball. 

Then, why shouldn't I like Margaret 
Ball? 

His thoughts were constantly run- 
ning in this form. 

And so the letters on bee culture de- 
veloped into letters of love, for the ro- 
mance, not as novelists would have one 
believe, end when the young earl with 
Arabella, pressed to his w^aistcoat, 
dashes off in his royal carriage, and 
some hearts remain sweet and roman- 
tic even after gray hairs and wrinkles 
have come. 

When on May 4 the Beeman started 
for New York State, the people of 
Wenham wondered, for it was one of 
the few times in many years that he 
had gone on a distant visit. 

On May 5 there was a splendid wed- 
ding at the Ball house in Vernon Cen- 
tre, N. Y. The Rev. J. C. Ball, son of 
the bride, Presbyterian minister and 
president of Kenka college came up 
from Newark, N. .1.. to officiate. The 
Beeman of Wenham was in his happi- 
est mood, and the pleasant face of 
Beewoman of Wenham, late of Ver- 
non centre, actually shone. 

On May 6 the pair arrived at the 
Wenham home, and it was today that 
they were found by a Record reporter 
seated in the garden as described, the 
picture of simple happiness. 

"I wanted to get that bee back," 
said the Beeman, smiling as the in- 
sects hummed about him and lighted 
on his shoulders, "and instead I got 
my wife." 



ADTERTISING HONEY. 



Successful advertising is a modern 
science, and the chief exponent of this 
science is Printers' Ink, a weekly mag- 
azine published in New York. In 
about 80, kept house for him. But bees, every issue Printers' Ink publishes a 



128 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



June 



number of "ads'- clipped from various 
periodicals throughout the world. It 
then proceeds to indicate the merits 
and weak points of each example. 
In a recent issue the following appear- 
ed as an example of good work. "Good" 
because it told the prospective buyer 
something of interest and something to 
attract in regard to the goods which 
he was invited to try. The suggestion 
is for a retailer's playcard, of course. 
Different wording would be required 
for a newspaper ad. However, it ap- 
pears to be "up to" the bee-keepers of 
the country to extend sales through the 
medium of the public press, as is done 
with all other commodities: 



We don't believe the bees 
can produce a more luscious, 
a more perfect table delicacy 
than this 

Strained Honey 
we've just received. It's the 
kind that took first premium 
at the World's Fair, it is far- 
famed for its goodness. 

15 Cents a Lb. 
is cheap for it — but it's all we 
ask. 



CUTTING A BEE TREE. 

From Forest and Sti-eam. 

I PEEL considerably stuck up. That 
phrase is not to be taken as slang, 
and I am sure I have seen too 
much of the world to feel as though 
I was anybody in particular. I have 
merely been "cuttin" a bee tree" and 
getting some of the wild honey and 
some of the things that go with it. 

I have noted from time to time what 
Forest and Stream contributors have 
been giving us about bee hunting — 
the last article I remember being 
signed by Hermit. I would like to 
have his full name, also his photo- 
graph, so when I meet him I will be 
sure that I have got him. I am a her- 
mit myself, but I never monkeyed with 
a bee tree until today, and I followed 
some of Hermit's directions. 

Hermit writes a very graphic and 
pleasing epistle. No doubt he told all 
he knew about bees, and something 
more — but there is a quantity of wis- 
dom and knowledge that is evasive. T 
am quite positive just at present that 



Hermit let some of it get away. He 
may know something about some bees 
but if he will call around in this vicin- 
ity and chop down a bees' nest he will 
get some points. ;j 

You see it was this Avay. I've been ! 
hankering after honey. I wanted to 
get some myself, and besides I wanted * 
a few bees to help fix up ranch with. 
Forest and Stream talked about bees 
and honey, and when they commenced 
coming to my garden this spring I 
commenced to pike around after 'em. 
I fixed up some bait and got 'em to 
coming to it all right and then I 
watched them. 

I got several courses. In fact, as 
near as I could tell, everyone of them 
had a course of his own. Once in a 
while one of them would go up the 
creek, so I went up the creek. After 
chasing them for two or three days I 
had coursed them about 300 yards. 
Then they began to go wild. Most of 
them would fill up on my bait, make 
two or three false motions, then zigzag 
around a few times, shoot up toward 
the sky and neither I nor my dog 
could tell where in thunder they made 
for. Finally I left my bait out and 
there came a big rain and destroyed 
it, then I quit for awhile. I was not 
completel.v discourage<l, but I thought 
I was losing my interest in bees. 

One day a man came by my shack. 
I don't see a man very often in this 
vicinity, so I had to talk with him. 
After a chat he said: 

"Wal, how is it ye never cut that 
bee tree u]> thar?" 

"Well," I replied diplomatically, "it's 
most too far, and in a kind of a bad 
place to get at." 

"Fur," said he; "why it ain't more'n 
a quarter, and right alongside of the 
creek and the road. Couldn't be in a 
better place." 

"Oh. you mean that dead white oak 
near the crossing?" 

"Naw, I mean the big black oak, 
with the top broke off. near where 
some feller has been makin' cedar 
posts." 

"Oh," I said in a sneaking kind of a 
tone. "I calculated to cut that tree, 
but I thought I had better wait and 
give the bees a chance to get some 
honey." T added conscientioiisly. to 
myself, "besides. I'll be blasted if I 
knew that tree had bees in it." 

"Wal." said the man. "I'd cut it 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



129 



now iiud save the bees; they'd have 
time to fix up for winter. They're 
worlciu' sti-ong now." 

Then my visitor commenced telling 

bee yarns. As soon as he left I went 

up to see that ti'ee. Sure enough, they 

were there, "bb"ilin' out it by haud- 

: fuls,'' about thirty feet from the 

I ground. The ti'ee was just out of my 

• road up the creek, and I had passed it 

about l,lOO times. Then this man, 

passing it for the first time, had seen 

! the bees at once. Such is life. 

It was a large tree, about two feet 
in diameter,and I thought it was sound 
at the base. It looked like a big con- 
j tract for me to cut it down alone and 
I waited two or three weeks for some 
one to come along who would like to 
take a liand. Finally a party of sur- 
veyors came along. I asked them if 
they would like some honey. Oh, yes, 
they would. I told tliem about how by 
cutting the tree we could get some. 
J Well, they rather guessed they didn't 
ij have time — besides they didn't under- 

stand cutting bee trees nohow. 
I I then worked three days and made 
1 two first-class bee gums, with two 
compartments and numbers of frames, 
air-holes, etc. I still look with pride 
on what I consider a neat job. 

When I had finished the gums I 
couldn't wait any longer. I wanted 
honey bad — having been entirely out 
of it for several years — and besides I 
wanted to see those bees in my new 
hives, working for me on the ranch. 
I got all the things together that I 
exjiected to need, took my axe and a 
bee gum and went up to see the bees. 
I reached their front yard about 4 
o'clock in the afternoon. I could see 
from the ground that they were still 
' open to business. It was one of the 
warmest days we have had this year, 
and I think bees are lively on warm 
(lays. 

I figured on the tree and thought I 
could chop it down in an hour and a 
half, and I wanted to monkey with the 
bees about sundown. I thought it 
would be pleasant in the coll of 
the evening. The tree was in 
? the shade of some tall pines, and I 
' went to work. I chopped a good sized 
' chip and listened. I didn't hear any- 
thing buzz or whizz, so I kept on. The 
bpps acted civilly — they were so higli 
ni) in the world they simply ignored 
people on the ground. But they didn't 



know I was going to take 'em down a 
little. The tree was hollow to the 
ground and when I had blocked out 
one side I saw 1 had time enough. 

I rested awhile. 1 sort of liked to 
rest while chopping, which is a good 
deal like labor. I never labor without 
resting whenever I have a good, 
square chance. But the mosquitoes 
were so bad I thought I might as well 
chop, and before I expected it, I cut 
through into the hollow so far that the 
tree began to crack, then it squeaked 
tottered and fell with a crash — an 
hour ahead of time. There was a gran- 
ite boulder thirty feet from the tree. 
The bees seemed to be doing business 
in the honey line about thirty feet up. 
I calculated to drop them on the bould- 
er, which would open up their works 
in all probability without further use 
of the axe. The tree fell on the bould- 
er and burst like a pumpkin. The en- 
tire domicile of the bees was opened 
up to the public, which was, at this 
place, two dogs and myself. I sneaked 
up a few feet to see how things looked 
before I put on my prepared armor, 
which I had near by. 

I didn't get a very good view, I came 
away too soon. The air all at once 
seemed to be one solid whiz, and was 
so full of bees that my dogs gathered a 
lot of them without trying, and went 
off as though they wanted to get away 
from there. One of the dogs was a 
small, short-haired dog, and very 
black. When he left I could see he 
was full of little yellow spots that 
looked like spangles. They were bees 
and they clung to him as though they 
had never seen a dog before. The dog 
acted as though he never had bees be- 
hind before. 

I secured my armor and prepared for 
action. I had only a small piece of 
mosquito bar which I fastened to my 
straw hat, letting it festoon my face. 
I drew on a hickory overshirt (wearing 
it like a bushwhacker, outside my 
pants), then I tied a string around my 
ankles, one around my waist and a 
handkerchief around my neck; finally 
I drew over my hands a pair of cotton 
socks for gauntlets, and I was ready. 

I approached the bees gradually. I 
got in among them and they couldn't 
do a thing to me. But didn't they try 
it though! I never was the center of 
so much attraction in my life, and I 
had no notion till then how much rack- 



130 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



June 



et a few milliou bees can make. I peer- 
ed into tlieir works in the tree, now 
spread wide open. I never saw sucli a 
combination of lioneycomb and mad 
bees. 

I tlieu got my hive, buckets and 
pans, and went to work. Just about 
this time the sun came out from be- 
hind a tree and shone as though it 
had concentrated all its rays to focus 
on my operations. The bees got mad- 
der and crazier. One of the dogs had 
come back as near as he dared, and as 
luck would have it he flushed a skunk 
so close by that the animal pervaded 
all the atmosphere that was not full of 
bees. I got entangled in grapevines 
and thought 1 could hear a rattle- 
snake, but the bees made such a whiz 
I could only guess at it. I grabbed all 
the honeycomb I could see through 
my veil, put it in the buckets and had 
everything full and more left. My 
gauntlets became loose and a few bees 
got into them, my veil leaked and let 
in a few, then a small contingent got 
into my hair! 

Now did those bees behave like 
those Hermit tells about? Had the 
"little wariors of a moment ago" found 
they were to be robbed, and quit in 
despair to fill up on honey? Not a bit 
of it. 

My hat felt as if full of red-hot barb- 
ed wire, and my hands as though they 
well full of red-hot fish hooks. If any- 
one had come along then he could have 
seen it was my busy day, and he 
would have gone right away about his 
business somewhere else. 

As soon as I could get out of the 
grapevines, rocks and brush, I made 
for the creek and away from where I 
seemtd to be as fast as I imagined a 
man with only two legs to work with 
could progress. 

Talk about things with strings on! 
All the things I had tied on to keep 
the bees out were now keeping them 
in! Some of the bees I took with me 
wanted to get out, but they couldn't, 
so they stayed with me — stuck right to 
me. When I did get out of my extra 
duds, every bee was simply stupified 
with victory and satiated with re- 
venge. I sat down to recover my 
senses and incidentally to pick the 
stingers out of myself that the bees 
seemed to have had no further use for. 
My dog seeme<l to have thought I was 
insane, and he even risked the bees to 
get around somewhere where I could 



fall over him in my mad career. Now 
he condoled with me, and I asked him 
if he had ever made one of such a pair 
of fools before in his life. He looked 
skeptical and was non-committal, but 
between his experience with the bees 
and his traffic with the skunk he seem- 
ed to feel humiliation too. 

I left for home with half a barrel 
of honey-comb, two or three pounds 
of honey, a swelled head, a smarting 
anatomy, lots of experience and a fond 
hope to get a chance at Hermit and th« 
bee editor of Forest and Stream come 
day. 

The foregoing account is merely the 
record of the first day's operations 
with bee tree No. 1. I never quit an 
enterprise that I undertake so long as 
I think the rest is easy, and that I 
have had the worst of it. I went back 
to those bees. I spent the next two 
days with them, and dreamed of them 
the intervening nights. There are 
about eight gallons of them, and at 
this writing I have them on my prem- 
ises. I brought them down in two 
loads, corked up in a keg and a box. 
Whether I have one, two or three 
swarms I don't know yet. I poured 
them out and drove them into my new 
gums with a switch. I divided them 
as near as I could. 

Today they all seemed to be bavins 
a time of it themselves to get straight 
ened out and reorganized. They ge1 
out on the piazza to their new homes 
and march from one hive to the other 
They stand on their heads, kick at th( 
sky and biizz and counter-march. ] 
don't know what their plans are, bul 
I do know they haven't quit fighting 
back. They have not missed a rea 
sonable chance to sting me. It is said 
that when they sting they die; if this 
is true and they keep at me, they wil 
all commit suicide. There are only s 
few million of 'em left. Before I en 
my next bee tree I will wait unti 
I can wear an ordinary shaped hat 
Meantime I will think up some on th( 
subject. Ransacker. 

P. S. — I suppose there are apiarians 
who think they know all abopt bees 
and have written books. To the nov 
ice I offer my advice free, viz.; don'i 
try to read up on bees. You woulr 
never get it all. Either cut a be< 
tree and hive a swarm or two. or b( 
content with patent honey made ou1 
of sorghum and nitro-glycerine. R. 




ONE-HALF INCH SPACE ONE YEAR ON IHIS PAGE, $3.00. 



HE A. I. ROOT CO., MEDuvA, OHIO. 
Breeders of Italian bees and queens. 



QUEENS from Jamaica any day in the 
year Untested, 66c.; tested, $1.00; se- 
ect tested, $1.50. Our queens arc reared from 
:he very finest strains. Geo. W. Phillips, Sav- 
La-Mar P 0., Jamaica, W. I. (5-5) 



r- H. W. WEBER, CINCINNATI, OHIO 
^» (Cor. Central and Freeman Aves.) 
jolden yellow. Red Clover and Carniolan 
jueens, bred from select mothers in separate 
apiaries. 



WZ. HUTCHINSON, FLINT, MICH. 
Superior stock queens, $1.50 each; 
queen and Bee-Keepers' Review one year for 
inly $2.00. 

QUEEN BEES are now ready to mail. 
Golden Italians, Red Clover three-banded 
queens and (^amiolans. We guarantee saf( 
arrival. The Fred W. Muth Co., 51 Walnut 
St., Cincinnati, Ohio. (5-5) 



lOHN M. DAVIS, SPRING HILL, TENN., 
>-' sends out the choicest 3-banded and gold- 
en Italian queens that skill and experience 
can pro(Juce. Satisfaction guaranteed. No 
disease. 



QUIRIN, the Queen Breeder, has an ex- 
ceptionally hardy strain of Italian bees; 
they wintered on their sumAer stands within 
a few miles of bleak Lake Erie. Send for 
Free Circular. Belleviue, Ohio. (5-5) 



1^ CO., 



CENTURY QUEEN-REARING 
. (John W. Pharr, Prop.) BER- 
CLAIR, TEXAS, is breeding line golden 
and 3-banded Italian and Carniolan qi'eens. 
Pricesare low. Please write for speciAl in- 
formation desired. 



c WARTHMORE APIARIES, SWARTII- 
>^ MORE, PA. Our bees and queens are 
the brightest Italians procurable. Satisfaction 
guaranteed. Correspondence in English, 
French, German and Spanish. Shipments to 
all parts of the world. 



C LONE BEE CO., SLONE, LOUISIANA. 
kJ Fine Golden Queens. Leather-Colored 
Italians and Holy Lands. Prices low. 



I B. CASE, PORT ORANGE, FLA., has 
J • fine golden Italian queens early and late. 
Workers little inclined to swarm, and cap 
their honey very white. Hundreds of his old 
customers stick to him year after year. Cir- 
cular free. 



p EO. VANDE VORD, DAYTONA, FLA. 
^ Breeds choice Italian queens early. All 
queens warranted purely mated, and satisfac- 
tion guaranteed. 



M 



OORE'S LONG-TONGUED STRAIN 
of Italians become more and more popu- 
lar each year. Those who have tested them 
know why. Descriptive circular free to alL 
Write J. P. Moore, L. Box 1, Morgan, Ky. 4 



THE HONEY AND BEE COMPANY, 
1 BEEVILLE, TEXAS. Holy Land, Car- 
niolan, Cyprian, Albino and 3 and 5-banded 
Italian queens. Write for our low prices. 
Satisfaction guaranteed. 



pUNIC BEES. All other races are dis- 
carded after trial of these wonderful bees. 
Particulars post free. John Hewitt & Co., 
Sheffield, England. 4 



HONEY DEALERS' DIRECTORY 



^^Under this heading -will be inserted, for reliable dealers, two lines one 
year for $1.25. Additional words, 12c a word. No announcement can 
be accepted for less than one year at these rates.„igl 



OHIO. 


COLORADO. 


C. H. W. WEBER, Freeman and Central 
Aves., Cincinnati, Ohio. If for sale, mail 
sample, and _ state price expected delivered 
in Cincinnati. If in want, write lor prices, 
and state quality and quantity wanted. 

(5-5) 

We are always in the market for extracted 
honey, as we sell unlimited quantities. Send 
us a sample and yooir best price delivered 
here. THE FRED W. MUTH CO., 51 
Walnut St., Cincinnati, Ohio. (5-5) 


THE COLORADO HONEY PRODUCERS 
ASS'N, 1440 Market St., Denver, Colo. 


ILIilNOIS. 


R. A. BURNETT & CO., 199 South Wate 
Street, Chicago. (5-S) 



HOXEY AND BEESAVAX 
MARKET. 

Denver, May 17.— The supply of comb honey 
is exhausted, and the demands very light now, 
though we could handle some small consign- 
ments of No. 1 white comb to good advan- 
tage at present. We quote our market today 
as follows: Extracted, 1% to 7 3-4. Beeswax, 
26 to 30c. 

Colorado Honey Producers' Assn. 



Kansas City May 18. — The demand ex- 
ceeds the supply, and from the way honey is 
now moving the old stock will be all cleaned 
up by the time the new crop arrives. We 
quote today: Fancy white comb, $2.75; No. 
1, $2.50. Extracted is dull at 5 to 6c. Bees- 
wax, 30c. C. C. Clemmons & Co. 

Toronto, May 18. — Ontario has lost 30 per 
cent, of her bees, and there is some talk of 
higher prices next season for honey. The 
supply is still abundant, with fair demand. 
We quote our market today as follows: Comb, 
$1.50 to $1.75 per dozen. Extracted. 6 to 8c., 
according to quality. Beeswax 30 to 32c. 
E. Grainger & Co. 



New York, May 17. — Comb honey very 
cfuiet and dark grades or anything but fancy 
is in no demand. The supply of honey is 
large. We quote our market today as fol- 
lows: Fancy comb, 13c.; No. 1. 12c.; am- 
ber, 10c. Extracted, white, fiyz^. , amber, 5 to 
5^/^c. Beeswax, 30c. 

Hildreth & Segelken. 



Buffalo, May 16. — Fruit hurts the sale of all 
grades of honey and we cannot encourage 
shipments here unless shinpers want their 
honey sold low. The supply is moderate and 
the demand very light. We quote as follows 
today: Comb, 7 to 12c., as to quality. Ex- 
tracted, 6 to 8c. Beeswax, 28 to 32c. 

Batterson & Co. 

Denver, April 19. — The supply of strictly No. 
1 honey is small, with fair demand. We quote 
today as follows: No. 1 comb, in cases of 
24 sections, $2.50 to $2.75 per case. No. 2, 
$2.25 to $2.40. Extracted, 6 3-4 to 7V4 for No. 
1 stock. Beeswax is always m demand, and 
we quote today, 26 to 30c. 

Colorado Honey Producers' Assn. 



Boston, May 14. — ^The demand for honey _: 
extremely ligtit^ — almost nothing — and supplie 
are heavy for this time of year; our price' 
are therefore largely nominal. We quote 
fancy white, 15 to 16c. ; A No. 1, 14 to ISc. am 
No. 1, 14c., with no call for under grades 
Extracted, 6 to 7c. 

Blake , Scott & Lee. 

Toronto, April 27.— The supply of honey i 
still abundant and the market not very brisk j 
The demand at retail is fair. We quote ou 
market today as follows: No. 1 conil), pe 
case, $1.75; No. 2, $1.50; culls, $1.25. Extracted 
eVi to 7J^c. Beeswax, 30 to 32c. 

E. Grainger &. Co. 

Dublin, May 3. — Last year's supply is abou 
exhausted and we quote today 1 pound sec 
tions at 9/- per dozen. 

O. & R. Fry. 



Cent-a=Word Columni 

FOR SALE— A Hawkeye, Jr., Camera com-' 
plete. Uses both film and plates. Cost $3.00, 
will sell with leather case for J.3..50 cash. 
Address Empire Washer Co., Falconer, N. 
Y. 



A TANDEM BICYCLE (for man and lady) 
cost $150, in first-class condition, was built tc 
order for the owner. Tires new. Will sell 
for $25 cash. Satisfaction guaranteed. Ad 
dress J. Clayborne Merrill, 130 LakevieW: 
ave., Jamestown, N. Y. 



AGENTS WANTED to sell advertising nov- 
ties, good commission allowed. Send foi 
catalogue ancf terms. American Manufac- 
turing Concern, Jamestown, N. Y. 



WANTED— To exchange six-month's trial 
subscription to The American Bee-Keeper 
for 20 cents in postage stamps. Address, 
Bee-Keeper, Falconer, N. Y. 



LEOTA APIARY.— Pure honey for sale al 
all times. Thos. Worthington, LeotaJ 
Miss. 411 



Bee Supplies Exclusively 

, A complete line of Lewis' fine Bee I Bingham's Original Patent Smokers 
supplies. and Knives. 

Dadant's Foundation. I Root's Extractors, Gloves, Veils, etc. 

3ueen Bees and Nuclei in Season. In fact anything needed in the "Bee- 
jine," at 

FACTORY PRICES HERE IN CINCINNATI 

yhere prompt service is yours, and freight rates are lowest. Special dis- 
;ount for early orders. Send for cata log. 

FHE FRED W. MUTH COMPANY 

(We're Successors to Nobody, nor Nobody's Successors to Us.) 
I WALNUT STREET CINCINNATI, OHIO 



and 5=Banded Italian 
and Carniolan Queens. 

Say friends, you who have support- 
ed us during the past season, we 
desire to express our thanks for 
your patronage in the past, and 
respectfully solicit a continuance of 
your valued favors through the sea- 
son of 1904. 

Our queens now stand upon their 
merits and former record. We are 
preparing for next season, and seek- 
ing the patronage of large apiarists 
and dealers. We do not claim that 
our queens are superior to all oth- 
ers, but that they are as good as 
the best. We will furnish from one 
to a thousand at the following 
prices: '^•^sted of either race, $1; 
one unte d, 75c., 5 for $3.25, 10 
for $6, 15 for $8.25, 25 for $12.50, 50 
for $23.50, 100 for $45. 
For descriptive circulars address, 

JOHN W. PHARR, Prop., 

ew Century Queen Rearing Co., Ber- 
clair, Goliad Co., Texas. 



American 




BEE 



Journal 



16 -p. Weekly. 

^-_ Sample Free. 

*®" All about Bees and their 
profitable care. Best writers. 
Oldest beepaper; illustrated. 

Departments for be^fianers 
and for women bee-keepers. 
Address, 

QBORQB W. YORK & 60. 
144 & 146 Erie St. Chicago.Ilu 



J s 

'3 Subscription Agencies. t) 

^ Subscriptions for the Ameri- ^ 

5 can Bee-Keeper may be entered 2 

2 c 

3 through any of the following C 

5 agents, when more convenient © 

5 than remitting to our offices at © 

2 Fort Pierce, Florida, or James- S 
I town, N. Y.: © 
') J. E. Jonhson, Williamsfield, © 
* 11. g 

The Fred W. Muth Company, J 

51 Walnut St., Cincinnati, Ohio. © 

John W. Pharr, Berelair, Tex, © 

Miss S. Swan, Port Burwell, © 

Ontario. g 

3 G. A. Nunez, Stann Creek, © 
S British Honduras. £ 
(3 Walter T. Mills, Bumham, N. © 
^ Rochester, Kent Co., Ivan House, © 
3 England. © 
3 G. J. S. Small, Marton, Wang- © 

anui, New Zealand. S 

H. H. Robinson, Independencia © 

16, Matanzas, Cuba. "" 



Colorado Honey Producers* © 
Association, 1440 Market St., © 
Denver, Colo. ^ 

i) © 

®©f!>©©©©©©©^0©€»€NMM>0 ©©©©©©© 



i Special Notice to Bee=keepers! | 

BOSTON 

Money in Bees for You. 
Catalog Price on 

ROOT^S SUPPLIES i 

Catalog for the Asking. |ri 



F. H. Farmer, 182 Friend St., § 
Boston, Mass. ni 



L Up First Flight. 




f ROVIDENCE 
ROVE THEIR 







DEENS 



^ DALIT ES 

TO BE 

UNEXCELLED 

Head your colonies with them. 
Use them to invigorate your stock. 
They will increase your profits. 
Produced by many years of careful 
breeding. A circular will be sent 
on request. 

LAWRENCE C. MILLER, 
P. O.Box 1113. Providence, R. I. 

Put Your Trust in Providence Queens 



20 per cent. Profit 

Pineapples, Oranges, Qrape Fruit 

Make a Specialty for Non-Resident Owners 
and Intending Settlers in the 

Lovely Lake Region of South Florida. 

20 er cent, anniual return on investment. 

Pure air, pure water, no mosquitoes. High 
pine and oak land, bordered by fresh water 
lakes, suited to all citrus fruits and pineapples. 
Good title. Time payments. Address for de- 
scriptive matter, W. E. Pabor, Manager Pa- 
bor Lake Pineries, Avon Park, Fla. tf 



CAVEATS, TRADE MARKS, 

COPYRIGHTS AND DESIGNS.* 

' Send your business direct to Washington, ( 
saves time, costs less, better service. 

My office close to U. S. Patent Office. FREE prelimln- i 
' ary examinationa made. Atty's fee not due until patent ( 
' iB secured. PERSONAL ATTENTION GIVEN— 19 YEAR8 « 
' ACTUAL EXPERIENCE. Book "How to obtain Patents," i 
I etc., sent free. Patents procured through E. G. Siggers J 
■ receive special notice, without charge, in the; 

INVENTIVE ACE: 

; illustrated monthly— Eleventh year— terms, $1. a year. 

918 FSt., N. W.,' 
washington, d. c. 



;E.G.SIGGERS,; 



HTf If, eingha: 
-■"'•J has made all the inii 
' provemonts ir 

Bee Smokers and 
Honey Knives 

made in ihe last 20 years, undoubtedl} 
he makes the best on earth. 

Smoke Engine. 4 inch stove, none too ]ur'>. sen 
postpaid, per mail $1 51 

31.^ inch l.li 

Knife, 80 cents. 3 inch 1.0' 

2% inch 

r. F. Bingham, VZ^^--y-\;y «, 

Farwell, Mich. ^Utle Wonder, 2in. .t: 

Patent Wired Comb FonDdation 

has no sag in brood framesr 

TbiD Flat Bottom Fonndation 

has no Fish-bone in Surplus Honeyi 
Being the cleanest is usually worked th«i 
quickest of any foundation made. The talB 
about wiring frames seems absurd. We furnish 
a Wired Foundation that is Better, Cheapet 
and not half the trouble to use that it is to 
wire brood frames. 
Circulars and sample free. 

J. VAN DEUSEN <£ SONS, 

Sole Manufacturers 

Montgomery Co., Sprout Brook, N. Y. 



I. J. STRINGHAM, 105 Park PI., N. Y. City 

Keeps a full stock of hives, sections, and smokers — in fact 
everything a bee-keeper uses. 

Colonies of Italian Bees, in shipping boxes, $5.75 

3 fr. nuc. col. _ _ _ - 3.75 

Unt. Italian Queens, _ - - .85 

Tested Italian Queens, - _ - J. 00 

Apiaries. Glen Cove, L. I. Catalog free. 



THE ONLY GERMAN AGRICDLTIRAL MONTH- 
LY IN THE UNITED STATES jUJi^^j^J^J^^ 

FARM UND HAUS 

The most carefully edited German 
Agricultural journal. It is brimful of 
practical information and useful hints 
for the up-to-date farmer; devoted to 
stock raising, general farming, garden- 
ing, poultry, bee-keeping, etc., and con- 
tains a department for the household, 
which many find valuable. Another de- 
partment giving valuable receipts and 
remedies called "Hasarzt," in fact every 
number contains articles of real prac- 
tical use. 

Price only 35 CENTS per year. Sam- 
ple copy free. 

Send subscriptions to, 

FARM UND HAUS 

& tf. BLUFPTON, OHIO. 



Attica Lithia Springs Hotel 

Lithia-Sulptiur Water aud Mud Baths 
Nature's Own Great Cure for 

...RHEUMATISM.... 

aid Kindred Diseastg, such as Liver 
and Kidney Complaiati, Skin aad 
Blaod liseates, Coastlpatlon, Nervoui 
Prostration, etc. 

A new and up-to-date hotel. Large, airy, 
light and finely furnished rooms, with Steam 
Heat, Slectric Lights, H«t and Cold Water 
on each floor. Rates including Room, Board, 
Mud Baths, Lithia-Sulphur Wuter Baths and 
Medical Attiadance (no extras) $2.50 and 
13.00 a day, according co room. 

WRITE FOR BOOKLET. 

Address Box 3, 

tf Lithia Springs Hotel, Attica, Ind. 



Are You Looking for a Home? 

No farmer should think of buying land 
before seeing a copy of THE FARM AND 
REAL ESTATE JOURNAL. It contains 
the largest list of lands for sale of any 
paper published in Iowa. Reaches 30,000 
readers each issue, and is one of the best 
advertising mediums to reach the farmers 
and the Home-Seekers that you can ad- 
vertise in. For 75c. we will mail yau the 
Journal for 1 year, or for ten cents in 
silver or stamps we will send you the 
Journal 2 months on trial. Address, 

Farm and Real Estate Journal, 

TRAER, TAMA CO., IOWA. 
10-tf. 



Strawberries. 

Young, healthy, fresh, vigor- 
ous stock in prime condition for 
spring planting. 

All 
Leading 



V a r ieties 

Write for prices and terms. 

MONROE STRAWBERRY CO., 

Box 66 MONROE, MICH. 



Headquarters for Bee Supplies 

ROOT'S GOODS AT ROOT'S FACTORY PRICES. 

Complete stock for 1904 now on hand. Freight rates from Cincinnati are 
the lowest. Prompt service is what I practice. Satisfaction guaranteed. 
Langstroth Portico Hives and Standard Honey- Jars at lowest prices. 

You will save money buying from me. Catalog mailed free. Send for 
same. 

QUEENS NOW READY TO SUPPLY BY RETURN MAIL 
Golden Italians, Red Clover and Carniolan Queens; untested during June 



I— 75c 



-$4.00 



12— $7.50 



O. H. W. WEBER. 



OflBce and Salesrooms 2146-48 Central Ave. 
Warehouses— Freeman and Central Aves. 



CINCINNATI, OHIO. 



La Compania 
Manufacturera Americana 

ofrcce los mas reducidos prccios en to- 
da clase dc articulos para Apicultores. 
Nucstra Fabrica cs una de las mas 
grandes y mas antiguas de America. 
Especialidad en Colmenas, Ahumadores 
para Colmenas, Extractorcs, etc. In 
ventorcs y perfeccionadores de mucho? 
articulos de suma utilidad en la Apicul- 
tura. Enviamos gratis nuestro catalogo 
y precios a quienes lo soliciten. Dirija- 

nse a. 

THE AMERICAN MFG. CO., 

Jamestown, N. Y., E. U. A. 




The only strictly agricultural 
paper published in this State. The 
only agricultural paper published 
every week. It goes to every post 
office in State of Tennessee and to 
many offices in Kentucky, Alabama, 
Georgia, Mississippi, Arkansas, 
Texas, Florida and Louisiana. It 
is the official organ of the Agricul- 
tural Department of Tennessee and 
Live Stock Commission. Subscrip- 
tion $1 per year in advance. 

Tennessee Farmer Pub. Co., 
w Nashville, Tenn. 



BEGINNERS. 

shO".Jt have a copy at 

Thfc) Amateur Bee-keeper, 

a 70 page book, by Prof. J. W. Rouse; written er 
peciai:y for amateurs. Second edition just on' 
First edil ion of 1,060 sold in less than two yrar* 
Editor Vurk says: "It is the Cneft little book pub- 
lis'.ifcd ;;t f.ie promt tiiue." Price 24 cents; by 
mail 2o Liiuls. TLo liillc book and 

The Progressive Bee-keeper, 

,'a ]\t'. yroeTcf'VP. M page monthly journal,) on* 
yoar lor i..>c. Apply to any first-class dealer, •T 
address 

LEAHY MFG. CO,, Hisgin.».ii., k.. 



The Kecord. 

The Oldest and Leading Belgian 
Hare Journal of America and 
England. 

R. J. FiNLEY, Editor and Publisher, 

The only journal having 
an English Belgian Hare 
Department. 

One copy worth the yearly 
subscription. 

If interestea, aon t fail to 
send 2-cent stamp for sample 
copy at once. Address, 



tf. 



R. J. FINLEY, 

MACON , MO. 



To Subscribers of 
THE AME RIC AN tEEFEEFlK 

And Others ! 

Until Further Notice 

We Will Send The 



Country 
Journal 



to any address in the U. S. A. one 
year for 10 cents, providing you 
mention American Bee-Keeper. 

The Country Journal treats on 
Farm, Orchard and Garden, Poul- 
try and Fashion. It's the best pa- 
per printed for the price. 

Address 

The Country Journal, 

Allentown, Pa. 
2tf 



W. B. VATJGHAN 

NEWBURGH, N. Y. 

Agent for The W. T. Falconer Mfg. 

Go's. 

BEE=KEEPERS' SUPPLIES. 

Jy-4 Catalogue free. 



Sunshine 



is gaining ad- 
miration as a 
popular litera- 

ry family 

■^■■"— ~'^~~~''~'^~ MAGAZINE. 
It entertains its readers with good short stor- 
ies, sketches and poems hy the most famous 
authors of the day and is a magazine of supe- 
rior merit. 

It is a welcome visitor in every home. 

Price 25 cents a year. 

We wish to haye our magazine in your 
vicinity and as a special offer for new readers 
we will send you 

Sunshine for I Year for iOc. 

Think of it. less than one cent a copy. Can't 
you act as our agent ? 

ADD. MAYES PUB. CO., 
LOUISVILLE, = KENTUCKY. 



ATHENS, GA. 



Subscription, .... 50 Cents a Year. 



Published the First of Every Month 

and Circulates in Every 

Southern State. 



ADVKRTISING RATES ON APPLI- 
CATION. 



50 YEARS' 
EXPERIENCE 




Trade ManKS 

Designs 

Copyrights &c. 

Anyone sending a sketch and description may 
quickly ascertain our opinion froe whether an 
invention is probably patentable. Communica- 
tions strictly confidential. Handbook on Patents 
sent tree. Oldest acency for securing patents. 

Patents taken throuKh Munu & Co. receive 
tpecinl notice, without c harg e, in the 

Scientific American. 

A handsomely illustrated weekly. Largest cir- 
culation of any scientific journal. Terras, $3 a 
' year : four months, $1. Sold '„y all newsdealers. 

MUNN&Co.3«'«-^''*^>' New York 

Branch Office, 625 F St.. Washington, B. C. 

Wlioii wiitiiiK to advertisers ineutioii 
The .\niorir*uii Ree-Keeper. 



National Bee^Keepers' Association, 

The largest bec-kccpers' society in the 
world . 

Organized to protect and promote the 
interests of its memliers. 

Memb ership Fee, $1.00 a Year. 

N.E.FRANCE, PlatteviUe, Wis., 

General Manager and Treasurer. 



Clubbing Offers 

Here is a Sample: 

Modern Farmer $ .50 

Western Fruit Grower 50 

Poultry Gazette 25 

Gleanings in Bee Culture 1.00 

$2 . 25 
All One Year for only $1.00. 

Write for others just as good, or bet- 
ter. 

SAMPLE FREE. 

New subscribers can have the Amer- 
can Bee Journal in place of Gleanings, 
if they wish, or all for $1.60. Renew- 
als to A. B. J. add 40c. more. 

MODERN FARMER, 

The Clean Farm Paper 
St. Joseph, Mo. 



BEEKEEPER 



INSIST ON 



LEWIS 



GOODS 



SEND FOR NEW 
CATALOG FOR 1904 



68 



Q. B. LEWIS CO. 

WATERTOWN, WIS., U. S. A. 

Eastern Agent, Fred W. Muth Co., 51 Wa!- 
I nut St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

fTg^hiTiIig roosters 

1 Mystify and amuse your 

friends, These are two gen- j 

oine gam© roosters "wil 

I'eathers. they tight to 

finish, and are always ready 

to fight. The secret of their 

movements is only known to 

the operator. 'WilUast a life- i 

time. 10c per pair, 3 for 2ac, 
i postpaid. Address 

j ZENO SUPPLY COMPANY 

Joplin, - - Missouri 




LOW FREIGHTS 



AND QUICK DELIVERY 



i 



The busy times for bee-keegers is almost here. If you 
have not yet ordered your g-oods, there is no time for de- 
lay. You can't wait now for some factory to make your 
goods, nor for long shipments by freight, with endless 
delays at transfer-points, while the bees are idle for 
needed sections, hives, foundation, or storage-room. You 
will find it to your advantage to order your goods from 
near home, of some dealer who has them on hand, and 
can ship thern at once. By so doing you will not only get 
your goods promptly, but at a big saving in freight bills. 

THE A. I. ROOT CO. 

Medina, Ohio, has established agencies all over the coun- 
try, where standard goods are always in stock. The fol- 
lowing are some of the more important 

AGENCIES 



N'ickery Bros., Evansville, Ind. 
E; Grainger & Co., Toronto, Ont. 
Walter S. Pouder, Indianapolis, Ind. 
John Nebel & Son, Higli Hill, Mo. 
Geo. E. Hilton, Fremont, Mich. 
I'rothero & Arnold, DuBois, Penn. 
M. 11. Hunt & Son, Bell Branch, 

Mich. 
Rawlings Implement Co., Baltimore, 

Md. 



Griggs Bros., Toledo, Oho. 
Nelson Bros. Fruit Co., Delta, Colo. 
Jos. Nysewander, DesMoines, Iowa. 
Carl F. Buck, Augi'sta, Kansas. 
A. F. McAdams, Columbus Grove, O. 
C". H. VV. Weher, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
F. H.' Farmer, 182 Friend St., Boston, 

Mass. 
L. A. Watkins Mdse. Co., Denver, 

Colorado. 



Ill addition to the foregoing there are hundreds who htindle our 
g(»(»ds in small lots. Besides this, we have the following 



BRANCH-HOUSES 



Syracuse, N. Y. 

J'hiladclphia, I'cnn., 10 Vine St. 
Chicago, Ills., 144 East Erie St. 
San Antonio, Texas, 
' 438 W. Houston St. 



Mechanic Falls, Maine. 
Havana, Cuba, San Ignacio. 17. 
St. Paul, Minn., 1024 Miss. St. 
Washington, D. C, 

1100 Md Ave., S. W 



Send for catalogue and buy of the nearest Agency or Dealer. 




EnteroH at the Pnstoffice. Fort Pierce. Fla.. as second-class mail matter. 



Homes in 

Old Virginia. 

It is gradually brought to light 
that the Civil war has made great 
changes, freed the slaves, iind in 
consequence has made the large 
land owners poor and finally freed 
the land from the original owners 
who would not sell until they were 
compelled to do so. There are some 
of the finest lands in the market at 
very low prices, lands that produce 
all kinds of crops, grasses, fruits, 
and berries; f.ne for stock. You 
find green truck patches, such as 
cabbage, turnips, lettuce, kale, 
spinach, etc., growing all the win- 
ter. The climate is the best all th» 
year around to be found, not too 
cold nor too warm. Good water. 
Healthy. Railroads running in 
every direction. If you desire to 
know all about Virginia send 10c. 
for three months subscription of 

the VIRGINIA FARMER to 

Farm •!• Co. , Emporia, Va. 



Th«r« ii no tiade or profcssiob better catcrad to 
0T SOO'i jouniu's tliaa that o( the farmer. Unia- 
teUifeat m>proere(iire>en W* bow ■« eze«a«. 



18 » 

luiuf 



A BATH 

'fUer riWIPIRE 

u.keQinan " Portable 
Folding BATH TU 

Used in any room. 
Agkvts Wa.vted. 
Catalogae Free. 

.Thb empire 
washer co., 

jAMESTOWN,N.r. 




I BEE = SUPPLIES I 

it Bee Hives, Sections, Smokers, ilf 

» '■■■■ • " ■ i» 

<5* Bee-Veils, Fra mes, ^ 

J? And everything used by bee-keepers, sj 

JL Largest stock in the Centnil States. Low Jr 



I 






freight rates. Catalogue free. 



v4 C. M. SCOTT & CO. 



/ft 1004 E. Washington St., Indianapolis, Ind. ij^ 

THE DIXIE HOME MAGAZINE 

10c a year. Largest.Brightest and Finest Illustrated 
Magazine in the World for 10c a year, to intro- 
duce it only. 

It is bright and up-to-date. TeHs 
all about Southern Home Life. It fa 
full of fine engravings of grsind sot'ii- 
ery. biiiklinga and f:uiious peojile. 
Send at once. 10c. a year postpjiid 
anywhere in the U. S.. Canada niul 
ilexifo. 3 years 50o. Or, clubs of •> 
names 50c., 12 for $1. Send us ;i <liil). 
Money back if not delighted. Stauipj 
taken. Cut this out. Send today. 

THE DIXIE HOME. 

Birniinffluun, .\la. 

When writing, mention the .\m. BeeKeepcr. 



POULTRY success CO. 

THE 20th CENTURY POULTRY 
MAGAZINE. 

15th )jea». 32 to 64 pages. Beautifullv il- 
lustrated, up-to-date and helpful. Best known 
writers. Shows readers liow tn succeol with 
poultry. 50 CENTS PER YEAR. Special 
introductory offers: 10 months, 25 cents, in^ 
eluding large practical poultry book free; fnuf 
months] trial, 10 cents. Stamps accented. 
Sample.copy free. Poultry Success Co.. Dcpt. 
16, Springfield, Ohio, or DesMoines, Iowa. 



When writing to jidvertisei-s mention 
The .A morion 11 Ree-T-Toowpr. 



SHtNEf 

The Empire Washer Company, Jamestown, 
N. v., makes a Shine Cabiret, furnished with 
foot stand, blacking, russet dressing, shoe 
rubber — in fact, all articles and materials need- 
ed to keep shoes looking their best — rnd it is 
made to be fastened to the wall of the toilet 
room or kitchen. It does away with the vexa- 
tious searching after these articles which is 
altogether too common. A postal will bring 
you details of this and other good things. 



American 




BEE 



2 Journal 



16 -p. Weekly. 
Sample Free. 
49~ All about Bees and their 
profitable care. Best writers. 
Oldest bee paper; illustrated. 
Departments for beginners 
and for women bee-keepers. 
Address, 
QBORae W. YORK & CO.. 
144 & 146 Erie St. Chica.go,Ili.. 



f~^r^r^|^ Send 10 cents for one vear's snl)- 
PlvLltl wrjptionto AMERICAN STOKIKS 
^ the best monthly magazine pnlv 

llshed. and we will send you samples of l(iO<ithor 
magazines, all different, free. AMERICAN 
STORIES, Dept. H. D.. Grand Rapids, Mich. 



r 



Bee Hives 
Sections 

EVERYTHING 



THAT IS USED BY BEE-KEEPERS CAN BE 
PROCURED OF US AS CHEAPLY AS ANY- 
WHERE, AND WE KNOW. 

Our Goods are Superior 

BOTH IN MATERIALS AND WORKMAN- 
SHIP TO THOSE OF ANY COMPETITOR. 

One Trial Will Convince You 

THAT'S ALL WE ASK. WE KNOW YOU 
WILL NEVER BUY OF ANYBODY ELSE. 

Our new illustrated catalog and price list is now 
ready. Send for one on a postal card. 



The W. T. 
FALCONER MANFG. CO., 

JAMESTOWN, N. Y. 



J 



THE BEST PRINTED PAPER 
^ jt IN FLORIDA ^ ^ 



Located in the Heart of the Cel- 
e orated Pineapple Belt and sur- 
rounded by many of the finest 
orange groves on the Indian Riv- 
er Fort Pierce is the largest and 
most important town in Brevard 
county and 



The FORT PIERCE NEWS 



is the best paper in the county 
and the best vs^eekly in Florida. 
It contains reliable information 
about this section in every issue. 
Only $1.00 a year. Write for 
sample copy. ti 

The News, Fort Pierce,FIa 



THE RURAL BEE=KEEPER 

A MONTHLY BEE JOURNAL 

Devoted to the interests of the bee-keepers of 
America, will teach you how to make money 
with bees. May number tells about feeding 
bees. We are now at work on our June num- 
ber and can assure you that this number will 
be more interestinflr and more valuable than 
its predecessors. Swarming and how it is 
being controlled to the cash benefit of the 
bee-keeper is the subject upon which the 
June number will treat. It will be the pur- 
pose of the Rural Bee-Keeper to champion 
&ie caiuse of the small country bee-keeper, to 
show him the way to make money out of 
bees, by first showing how to produce the 
greatest amount of choice honey in the shane 
that will bring the best casii return with the 
least expense, and later will show him how 
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Vol. XIV 



JULY, 1904. 



No. 7 




ORANGE BLOSSOMS. 

Copyright lUM by H. F. Hill. 



132 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



July 



THE ORANGE BLOSSOM. 



Bv W. S. Hare. 



EDITOR of The American Bee- 
Keeper. 

My Dear Sir:— The photograph 
of a spray of orange blossoms received 
from you by the last mail is the finest 
that I have yet seen. I think it should 
go into the American Bee-Keeper, and 
thus give many, who know not even 
the form thereof, an opportunity to see 
what a really beautiful flower it is. 

It is a matter of regret that photo- 
graphic art cannot also catch the deli- 
cious perfume, and fix it in the picture 
for the delight of those who live too 
far away from the orange growing 
States to allow of their enjoying, to 
the full measure, this most charming- 
product of the Sunny South. 

This picture Avill be of special inter- 
est to bee-keepers, for, as a pmlific 
pollen, and less prolific honey jiroduc- 
er, the orange blossom is a ^•(>l•y impor- 
tant factor in building up our colonies 
in late February. March and early in 
April (the period of bloom varying 
somewhat in different years) and start- 
ing them into the season wfth an 
abundance of young bees. 

To him who is both a bee-keeper 
and an orange grower, there are few 
if any, more pleasant experiences than 
that of standing in the midst of the 
glossy green, rich gold, and silvery 
white, of his fruit and flower laden 
trees, in early March, the air redolent 
with the delicious iievfume of the l>los- 
soms, and full of miisic from the busy 
hum of his bees. Then is the time 
to pluck and eat of "The fruit of the 
Gods," while at its very best, and thus 
aiTive at the ideal condition of man 
when every one of the five senses are 
rationally gratified to an extent sel- 
dom reached even in life's happiest 
experiences 

As a honey producer, the orange 
blossom is often over-estimated as to 
quantity, but never as to (luality. '^f 
tlie latter too much can hardl.v l)e said; 
for I am sure that pure orange blos- 
som honey has no superior in any one 
of the three qualities, color. l)ody or 
flavor: the essentials that g<> to the 



making of a perfect product. It is. in 
fact, one of Nature's most nearly per- 
fect productions; and, like most such, 
(]uite limited in quantity. While 
working among the orange trees the 
bees seem brisk and happy, and re- 
turn to their hives well laden with 
liollen ]>ellets. but their honey sacs, 
though invariably containing some 
nectar, are never filled to repletion as 
when gatliering from the saw-palmet- 
to or mangrove bloom. 

Owing to many tons of honey being 
shipped from this State each year un- 
der the mark of "Orange Blossom 
Honey," an erroneous impression has 
gone forth as to the quantity produced, 
and its true characteristics. As this 
honey all comes from locations to the 
north and outside of the orange grow- 
ing districts of the State, it is not pos- 
sible that it could have come from 
t'.ie orange blosso n. The explanation 
offered for the use of the name is that 
it "is used as a private brand," and 
not intended to designate the source 
from which the nectar was gathered. 
In evidence that it is misleading. I 
will state that I have repeatedly re- 
ceived orders for "honey from the 
oi*ange blossom" with the statement 
that the sender had used one or more 
barrels of that kind and liked it. I 
think I am safe in the assertion that 
a barrel of piu'e orange blossom honey 
was never shipped from this State. 
It is only very few locations, where 
there are large orange groves in full 
bearing, in the pine woods, as at De- 
Land or Lake Helen, that pure orange 
honey is ever secured; and even there 
in only limited quantities. I would 
think it quite possible that, at River- 
side. California, it might be gathered 
in an unmixed condition, and aiipreci- 
able quantit.y, and. possibly at other 
points in that great State. 

When pure, its color is as white as 
the whitest of clover hone.v; its body 
even heavier, and its flavor superior 
to any other I have ever tasted. In 
n\v own section of the "Orange Belt" 
of Florida, it is invariably mixed with 
dark honey from other flowers bloom- 
ing at the same time, and its fine, dis- 
tinctive qualities are thereby hidden, 
to a greater or less extent. 

Hawks Park. Fla.. May 1. 1904. 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



133 



ORANGE BLOSSOMS AGAIN. 



Bv C. S. Harris. 



EDITOR HILL: To your question 
"What do you Ivuow about or- 
ange blossoms from the stand- 
point of a honey producer?" I could 
most truthfully use Dr. Miller's favor- 
ite reply, "I don't know;" and yet, 
from past experience I am inclined to 
believe that orange bloom is an almost 
sure yielder of nectar under favorable 
conditions, and certainly I know of no 
bloom which the hee>^ seek more ea- 
gerly. 

Previous to the freezes of 1894-5 we 
were able to extract freely during or- 
ange bloom. Th6se freezes destroyed 
the orange trees and not until this year 
has there been any bloom of conse- 
quence and the increased amount 
stored by the bees I feel satisfied came 
from orange blossoms. 

I have several times seen it stated 
that orange honey was very light in 
color, while that which we formerly 
harvested was amber. It was, per- 
haps, mixed with honey from other 
sources, although season and locality 
might be responsible for some varia- 
tion in color. It was, if I remember 
correctly, of good body and fine flavor. 

Mr. Horn's Drone Cell Counts for Naught. 

On page 91, May number of The 
Bee-Keeper, Mr. Henry E. Horn, under 
the head," One on Deckel," calls atten- 
tion to a single cell raised and capped 
as if containing a drone, on a comb 
of worker brood which had been giv- 
en to a queenless colony. He says, 
"There was a drone iu that cell with- 
out the least doubt." If he did not 
open that cell and find a drone, there 
is a doubt, for it sometimes occurs 
that a cell lacks the necessary depth, 
through a heavy deposit of wax at 
the bottom or because some foreign 
substance, accidentally in the cell, was 
waxed over instead of being removed, 
and in such cases, if the queen uses 
the cell, it must necessarily be length- 
ened to make room for its occupant 
and consequently has much the ap- 
pearance of a drone cell. 

Also, it is not uncommon to find a 
single drone cell, or perhaps two or 
three of them on the face of an other- 



wise solid comb of worker brood, un- 
der some conditions, in a queen-right 
colony, and Mr. Horn might very read- 
ily have overlooked this when giving 
a comb of unsealed brood, in fact, it 
could not be distinguished if it was a 
case of a drone egg having been de- 
posited in a worker cell. 

In either case there is no proof of 
the Dickel theory. But I may be "run- 
ning wild," after all, and Mr. Horn 
have written oaly in a sarcastic vein. 

Holly Hill, Fla., May. 18, 1904. 



ORANGE BLOSSOM HONEY. 



By Henry E. Horn. 



FRO:m the bee-keepers' point of 
view, the orange bloom of the 
season just past promised much, 
but, not unlike some other features of 
this passing show, failed to live up to 
it. And yet it was not the bloom really 
that was at fault, either; for there was 
more of it than ever before and it last- 
ed longer; but it was scattering, and 
the weather was mostly cold and 
windy. Twice the San Bernardino 
mountain range was whitened with 
snow and hail. And for variety's sake 
there was sandwiched in between it 
all a three-day norther, during which 
a southern sun pulled the thermometer 
up to 90 and 100 degrees in the shade. 
Of a consequence our poor little bees 
didn't gain much headway, though 
they tried hard enough. 

In producing bloom the orange tree 
is simply immense. There are thou- 
sands and thousands of blossoms on 
every tree that never come to any- 
thing at all; there are other thousands 
that open, set a tiny orange and then 
drop off. There are, finally, a few, 
comparatively speaking, that open, set 
a fruit and eventually grow into the 
golden apple of the market. Now, if 
one examines orange flowers for nec- 
tar, he will find some rich with it, some 
showing a trace, and some none at 
all; though just how closely these two 
sets of facts are related to one another 
is probably exactly known by nobody, 
but it is certain that the totally dry 
flowers are barren in their vexy na- 
ture and drop oft" fruitless. There is 
a text for a practical sermon hidden 
in this. 



134 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



July 



The orange flower itself is a white, the air, making a bee line for the next 

six-pointed star of great purity, and orange trees. 

is very fraarant. The somewhat Yes, certainly; but a bee line such 

fleshy petals.^'atter opening curl out as few people ever imagine. Past 

and ' backwards , thus disclosing a High Grand Master of Geometric Ar- 

round wall of straight, more or less chitecture apis mellifera turns living 

<-rown to'-ethor, pollen carriers, with- posey the moment its shining wings 

fn which' there is hidden the fruit vibrate in the outer air. Go out and 

o-erm surmounted bv the central sta- ^vatch them at sunrise and you will 

men ' It is in this inner temple where- see. Those thousands, gracefully cir- 

in occurs the offering of the sacrifice cling up there^ tinged with the gold 

of the nectar and of the sweet odor " " ' " ' 



A certain wise one once said that the 
orange flower, its form and structure, 
purity of coloring, abundance of sweet- 
ness, sensuous odor, was "a living 
symbol of the world's central mystery; 
aiid whosoever has once gained a 
glance behind the outer things will 
not say him nay, — only, since the pass- 
ing of the day in the long-ago when 
the sanctuary became profaned, its 
sweet sacrifice is now mostly ipter- 



of the horizontal beams of the morn- 
ing sun are not shooting stars as one 
might think. They are workers go- 
ing to work, as children go berry gath- 
ering in the woods and to picnic, free 
and unfettered. 

After this sort of thing has been 
going on for a day or two, the combs, 
along the top-bars begin to whiten, 
manipulated by two rows of bee-heads 
crowded together like peas in a pod 
from end to end of the hive, the cells 



mixed by a subtile poison that lames S'^'o^v longer and pretty soon are sealed 



and ills." 

Like all flora, here or elsewhere, the 
orange is richer in nectar some years 
than in othei'S. There have been sea- 
sons Avhen the nectar secretions for 
very abundance ran out of the blos- 
soms, causing the foliage of the trees 
to become sticky with it all over. But 

whether rich or poor, because of the certainty about its ^yearly coming, ^noi 
immense mass of it, there has always 



over and bottled up, full of what is 
probably the most delicious honey 
known. 

The full volume of the orarfige flo-sv 
lasts at least two weeks. It starts terj 
days or two weeks before that, anc 
straggles along for about an equa 
length of time after. There is no un 



been far more of it than all the avail- 
able bees could take care of. 

And how they work at it. Not, in- 
deed, that there is a great display of 
energy, or speed, in the coming or 
going of them; for they seem at times 
almost drunk with nectar, they al- 
ways manifest the drowsy hum and 
movement of a rich flow. No vicious 
diving at their master, no unprovoked 
stinging. All they seem to ask is", 
"Please, keep away from our door,'' 
and you can do anything you want. 
And then they drop out of the air, 
half by direction, half by gravity', a 
small constant stream, on the alight- 
ing board, on the hive cover, on grass 
stalks, on the ground — anywhere, but 
as near as may l)e their beloved home, 
but for very fatigue they must have a 
rest and more breath before they can 
go another inch. At the same time 
another stream runs out of the en- 
trance and, diving low, disappears in 



doubt about its abundance. And~il 
we had the meteorological conditioi 
necessary, we could harvest from 50 t( 
100 pounds of honey per colony everj 
year without fail. 

In point of time the Navel opens it? 
blossoms first, the Valencia's anc 
seedling afterwards and the sweetf 
last, though the more or less of th« 
elevation of the orchard makes a dif 
ference, too; those situated highes 
towards the foot hills seem to be fa 
vorefl Avith a warmer strata of air thai 
those lower down. To sum up thi 
matter: As a producer of nectar, botl 
of quantity and quality, the orang( 
ti-ee stands in the first rank. Never 
theless, there is no dependence to b< 
placed upon it by the bee-keeper— a 
least not in Southern California — foi 
these two reasons; the weather is al 
most always unsuitable, and it comei 
too earl.v in the season, before a stronj 
force of young field workers is reared 

Riverside, Cal., May 27, 1904. 



1004 



THE AMERIGxiN BEE-KEEPER. 



135 



PROTECTING AND CLEANING 
COMPRESSED CUPS. 



By "Swarthmore.' 



IT has been the practice in the 
Swarthmore apairies to use one 
colonj' for nothing else but to clean 
out the jelly, trim and protcet the 
hatched-out cells ready for regrafting. 
Cells protected in this manner are cer- 
tain of acceptance almost every time 
they are grafted. Returning the 
hatched-out cells to the zinc-covered 
cages will accomplish the same end 
but when rearing queens in quantities 
it is more convenient to have a special 
cleaning colony at hand, for there are 
always more or less left over cells 
in need of patching. 




Cell Cleaning and Incubating Board. 

CC are cleats, to prevent warping of the thin 
board. These cleats are cut a little short to ad- 
mit of tiering an empty shallow super, with bear- 
ings upon botli sides and end of the thin board. 
H is a frame constructed of % strips one inch 
«'ide for supporting the cell-bars, twelve in num- 
ber, placed side by side and bound together with 
oins— A AAA. To prevent comb building, cover 
the ends on the under side of the hollow square 
ivith zinc. 

A thin all wood honey board is cut 
iway in the center so as to form an 
jlilong opening eight inches wide and 
12 inches long, over which a close 
Tame is constructed for the purpose 
)f receiving cell-bars on exactly the 
^anie principle as in the starting 
screen previously explained; with the 
exception of their position on the hive, 
vbich is across instead of parallel 
vith the brood-frames, the arrange- 
uent is identical. 

AVhen bars containing cleaned out 
•ells are removed for re-grafting, their 
paces are filled with blank bars, or 
)ther cell-holding bars containing new- 
y pressed cups may be dropped into 
he spaces as needs seem to demand. 

Always cover the cell-holding bars 
vith absorbent quilts and never use 



anything but a perfectly weatlier- 
proof roof — all bee hives should have 
tight I'oofs. Paint on hive bodies is 
not so important excepting, perhaps, 
for appearance; but see to it that : 
roofs are kept well covered with good, 
durable, water-proof material of one 
kind or another for there is nothing 
more ruinous to Ijees than a leaby 
roof. 

During times of extra pressure upon 
the cell completing colonies, large 
numbers of capped cells may be placed 
in the cell-clearing and incubating 
board for protection. When this board 
is used for incubating cells queen ex- 
cluding zinc should cover the lower 
side of the square space beneath the 
bars to prevent the queen of the hive 
from entering this cell compartment 
to work wholesale desti'uction there. 

Fix the incubating board perma- 
nently ui)on a hive containing a power- 
ful colony and then bring from the 
nurseries any and all mature cells in 
need of protection the few days prior 
to tlie time of their distribution among 
nuclei. 

In this way as high as 100 cells may 
be taken care of at one time. The 
nursery cages will then be free to re- 
ceive other lots of started cells which 
may be awaiting their turn for trans- 
fer from the cell-starting colonies to 
those assigned to cell-completion. 

Swarthmore, Pa.. Oct. 8, 1903 



THE "COTTON" HIVE "OUT 
■WEST." 

By E. F. Atwater 

PROBABLY this is one of the few 
locations where the "Cotton 
Controllable Bee Hive" has been 
somewhat generally introduced and 
used. Many years ago the late Mr. 
Morse, a pioneer of Boise, together 
with Mr. :McClellan, sent to E. Kretch- 
mer for several colonies of Italian 
bees, the first to live and prosper here. 

They arrived in fair condition, in 
"American"' hives. Mr. Morse adopt- 
ed the Lizzie Cotton hive for his in- 
crease, and at one time possessed an 
apiary of 150 colonies in such hives. 
He manufactured the hives and sold 
them at ?7.00 each. 

All over the Boise Valley one finds 
the hives, known here as the "Morse 



136 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



July 



Hive" still in use and containing as 
a rule, enormous colonies of bees. 
The lower story contains 14 frames, 
12 3-4 inches square inside, so that the 
outside frames may be removed and 
wide frames, each holding nine square 
sections, put in their places. There 
were grooves in the sides of the hive, 
so that the outside frames could be 
removed and thin boards slipped in 
the grooves; the space back of the 
boards being filled with some non-con- 
ductor. However, no one practices 
this now. as the bees always winter 
well without conti'action. When the 
full 14 frames are used in the brood- 
nest, the capacitj' is equal to IT 1-2 
L. frames. The supers are arranged 
to hold 14 frames 8 1-2 x 12 3-4 inches 
inside, so that wide frames holding 
six square sections might be used in- 
stead of the extracting frames. 

One apiary which I am handling on 
shares has several of these Lizzie 
Cotton hives. Early in April they 
were of unusual strength, though the 
supers of exti'acting frames had been 
left on the hives all winter, and be- 
fore the opening of the main flow, in 
.June, some of them had filled a large 
part of the lower story with brood aad 
had begun breeding in the upper stor- 
ies, both stories full to overflowing 
with bees, a total capacity of about 
30 L frames. This extraordinary 
strength was due, I believe, to, 1, lo- 
cation (very sheltered), 2, large hives 
and abundant stories, 3 some honey 
and pollen coming in at all times. 

Boise, Idaho, Nov. 7, 1903. 



THE AVAR HORSE. 



By Otto Gubler. 
Member of the Societe Romande d' 

Apiculture, Switzerland. 
(Translated by Frank Benton from Bulletin de 
la Societe Romande d'Apiculture, Vol. I, No. 1, 
January, 1904.) 

ONCE upon a time there was — 
A beautiful priacess? 
Xo. 
A charming prince? 
Nor that either. 

Once upon a time there were two 
bee-keepers. Both of them wanted to 
do well — to do something startling. 
Hardened from their childhood, "nei- 
ther feared anything, whatever it 
might be." 



To handle and control Carniolans, 
natives, or Italians was no longer 
more than child's play for them — in 
the year of our Lord, one thousand, 
eight hundred and ninety-five. Just 
as in the fable, Bernard said to Ra- 
ton: •"Brother, let us do a master- 
stroke; let us buy Syrians. You take, 
or rather, you buy Syrians, and I'll 
buy Cyprians. Agreed." 

The year opened up well and one 
might afford to pay out a little some- 
thing extra. The Revue was thumbed 
over, the addresses found, the colonies 
ordered, shipped, received, and — paid 
for. Ah! how beautiful were our 
Syrians and our Cyprians! How dull 
our Italians appeared to us by the side 
of them! And who says that they are 
aggressive? Thats all nonsense. 
Lambs, I tell you, veritable lambs! In 
fact, enthusiasm is at its height. The 
plan was already before us for exten- 
sive breeding of our two favorite 
races, with an amelioration of the 
whole apiary through an infusion of 
new and vigorous blood. 

The two new-comers develop mar- 
velously; the second super takes the 
place of the first, and the third that of 
the second. Lacking the time to ex- 
tract, each contemplates with pride 
his colony, his war-horse, with its 
three full supers. Ah! if I had onlj 
Syi-ians. Ah! if I had only Cyprians 
What a harvest we would get! 

The hay harvest being at an enc 
we open our hives. The supers are su 
perb, but what is the matter with oui 
lambs today? They are certainly in s 
bad humor. Now don't imagine at al 
that we are afraid; oh no, we do noi 
get frightened at such a little thing 
However, suppose we let them rest foi 
the present. Besides, today is Sunday 
and it would not be a proper thini 
to take off honey on that day, more 
over I really think that the weath«j 
is going to be stormy. 

The following week each goes alone 
and by stealth, as it were, to feel th« 
ground; one towards his Syrians, th< 
other toward his Cyprians. Each tim< 
the covers are raised a terrible noiw 
is heard, the alighting board is cov 
ered with furies, and a number o: 
thrusts as sharp as though mado wltl 
Damascene lances tickle us so dis 
agreeably that we discover all of J 



' 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



137 



sudden that the weather is too tempes- 
tuous. 

"You know," says Raton to Bernard, 
I could have taken off a super if it 
had been necessary, but I didn't want 
to do it." 

The following Sunday Raton, the 
less brave of the two, after a timid 
reconnaissance, judges it prudent to 
lie down in the shade rather than trou- 
ble the Sabbath repose of their high- 
nesses, the princesses of Cyprus. 
Bernard, on the other hand, to whom 
a good dinner had given an indomit- 
able courage (perhaps a glass of old 
Neufachatel had also contributed a lit- 
tle) — Bernard, then, advances boldly 
against the enemy — pardon, against 
his friends, the Syrians. With his 
shirt sleeves rolled up, his arms bare, 
a strong pocket knife in his hand, and 
a fine long-bladed knife (to which he 
is very partial) at his belt, calm and 
resolute, he was truly beautiful to look 
upon. In vain the fanfare of the en- 
emy plays its most war-like marches; 
neither "Sempach" nor "Roll drums" 
succeed in making him quail, nor even 
budge, nor cause him to make a single 
useless gesture. 

But all this was only the skirmish 
of the advance guard. Two or three 
combs had already been taken from 
the super and Bernard was on the 
point of shouting victory, when sud- 
denly the charge sounded. The main 
Dod.v of the army, then the rear guard 
tself, takes the field. The maneuver 
fails, the line must fall back, as the 
ood Lafontaine says, that is, capitu- 
ate. Furious, stung, defeated, Bern- 
ird beats a retreat. But the outraged 
inemy come out of their citadel, pass 
)ver a high house, and attack people 
md animals on the neighboring road, 
oon the sharp cries of women mix 
«''ith the furious howling of dogs. The 
:ats, even, make disorderly jumps and 
he fowls disappear with flapping 
ings. Night atone stops the cembat 
nd puts an end to the carnage. 
Like Charles the Bold after Gi'and- 
on, Bernard dreams only of venge- 
nce. Under cover of the shades of 
dglit, no longer with his face bare, 
ut clothed with a veil, arms and legs 
ell wrapped, armed with a terrible 
utomatic smoker whence a cloud of 
moke issues, and with an immense 



watering-pot filled with ice-water, he 
starts toward his beloved Syrians. 
Blinded with smoke, inundated with 
cataracts of ice-water, they beg an 
armistice. But their cruel enemy re- 
moves a super in one piece and carries 
it twenty paces away. At the sivliv 
of this abduction all unanimously 
swear then and there to vanquish or 
to die, and they pour forth to the as- 
sault; the enemy, like Charles at Mor- 
at, is still obliged to flee. 

Like him, Bernard, furious that there 
vile S.yrians had robbed him of his 
fame for invincibility, decides to re- 
turn to the charge, or at least to at- 
tack the separate contingent which 
was at the foot of the tree. And what 
time was that? At three o'clock in the 
morning when the enemy was sleep- 
ing innocently. Tl'uth obliges me to 
say that this time he carried off the 
victory, contrary to what happened to 
Charles the Bold at Nancy. It will 
be well to add that this attack much 
resemlded an ambush. 

The war-horse perished the follow- 
ing winter. Bernard claims that it 
died a natural death. Others say — but 
sh . . Let us not slander him. 

Washington, D. C, April 8. lf»04. 



NO FUNICS IN ALGERIA. 



By. .John Hewitt. 

DEAR Mr Hill:— Will you allow me 
to correct those paragraphs in 
American Bee-Keeper on pages 
100 and 101 under the heading "Alge- 
ria'' respecting "Punic" bees. There 
are no Punic bees in Algeria any more 
than there are Italians in Cyprus. 
Algerian bees are very bad temi>ered 
and somewhat darker in color than 
Punics. Mr. T. W. Cowan was the fir.st 
to try to get them tried instead of the 
real thing and told his readers in 1801 
where to get them in Algeria and dis- 
cribed the bees of Tunis as "impure." 
Since then there have been sevei-al at- 
tempts to pass off the bees of Algeria, 
Morocco and Minorca as the same 
race. Punicg are as different to the«e 
races as possible — far more so than 
Italians are to Cyprians — while now 
owing to Mr. Cowan being the mrans 
of getting Carniolans imported into 
Tunis, it is impossible to get them 
really pure from Tunis now. 



138 

I notice with satisfaction, wliat you 
say on page 106; whicli is a fair re- 
port, but really, altliougli tameuess 
and hard working are good points, I 
consider their non-swarming — when 
given plenty of room— and their being 
proof aafflinst foul brood, of greater 
value to honey producers. Just fancy 
the difference between an apiary of 
100 stocks, all swarming at once and 
one you know will work without the 
least watching. 

Sheffield, England, May 20, 1904. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



July 



PHACELIA AS A 
PLANT. 



FORAGE 



Bv Dr. C. C. Miller. 




I HAVE just read with much inter- 
est Henry E. Horn's communica- 
tion, page 53, and hope it may be 
the indirect means of obtaining the 
much needed information as to the 
value of Phacelia tanacetifolia as a 
forage plant in California. Mr. Horn 
is not entirely correct in thinking that 
the value of phacelia as a honey plant 
was first discovered in Germany anil 
that only ten or twelve years ago. 
Long before that time it was men- 
tioned in Tick's seed catalogue as a 
great favorite with bees — I think the 
only plant thus mentioned. Perhaps as 
much as forty years ago I was famil- 
iar with the plant, as no doul)t many 
others were, and en.ioyed seeing the 
unusual nunil)ors ©f bees attracted by 
it. I also cultivated it as a window 
plant in winter for the beauty of its 
flowers, as also for their fragrance. 
I think the flowers are not fragrant 
when grown in the open. 



It never occurred to me to plant it 
on a large scale, because I knew of 
no value attached to it except as a 
beautiful flower and a honey plant. 
Mr. Horn is right if he gives to the 
Germans the credit of discovering its 
value as a forage plant, if indeed it 
has any such value. I suspect that 
what he says as to its forage value has 
been gleaned from the reading of for- 
eign bee .journals. In them it has 
been uninterruptedly boomed for many 
moons. As to its honey value there is 
but one voice. The song iu its praise 
as a forage plant, however, has in it 
discordant notes. The reports of some 
give it high praise; others contain 
"its'' and "buts." 

So far as I know, no one yet has 
ventured to come forward in this 
country to give any testimony as to 
its value for forage. The authorities 
at Washington disclaim any knowl- 
edge of it. So I am skeptical. I here- 
by challenge Mr. Horn or any other 
Californian to produce evidence that 
stock of any kind care for phacelia, 
either green or dry as forage. If a 
number of them will come forward 
with such overwhelming proof as to' 
convict me of being a presumptuous 
ignoramus, it will please me well. But 
1 have thrown out much the same 
challenge more than once within the 
past two or three years, and every 
one of those California chaps has 
been dumb as an oyster on the sub- 
ject. 

It AVould l)e a great thing for bee- 
keepers if it could be proven that pha- 
celia is a valuable forage plant on 
American soil, but — but — 
Marengo, 111., March 11, 1904. 



INTRODUCING LAYING QUEENSJ 



By Jacob W. Small. 

AS far as my observation and ex- 
perience go. it is not alone the 
fact of a new queen being a 
stranger, that causes the bees to at-j 
tack and ball her. The more import- 
ant cause is the smell of the nev 
queen. 

I have taken a laying queen from a 
swarm of bees, caged her with some 
half a dozen of her own bees for a 
few minutes, and upon liberating her 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



139 



lapou her own comb, to her own bees 
had her immediately balled, and she 
would undoubtedly have been destroy- 
ed if I had not rescued her by a lib- 
eral application of smoke and proceed- 
ed to introduce her as aii entire strang- 
er. Now tills may seem strange upon 
the face of it. She was certainly no 
stranger to her own bees, but she had 
absorbed, so to speak, the scent from 
the cage in which she was placed. 
Consequently she was to the bees 
practically a strange queen. Further 
than this, the bees which were caged 
with her upon being liberated were at 
once attacked by the other bees and 
killed. 

Acting upon this fact I conceived 
the idea of making, of screen wire 
cloth, a small box two inches or so 
upon the side,with the ends turned up 
about three-eighths of an inch, like the 
cover of a small card-board box. 

I place the queen to be introduced 
with her bees in this box, using a 
piece of card board to form the other 
side of the box temporarily. Now re- 
move one of the frames from the hive 
you wish to introduce your queen to 
and lay the screen box, paper side 
down, upon the comb, covering some 
place where there is a little honey. 
And after withdrawing the paper 
from between the box containing the 
queen and bees, press slightly upon 
the screen box, imbedding it in the 
comb just enough to hold it in place. 

Put the frame back into the hive and 
allow it to remain a day or two, then 
remove the frame, liberate the queen 
and her bees, who have already ac- 
quired the smell of the new combs of 
the hive, and upon replacing the comb 
the queen will be accepted without 
question almost invariably. 

Of course, you must allow^ no 
queen-cell in your hive during this op- 
sration. 

I have tried the water cure (so call- 
id) and have had very little success 
in that direction. I have a glass nu- 
;Ieus hive, in which I have conducted 
jome very interesting experiments in 
ntroducing queens, the actions of the 
lueen and bees being observed close- 
y. I have tried several of the vari- 
ms methods. 

I find that no matter how long the 
lUeen has been left caged in a hive, 



whether liberated by the candy meth- 
od or otherwise, she will immediately 
retire to some remote corner of the 
hive or behind some close fitting frame 
where she will remain for some time, 
seemingly afraid of her life. And if 
crowded out of such a cover will at 
once put for another, if possible. 

But with the method here explained 
she will almost invariably pay no at- 
tention to the bees or they to her, but 
will both attend to their several du- 
ties regardless of each other. At least 
such has been my experience so far. 

Haverhill, Mass., May 16, 1904. 



This is one of the best and simplest 
methods of introduction, though one of 
the oldest known to the craft. Its ef- 
ficiency, however, is really advanced 
by caging the queen without attend- 
ant bees at all, and placing the intro- 
ducing cage over emerging young bees 
and unsealed honey. The cage is bet- 
ter made a full inch deep. It is well 
also to make it four or five inches 
long. Unravel about one-half inch on 
all sides and bend at right angles a 
full inch all around. It should be 
firmly pressed into the comb, or the 
bees may cut the cells away and enter 
too soon. — Editor. 



^VINTERING EXPERIMENTS. 



Mr. Miller's Favorite Plan Not a 
Success in Canada. 



By J. L. Byer. 

APRIL number of the American 
Bee-Keeper to hand, and among 
other items I read with interest 
Mr. A. C. Miller's article on "Results 
of Some Experiments in Wintei'ing."' 

By way of preface allow me to say 
that last season I was pretty well con- 
verted to Mr. Miller's line of argument 
relative to the wintering of bees in 
single-walled hives covered with 
tarred felt paper. So much so, in fact, 
that I took advantage of every oppor- 
tunity offered, both in private and pub- 
lic conversation with bee-keepers, to 
express my views on this question. 

To prove correctness of my theory 
(rather Mr. Miller's) by practice, last 
fall I prepared 26 colonies in two dif- 
ferent yards, thirteen in each yard, in 
manner prescribed by Mr. Miller. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



140 

All were good strong colonies, in 
eight frame Quinby hives, heavy with 
honey. Entrances three-fourths by five 
inches, a super on top ®f all, half the 
number filled with chaff, balance with 
six inches of dry sawdust instead of 
chaff. All the rest of the bees, (over 
200) were in packed hives and winter 
cases. 

Permanently packed hives have four 
inches of sawdust around sides and 
back, two inches in front, with cush- 
ions filled with three to four inches 
sawdust on top. Winter cases have 
two hives in each case, close together, 
eight inches chaff', sides and back, 
four inches in front, with about eight 
inches chaff over the top of all. 

Now "as to results:" Out of 250 col- 
onies, 20 are dead, and half of the 
number are among the papered hives. 
To make matters worse, of the bal- 
ance in said hives, only three are in 
fair condition. Remainder, if they pull 
through, will only be nuclei by the time 
the honey flow comes on. The paper 
covered * hives were scattered all 
through the yards and I think the trial 
was conducted on as fair a basis as 
could possibly be arranged. Now I 
have no '"axe to grind" anu as be- 
fore intimated, if the "wish had been 
father to the thought" why I certainly 
would have expected different results. 
Had this same experiment been con- 
ducted the two ])revious winters, no 
doul)t there would have been a dif- 
ferent story to tell. It takes severe 
conditions and tests to prove the cor- 
rectness of our pet theories. 

Just now am inclined to think that 
as long as I winter bees out doo--^ i 
don't "believe we may safely and i^v *- 
itably dispense with double hives." 
While, as with Mr Millei', I find the 
"experiment was costly" unless we 
admit truth of the old adage "exper- 
ience is a good teacher," am not in- 
clined to own up that "it paid." 

As to what INIr. Miller says relative 
to age of bees and other conditions es- 
sotitial to successful wintering, I agree 
in the main; however, I do know that 
by giving proper attention we in this 
latitude can, one year with another, 
winter 95 per cent of our bees suc- 
cessfully in packed hives. Theory is 
all right in its place, but let us be 
careful lest in our theorizing we sae- 



July 



rifice too much of the practical, only 
to find later on that after all we were 
mistaken. 

Markham, Out., April 12. 1904. 



ADVICE FOR THE NOVICE. 



By G. H. Sammis. 

IT MAY be a good time to buy bees, 
in the winter, but it is a poor time 
to move them. In cold weather 
the comb is brittle, and it is liable to 
break down in moving the hive, not 
only causing the loss of the honey 
which has been left for winter stores, 
but leaving a vacant place which the 
bees cannot keep warm as they will 
when the frames are filled with honey. 
The bees, too, when disturbed by mov- 
ing fill themselves with honey and un- 
less there is a warm spell so that they 
can take a cleansing flight, this may 
result in heavy loss from dysentery 
among them. This last is a serious 
objection against moving them, even 
when the distance is but short and 
they are handled so carefully as not 
to break down the comb. Before mov- 
ing them see that everything is ready 
for their reception. Have the stand 
just where it is wanted; near to, if 
not in, the orchard, away from roads 
and driveways and where neither ani- 
mals, poultry nor children, will go to 
stir them up and keep them cross and, 
not in least importance, place them so 
that they will have shade on hot days 
and a windbreak in winter, as a shel- 
ter from the prevailing storms and 
winds. If there is not such a place 
just right, set them where they should 
be and build the shade and set out the 
trees for a windbreak or build a board 
fence for that purpose. See that the"^ 
necessary supplies are -on hand early 
in the season if not before the bees 
arrive. There should be at least one 
emptj' hive for each colony and two 
would be better, as they are pretty 
sure to swarm once, and possibly two 
or three times, if care is not taken to 
prevent it, and for those with little ex 
perience I think it better to allow 
swarming than to try to prevent or 
control it, or to attempt dividing thf 
colony. To do either of these well if 
an art not often learned in one lesson 
With the hive should be frames, s<'C 
tions, etc., and enough good founda 



1904 



THE 



AMERICAN KEE-KEEPER. 141 

otherwise miscoiKluct themselves. The 
mutter got into the courts finally. 

Cole's health became poor and he 
concluded to give up bee-keeping. He 
dealt in comb and extracted honey and 
had nearby trade. None of his honey- 
went to the Philadelphia markets. 

The apiary consisted of 17 hives of 
various makes, including some of 
Cole's own handiwork. The bees were 
black and Messrs. Selzer and Hornor 
say they were very lively when they 
first tackled them. The idea was to 
transfer the colonies to eight and ten 
frame dovetailed hives and catch and 
kill the queens and supersede them 
with full-blooded Italians. The Phil- 
adelphians who made the journey 
were amply repaid for their trouble. 

Messrs. Hornor and Selzer did tl3e 
actual work of taking the old hives 
apart and shaking down the bees from 
the frames in front of the new hives. 
Each visitor was handed a frame cov- 
ered with bees and asked to locate the 
queen. 

"When you find her give the Indian 
yell" said Mr. Selzer. One member, 
whose eyes were sharp, found five. 



tion to fill the frames and surplus box- 
es, and to be ready for all emergencies 
the bee smoker, bee veil, and gloves 
should also be ready so that the hive 
can be opened if it seems necessary 
and so that a swarm may be handled 
as soon as it clusters. 

It may be more profitable to send a 
long distance and pay a round price 
for a colony of Italian bees than to 
accept a hive of black bees as a gift 
from a neighbor, but we should take 
our chance with the black bees at a 
reasonable price if near home, and 
should then send to some reliable 
party for an Italian queen, paying 
what might be asked for a tested 
queen. 

Only a few weeks would be requir- 
ed to change a colony of black bees 
to a colony of Italians and to two col- 
onies as soon as they swarmed. To 
buy a swarm in any but a movable 
frame hive would probably be poor 
economy, as it needs an exjoerienced 
hand to transfer it into a proper hive, 
and the help to do this will greatly 
increase the cost of the colony. If 
it is done, do not charge the expense 
against the bees, but stay and see it These were caught, their heads pinch- 



done, learn all that it is possible to 
learn about the bees while watching 
the operation and consider the ex- 
pense as a part of the cost of an edu- 
cation in bee-keeping. 

Centerport, N. Y.. March 1, 1904. 



A QUEEN HUNTING EXPEDI- 
TION. 



By. M. F. Reeve. 



ed and they were tossed over the fence 
to the chickens. New queens were 
given them or will he in a few days. 
Several colonies were queenless. Most 
of the hives were well stocked with 
honey. The bees were gathering 
white clover nectar at the time. The 
frames not having been wired, many 
of them were broken down on being 
handled, and the combs, with their 
heavy weight of honey tumbled out. 
At least three of the hives appeared 
to have been tenanted by swarms 
which had been given empty frames 
without foundation sheets or even 
starters. As a result the bees had 
gone back to first principles and had 
built their combs the shortest way. 



PRESIDENT Townsend, Secretary 
Hahman, and a few other mem- 
bers of the Philadelphia Bee- 
Keepers' Association, including your 
correspondent, went down to Woods- 
town, N. J., on Saturday, June 11, to 

help Messrs. Selzer and Honor, who crosswise of the frames 
operate a large apiaiy in that town, 
to hunt queen bees. 

The apiary was formely owned by 
J. D. Coles, who gained much noto- 
riety about three years ago by having 
a controversy with the citizens and 
the town authorities about his bees, 
which were alleged to be a nuisance 
because they were said to soil the 
family washing, sting the children,and 



Mr. Hornor was obliged to cut the 
frames to pieces in order to get out the 
combs. These went into the extract- 
ing cans. All good combs were given 
back to the colonies. 

All containing brood were cut out. 
Mr. Selzer says the Woodstown place 
has been leased for a year and will 
be used as a shipping point. 

The past winter having been so cold 



142 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



July 



and severe played havoc vsritli bees 
throughout the United States and just 
now bees are bees. I understand Sel- 
zer and Hornor are both hustlers and 
know the business from A to Z. 
Rutledge. Pa., June 16, 1904. 




3. — One-eighth is all right over 
frames, but if tiering up, upon such a 
hive, it would be necessary that three- 
sixteenths to one-eighth space be af- 
forded below frames in upper story. 
The combined spaces, it will be noted, 
would give that necessaiT betweeai 
frames. Read farther down on same 
page of Prof. Benton's book, which 
fully explains this point. 

4.— Eggs hatch in about three days 
fi'om the laying at all times — if they 
hatch at all — we believe. — Editor. 



Metz, Wis., May 28, 1904. 
Mr. Editor: 

I have some questions which are not 
well answered in the text books that 
I wish you would answer in July Bee- 
Keeper: 

1. — I bought a number of 5 3-4 ex- 
tracting supers that have no bee space 
over the frames — only about ti scant 
one-eighth of an inch. Is not a bee 
space necessary? I thought so. 

2. — Many bee-keepers speak of quilts. 
Of what and how are they made and 
how used? As no cover fits closely, 
I want to use something under it. 
Will a cloth of any sort not sink down 
in the middle and cause trouble? 

3.— I see that Frank Benton, in his 
"Manual of Apiculture," third edition, 
page 44, says to leave only one-eighth 
over the frames. Is that all right? 

4. — Do eggs always hatch three days 
after laying, or do they sometimes 
take a longer time? I mean, do they 
ever stay in the hive for weeks in the 
winter, or at other times, before 
hatching? 

By answei-ing in July number you 
wilf oblige. Beginner. 

1.— A bee space is not necessary 
over the frames, but is quite essential 
between the top bars of the lower 
story and the bottom bars of the tipper 
story when tiering up. 

2. — Quilts may be made of any cot- 
ton goods. Twilled goods is prefer- 
able. Tear them in sizes to just cover 
the top of hives, roll them up and dip 
edges in melted wax to prevent ravel- 
ing, and lay in direct contact with top 
of frames and press down smoothly. 
In your climate, such an arrangement 
is really preferable to the bee space 
and honey board. 



KEEPING- SWARMS SEPARATE. 
Westville Ctr., N. Y., Apr. 25, 1904. 
Mr. Koop asks for advice where a 
number of swarms alight on the same 
limb. I can generally prevent swarms 
clustering together, when the second 
swarm doesn't come out imtil the first 
has clustered, or nearly so, and the 
third until the second has clustered, 
and so on, by simply spraying the 
cluster with cold water and keeping 
a spray of water playing between the 
clustered swarm and the swarm in the 
air. It sometimes makes lively work 
and takes two or three of us, but I 
have had four swarms issue one after, 
another so quickly that all we could 
do was to keep spray pump and dip- 
pers going. But we landed them on 
four different trees within a radius of 
twenty-five feet, and then took our 
leisure hiving them. I do not say this* 
plan always works, but it has saved 
me lots of work separating swarms. I 
think that bee-keepers who do not 
run their apiary on the clipped wingi 
plan will find it worth trying. 

I think that bee-keepers who live in 
localities where they have cool nights 
during the spring months, as we have 
in northern New York, should pro- 
vide more protection over the brood 
nest than a three-eighths board and a 
thin oil cloth. If they would pack 
them on top with di-y chaff, sawdust, 
or planer shavings, they would have 
less spring dwindling, more early 
swarms and more bees ready when 
the honey flow comes. I put the empty 
supers on the first thing in the spring, 
when I set them out, and fill them up 
with planer shavings; or, what is bet- 
ter, fill a bran sack part full of chaff 
and pack that in closely. It is han- 
dier to take off and more convenient 
when looking colonies over. 

I keep packing in until I put sec- 
tions on. 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



143 



This is a Puzzle. 

Two years ago I took off a few su- 
pers of honey and set them in a dark 
room. The bees would not leave one 
of the supers. I thought the queen 
must be with them, so about dark I 
took the holders out and brushed them 
carefully l)ack into the hive. The 
next morning there was nearly two 
quarts of dead bees piled out hi front 
of the hive. Others tell me I must 
have returned them to the wrong hive, 
but I know they were not. Now, I 
would like to know why they killed 
those bees. W. Ji. F. 



BEES ON THE FARM. 



To Beginners: We will give .$1.00 
cash for the most plausible solu- 
tion received before July 15. — Editor. 



Maple Grove, N. Y., May !«. 1904. 
Editor Bee-Keeper: 

I became the owner of my first col- 
ony of bees in 1902, and I want to 
caution beginners about carelessly 
handling new combs. After hiving 
my first swarm, and it had filled the 
hive with new combs, I had to move 
it about a half-mile. After hauling it 
in a two-wheeled cart to the new loca- 
tion, I attempted to carry it to the 
stand, but stumbled, and bees, hive 
and all lay in a pile on the ground. I 
managed to get things together again, 
but the combs are so crooked that I 
am unable to handle them. That is 
why I want to caution beginners 
never to try to carry a hive without 
someone to help, for the combs are 
so tender and brittle that a slight acci- 
dent may spoil the whole thing. 
Yours truly, 

R. T. Crandall. 



Our correspondent seems to have 
overlooked the fact that when two, in- 
stead of one are carrying the hive, 
the chances of stumbling are two-fold 
greater than when but one person is 
handling it. A single story hive is 
more easily and safely handled under 
all circumstances by one person. 
"Stumbling," however, is an exercise 
which should not be indulged in at 
such a time. It is better to wait until 
one is through with his bee work, if 
he must stumble, and repair, empty- 
handed, to an open field to do his 
stumbling. It is allowable to think 
about stumbling when can-ying a hive 
of bees, but the act itself must be de- 
ferred. — Editor. 



There is no reason why farmers 
should not handle their bees on profi- 
table methods even if they have but a 
few colonies. Bees as kept on the 
farm, a few colonies here and ther?', 
scattered in difEerent localities, ordi- 
narily do the best business, for they 
are not overstocked as they are fre- 
quently in large apiaries. Almost 
double the amount of honey can be ob- 
tained from the colony thus situated 
and bee-keeping, as a rule, is much 
more profitableif the bees are in prop- 
er shape to do good work. The great- 
est mistake farmers usually make, ac- 
cording to one versed in bee culture, is 
that of limiting the surplus boxes, 
thus not furnishing the bees with 
enough surplus capacity. The bees fill 
this limited space with honey in a few 
days at the beginning of the honey 
season and afterwards turn their :it- 
tention to swarming, and several 
swarms will be the result instead of a 
large honey yield. Farmers, in con- 
nection with their other work, might 
as well reap hundreds of pounds of thi 
finest honey instead of obtaining but a 
few pounds if they would only give the 
bees plenty of storage room, and 
promptly take the honey away as soon 
as completed. The rule among small 
bee-keepers is to give but a small sur- 
plus capacity in tbe spring, and let 
this remain all summer to be taken 
off in the fall, supposing that it is an 
all summer's job for the bees to do^ 
when in most cases this space is filled 
in a week or twofi and allowed +o re- 
main in the hive all summer which re- 
duces it to a poor rade of honey as 
well as a small amount. Hundreds ">f 
pounds of first-class honey might have 
been obtained by giving a large capac- 
ity, and removing the honey as fast 
it is stored and completed. Some lo- 
calities are better than others, and 
some seasons are better than other 
seasons, but it is never a mistake any 
season to thus provide for the most 
at all times and under all conditions. 
By little forethought and work on 
the part of the average Southern Cali- 
fornia farmer or fruit grower he could 
secure all the honey necessaiy for his 
own use. — Rural Calif omian. 



I 



4» M » MMM » M »» M »» M »'M-M-M-4» MM 4f» MM »4 MM >»»» 




THE 



Bee « Keeping World 



staff Contributors : F. GREINER and ADRIAN GETAZ. 

Contributions to tliis Department are solicited from all quarters of the earth. 



♦ MMMM 4t M 4f M » MMMM MMtM M 4 M »4 M 4 MMMM » 



CHINESE BEES. 

Two kinds of bees exist iu China. 
One of large size is dreaded by the 
natives, and nothing has been done 
toward "robbing" their nests or to 
keep them in hives. 

The other is much smaller. The 
workers are only three-eighths of an 
inch long, and the queens nearly half 
an inch. They are black, with less 
hair than the European kind, and that 
hair is of a rusty color. When the 
abdomen is distended, a yellow streak 
or spot is seen occupying about one- 
third of the width of each skin be- 
tween the rings. The stinger is short, 
the venom glands more developed than 
those of the European kind, but the 
sting is less painful than that of the 
European bees. 

Their nests are hung under the limbs 
of trees or some other more or less 
sheltered but not completely inclOised 
place. Hunting wild bees is not al- 
ways easy; so the natives are in the 
habit of putting here and there on 
some trees, pieces of bark about six 
feet long, and placed horizontally or 
nearly so, so that the imder surface 
furnishes the wild bees a sheltered 
place to hang their nests. Of one hun- 
dred pieces fixed that way, from twen- 
ty to forty are soon found occupied 
by swarms, and can easily be har- 
vested. If possible, the tree called 
tram (Melaleuca leucodendron) is 
chosen, as the bees seem to have a 
preference for it. The "harvesting" is 
usually done in August. Each nest fur- 
nishes one or two pounds of wax and 
a quantity of honey. To climb a tree, 
the hunter uses a number of bamboo 
spikes, which he drives in the bark of 
the trees. These hold the weight of 
a man as well as an iron spike driven 
in a telegraph pole. The woods are 
divided in portions and these leased 
to those who will take what honey, 
gums, resins and other wild products 
are there. 

These bees are also kept in hives; 



that is, hollow logs, closed at the ends 
with pieces of bark or boards fasten- 
ed with "buffalo chips" mortar. When 
the robbing is done, it is merely a 
question of cutting the combs, driving 
the bees off with smoke, mashing 
combs and all, and melting thsm to 
separate the honey and the wax. The 
honey is decidedly of inferior quality. 
— L'Apiculteur. 



TURKEY. 

A brigand named Nebi was pursued 
by the Turkish "gendarmes." He fi- 
nally took refuge in a small house 
which, like all the oriental houses, had 
but few windows, .iust big enough to 
enable the brigand to shoot down the 
'•gendarmes'' at his own convenience. 

In a garden nearby were some bee 
hives. The sergeant of the gendarmes, 
finally took one of the hives and man- 
aged to throw it through the window 
into the house then occupied by the 
unfortunate Nebi. The result can 
easily be guessed. What may not be 
so easily guessed, is that the unfor- 
tunate Nebi died in the hospital at 
Smyrna the next day, from the re- 
sults of the stings received. — L'Api- 
culteur. 



FRANCE. 
Mr. Betmale observed a youngi 
queen coming out to mate on the 9th f 
of April. The weather was unfavor- 
able a part of the time, the drones' 
very scarce yet. So, after several un- 
successful attempts, that queen mated' 
on April 30. The 3rd of May, eggsi 
were seen in a few cells, workers and' 
drone cells both. May 4 the queen 
came out and mated again. The fifth; 
and following days, eggs were found: 
in abundance. — L'Apiculteur. 



An apiarist of St. Jory (France) wasi 
sued for damages done by his bees to 
the grapes of one of his neighbors. 
After investigation, the court decided! 
that, as wasps and other insects were 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



145 



also guilty of said damages, that other 
bees than those of the apiarist had 
likely taken part in the pillaging, that 
as the bees did not open the grapes, 
but only sucked the already damaged 
grains, the apiarist could not be held 
responsible only for a small part of 
the damage done, and therefore con- 
demned hhu to pay damages to the 
amount of 60 cents I — Gazette Apicole. 

All ai)iarists know that foundation 
in brood combs is liable to buckle 
more or less. Mr. Kiihn claims that 
in the ]irocess of manufacture the 
wax is pressed hard and its molecule.? 
are in an abnormal state. When the 
comb of foundation is placed in the 
hive, the wax softens enough to per- 
mit the molecules to spread apart to 
'their 'normial position; hence an in- 
crease in the size of the sheet and the 
consequent buckling. To avoid this, 
he warms the sheets of foundation 
until tbey are quite soft before put- 
ting them in the frames Thus treated, 
the foundation never buckles. The 
fact is conifirmed by Mr. Ualon, who 
had recently made 2,400 brood combs 
with heated foundation. All are per- 
fectly straight. — L'Apirculteur. 



the queen is left alone and sometimes 
starves. 

Occasionally .there is a considerable 
amount of drone brood in the old hive 
about ready to hatch, when the opera- 
tion is performed. After they emerge, 
they are prisoners, die in the hive and 
obstruct the queen excluder, causing 
the loss of the remaining bi'ood. 

Just now, while writing the above 
two Hues, the thought occurs to me, 
that this could be obviated by open- 
ing now and then the entrance of the 
old hive and let them out. — A. G. — 
Le Rucher Beige. 



As stated before, artificial, or, 
rather, anticipated swarming. ha,s 
been largely practiced in Europe. Some 
of the methods used involve the 
changing of place of the colonies. Mr. 
Whathelet warns the "novices" to 
never put a colony in the place of an- 
other except in good weather and good 
flow of nectar, otherwise flghting ttr 
robbing would follow.— The Rucher 
Beige. 



The price of honey has fallen great- 
ly in France for the last few years. 
The customai-y price for 100 kilo, used 
to be from 110 to 130 francs. Now 90 
francs is the highest price paid, and 
many bee-keepers are thankful to get 
75 francs for their crops. It is inti- 
mated that the movable comb hive is 
to blame, which makes it possible to 
obtain from 20 to 30 kilograms per 
hive, against five to ten kilograms 
under the old system. It is also said 
that large quantities of honey are im- 
ported, upon which no duty is levied. 
— Leipz. Bztg. 



GERMANY. 

For years the German bee-keepers 
have used various tools for the pur- 
pose of removing the cappings from 
combs to be extracted. They have 
the uncapping fork, uncapping har- 
roAV, the spiked roller, the uncapping 
plane, and also some more complicated 
machinery which does the work. All 
these tools do not see«i to satisfy. 
Fredinand Holwek's new patented 
uncapping plane, as herewith illus- 
trated. Is siiid to do the work perfect- 
ly. Nothing better need be looked for. 




BELGIUM. 



The process of transferring gener- 
ally used in Europe consists in drum- 
ming the bees and the queen into the 
new hive, then put a queen excluder 
on it, and tbe old hive on the excluder, 
closing all openings except the en- 
trance to the new hive. After twen- 
ty-one days the old hive has no more 
brood, and can be demolished. 

The process does not always suc- 
ceed. Sometimes, if the colony is 
■weak and the weather unfavorable. 
the bees remain in the old hive, and 



The invento*' says in Deutsche Imber 
that with uniform straight combs the 
cappings are all removed and are per- 
fectly dry. This implement is now 
manufactured in Sounenburg and 
costs about $1.25. 



It has been found profitable to 
space frames in extracting supers a 
little further apart than such for 
brood bearing. A. Weber, of Schoe- 
naii speaks in Leipz. Bztg. of using 
very thick combs of more than two- 



146 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



July 



inch spacing. His extracting frames 
are made one and one-lialf inces wide, 
and old comb is used preferably to 
fill tliem. After being used once, and 
having tlie cells all lengthened out, 
the queen cannot deposit eggs in them 
— at any rate, the instances are very 
rare when she does, even when the 
br»od chamber is contracted. Such 
thick combs prevent the storage of 
pollen. Herr Weber says that a sub- 
stantial extractor has to be used with 
such heavy combs. 



queen cells over eggs or larvae?" arft 
pretty well agreed that larvae are al- 
ways selected. In cases where only 
eggs are present the bees wait imtil 
some larvae have hatched before cells 
are built o\ev them. — Schweitz. Btzg. 



SIBERIA. 



That a colony of bees may be win- 
tered without pollen, and even with- 
out combs. A Ziche reports in Central 
Blatt of having succeeded several 
years ago with a naked swarm of bees 
which he received from a friend late 
in the fall. The bees M-ere put into 
an empty straw hive and kept in a 
garret above a heated room diu'ing 
the winter months. They were fed 
on liquid food (honey). At the close 
of March no comb had been built, but 
soon after they began in earnest to 
build a comb. They were then placed 
in the bee-house and feeding was con- 
tinued. The colony proved to be a 
proifitable one that season. 



"Apiculteur" says that there are sev- 
enteen different kinds of linden trees 
in Siberia which blossom in close suc- 
cession, thus furnishing the bees a 
long continued, most excellent honey 
season. The principal hives used are 
American hives. As the winters are 
very severe, only strong colonies are 
taken into the winter. Indoor-winter- 
ing alone is practiced. 



AUSTRIA. 



During 1903 there were imported 
into Germany, in round numbers, ac- 
cording to "Die Biene und ihre 
Zucht:" From Chili, 1,980,000 pounds 
of honey; from Mexico, 636,000 pounds 
of honey; from Cuba and Porto Rico, 
1,267,000 pounds of honey; from the 
United States, 840,000 pounds of 
honey. 



Earthwax has largely taken the 
place of beeswax. It is known under 
the name of "ozokerit" and is found 
in Utah, California, Roumania, and 
Gahcia. Its color is dark brown, but 
when refined can hardly be told from 
the genuine beeswax. It is spaded 
out like clay, and its value in the raw 
state is 0.76 marks per* kilogram. — 
Centralblatt. 

Otto Schulz, of comb foundation 
fame in Germany, is now manufac- 
turing comb foundation with a metal 
base. 



Hans Techaczek appeals to the wives 
of bee-keepers and urges them to en- 
ter into the work of bee-keeping and 
assist their husbands in the handling 
of the bees. He says that it has come 
under his observation a number of 
times that, where the bee-keeper sud- 
denly died, the bees and the apiarian 
implements wei*e almost as good as 
given away, when the wife, if she 
had been able to continue the busi- 
ness, might have had a good income. 
Techaczek speaks in pai'ticular of the 
death of a noted bee-keeper. Herr 
Sparytka, who left an apiary of fifty- 
eight fine colonies. They were sold 
at a low figure. Schmid. of St. Valen- 
tine, left a magnificent apiary, which, 
when sold with all the apiarian im- 
plements, did not bring as much aS' 
his American foundation mill was* 
A^orth.— Bienen-Vater. 



SWITZERLAND. 

Eight bee-keepers of Switzerland, 
who give the answer to the question. 
"Do queenless colonies construct 



It is a mystery where some of our 
agricultural exchanges get much of 
•the information (?) with which to 
stuff thieir "Bee Departments." The 
supply appears to be always ample and 
divei'sified. It must be machine made. 
A year or so ago one of the leading 
.ioumals in this line stated that slow 
cooling was the secret of bright yellow 
wax. Now, from this same popular 
source we get this equally brilliant 
"tip;" "The experiment of clipping 
the queen's wing to prevent swax-ming 
has been tried with only inditterent 
success." These are but samples of 
the apiarian wisdom usually employed 
upon the staff of our agricultural pub- 
lications and syndicate newspapei-s. 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



14^ 




PUBLISHED MONTHLY. 

THE W. T. FALCONER MANFG. Co. 

PROPRIETORS. 
H. E. HILL, - EDITOR, 

FORT PIERCE, FLA 



most disastrous year we have ever 
had, for tlie bees in the honey locali- 
ties are not securing enough honey to 
live on." On the other hand, a "hon- 
ey-man" from Los Angeles, who called 
upon a large Eastern dealer, June 
11th, assured him that no less than 75 
car loads of honey— 1904 crop— yet re- 
mained unsold in Southern California, 
upon that date. It's hard to believe 
that such a thing exists among "hon- 
ey-men," but it looks mightily as if 
there was a liar abroad in tiie laud 
somewhere. 



Terms. 

Fifty cents a year in advance; 2 copies 85 
cents; 3 copies $1.20; all to be sent to one 
postofiBce. 

Postage prepaid in the United States anc 
Canada; 10 cents extra to all countries in the 
postal union, and 20 cents extra to all other 
countries. 

Advertisine; Rates. 

Fifteen cents per line, 9 words; $2.00 per 
inch. Five per cent, discount for two inser- 
tions; seven per cent, for three insertions: 
twenty per cent, for twelve insertions. 

Advertisements wtast be received on or be- 
fore the 15th of each month to Insure inser- 
tion in the month following. 

Matters relating in any way to business- 
should invariably be addressed to 

THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 
• Falconer, N. Y. 

Articles for publication or letters exclusively 
for the editorial department may be addressed 
to H. E. Hill, 

Fort Pierce, Fla. 

Subscribers receiving their paper in blue 
wrapper^ will know that their subscription ex- 
pires with this number. We hope that you 
will not delay favoring us with a renewal. 

A red wrapper on your paper indicates that 
yau owe for your subscription. Please give 
the matter your earliest attention. 



Mr. George J. VandeVoi-d, Daytona, 
Fla., writes that he has had a most 
disastrous season. Has had over 300 
nuclei in operation and, since April 
15th, not five per cent, of his young 
queens have mated and begun to lay. 
He has had to decline numerous or- 
ders, and is returning money sent for 
queens. He states that his ad in our 
Directory has proved "a profitable or- 
der getter" for him. and asks that it 
be discontinued until he can locate 
more favorably. Like Mr. Vande 
Vord, we believe Florida to be one ot 
the most unfavorable countries in the 
United States for the rearing of 
queens. No better queens, of course, 
can be reared anywhere than in Flor- 
ida, but so many conditions conspire 
to render the work difficult that only 
those exceptionally well located can 
make a success of it. We have simi- 
lar complaints from other Florida 
breeders this season. 




There have been numerous reports 
of the sea.son's failure in Southern 
California, but the darkest picture of 
all comes from Secretary Brodbeck, of 
the National Association, to the 
American Bee .Journal, in which he 
says: "There will be no honey to 
speak of produced in Southem Cali- 
fornia this season, and, furthermore, 
now looks as if it will prove the 



The annual convention of the Na- 
tional Bee-Keepers' Associa.tion will 
be held in St. Louis, Mo., September 
27, 28, 29 and 30. The 27th and 28th 
will be "International Days," all foi-- 
eign bee-keepers to take part. The 
29th will be "National Association 
Day," and the 30th. "Inspectors' Day," 
the latter to be devoted to tlie dis- 
cussion of diseases of bees. General 
Manager France, writes that he is pre- 
paring a large map of the United 
States and Europe, and upon each 
State will be affixed one-pound glass 
bottles of the various kinds of honey 
produced in the respective States. A 
stenographic report of the convention 
will be taken and furnished in full to 
all members. Programme of the meet- 
ing will be Issued later. 



1 

I 



Saw palmetto, one of the chief 
sources of honey supply in South 



148 THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. July 

Florida, has failed entirely this sea- puts such honey on the marliet were 
son. This is another factor which the only one affected by it, it would 
should stimulate a more active market be less matter. But the whoie mar- 
in the East. ' ket is to some extent affected by it. 

The consumer who gets a sample of 

"THE IRISH BEE GUIDE " such honey is easily persuaded to be- 

Our sincere thanks are due the lieje that it is no longer possible to 
author, Rev. J. G. Digges, M. A., edi- P* ^'>^P^ ^^'""^ ^'^ pure or if he be- 
tor of the Irish Bee Journal, for a copy ^'^^f '\ P"/''^ ^ concludes that he is 
of the new apiarian work, "The Irish "^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ *^«°^y' '"^"^^ ^"^^ ^^^ care 
Bee Guide." The new volume con- ^^^' i^ore. 

tains 220 pages, very nicely printed, "What are the inducements In ex- 
and substantially bound in cloth. It tracting unripe honey? One is, that 
completelv covers the subiect of bee it saves labor to extract before the 
culture, which is treated in Dr. Digges' honey is sealed. But the mere saving 
pecuUarlv comprehensive and concise of the labor of uncapping would be 
style. The illustrations are numerous b"t a small inducement were it not for 
and of exceptional interest, being well the other and greater inducement of 
executed and each bearing a signifi- ^ larger quantity. To get just a little 
cant relation to the text Many of more honey by extracting before un- 
these illustrations are reproductions capping, some are wilUng to spoil the 
from the autlior's own photographs, future chances of themselves and oth- 
and the general air of originality ci's tor the sake of the present gain, 
which pervades the work is admirable "Now comes Editor Hill, of The 
in the extreme. American Bee-Keeper, backed by no 

The book is one which should find a less an authority than the veteran, 
place in every apiarian library in the o. O. Poppleton, saying there is noth- 
world. The numerous full-page por- ing gained in quantity by extracting 
traits of Ireland's beacon lights, are before ripening. Ninety per cent, of 
of especial interest to those who have the total evaporation occurs during 
read their pen production* so fre- the first night in the hive, and the 
quently in the European periodicals, further improvement is not so much 
while the original Halftones are not a matter of evaporation as a matter 
less noteworthy. We bespeak a Tvide of influence caused by the presence 
circulation for this recent acquisition of the bees, an influence subtle, but 
to a,piarian lore. positively known to every experienced.' 

apia-rist, whereby the honey slowly 

LET THE HONEY GET RIPE. but surely attains tJiat degree of 

The agricultural press, in general, ^^^^^^ a»*^ flavor that make the con- 
usually makes a mess of anything at- s"mer who samples it wish for more, 
tempted in the line of apiarian discus- "The experiment stations would be 
sions, but the following, from the doing good ser^ace if they would de^ 
Florida Farmer and Fruit Grower, is ^ide for us just how much can be 
a rare exception to this rule, and the ojained in weight by extracting un- 
comment and suggestions are so ex- npe honev. but a little thinking) 
cellent that we have pleasure in re- ought to convince anyone that the' 
printing it in the American Bee- amount must be vei-y small compared! 
Keeper: with the lai-ge amount of mischief 

"One of the things— in many caises caused by placiHg such honev on the 

it may \k> said the thing— that have market. On any good honey day, take 

don* more than all else to injure the out a brood-comb and you can shake 

sale of extracted honey, is the putting on* easily the nectar — not honey— 

up(m the market of honey that i,s not therein contained; but go the next day 

well ripened. Such honey does not before the bees have had any time to 

improve in quality after it leaves the do any gathering and no nectar will 

hands of the pi-oducer; generally, if be found. It can hardly be too strong- 

not always, it deteriorates, sometimes ly emphasized, that the gaia to the 

so much that tJhe producer would not man who puts unripe honey on the 

recognlEe it as the honey he extracted, market, if in any .sense a gain at all. 

It becomes ihin, inclined to .sour, is overbalanced by the resulting loss 

with a flavor so vile that it is not fit to himself, besides doing au irrepara- 

to put on the tabl«. If the one who ble mischief to ail other producers." 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



149 



THE ORANGE BLOSSOM AS A 
HONEY PRODUCER. 

The idea seems to prevail among the 
inexperienced that the orange blossom 
is an important factor in swelling the 
honey crops of producers located in 
orange-growing sections. Every year 
we receive letters which prove this 
fact. The orange blossom is so beau- 
tiful and fragrant that it is univer- 
sally admired, and the bees join hu- 
manity in this universal admiration. 
However, there appeared to be such 
a diversity of opinion in regard to its 
nectar-yielding merits that we (jecided 
to consult expert and experienced per- 
sons in regard to the question, and 
the result has been that much space 
this month was devoted to discussing 
the question. 

But once in his life has the editor of 
The Bee-Keeper been permitted to siee 
and taste a sample said to be pure 
orange blossom honey. Tliis was a 
number of years ago, in Southern Cal- 
ifornia; and the said sample was not 
white honey. It was a light amber, 
with a flavor actually suggestive of 
the fragrance of the orange blossom, 
with which he had for years been 
familiar. It is doubtful if there lives 
today a man who is better qualified 
to speak upon this subject than Mr. 
W. S. Hart, whose article we publish 
in this number, ilr. Hart is not only 
one of our most progressive and suc- 
cessful apiai'ists, but is eminently In 
the front rank of America's orange 
growers, and his article is therefore 
considered exceptionally meritorious 
in this connection. 

We hare heard of large crops of 
orange blossom honey, and have read 
of the immensity of the flows during 
the period of orange bloom, but just 
what the producers do with these 
great harvests is not know^ to us. 
Orange blossom honey has certainly 
never achieved prominence as a com- 
mercial commodity, and, from our 
limited experience in ora,nge growing 
sections, we should regard it as an 
unimportant source of honey. We 
should be much pleased to be able to 
secure a one-pound sample of this 
honey, for exhibtion at St. Louis, but 
very much doubt our ability to get so 
much as one pound. 

The excellence of this product seems 
to be generally conceded, but Mr. O. O. 
Poppleton advises us that personally 
be finds a disagreeable taste lurking 
in the mouth soon after having eaten 



it. This is the first and only instance 
in which we have had an imfavorable 
report in this direction. 

In conclusion we would say to those 
who contemplate moving to the or- 
ange gi'oves of Florida or California, 
in order to avail themselves of the 
bountiful harvests of honey from this 
source, Don't do it! If you are in a 
maple or elm locality, we think you 
have a fair equfvalent for orange blos- 
som. ■ 

THE LATE DEACON HARD- 
SCRABBLE. 

Many of our readers have wi-itten to 
express their regret for the loss of 
our late correspondent. Deacon Hard- 
scrabble. In fact, we have been 
somewhat surprised to learn of the 
deep-rooted affection held by many ot 
our readers for the Deacon. Several 
complimentai*y press notices have 
also appeared in other journals. The 
Rural Bee-Keeper says: 

"Deacon Hardscrabble, a humorous 
and sarcastic writer for the American 
Bee-Keeper, is dead. By his death the 
bee-keepers of the country have sus- 
tained a great loss. He was one 
among the soundest writers to any of 
our bee journals." 

Gleanings in Bee Culture expresses 
its regard for the departed Deacon in 
this wise: 

"A prominent featui:e of the Ameri- 
can Bee-Keeper for a long time has 
been the articles of Deacon Hard- 
scrabble. Although Uncle John fre- 
quently dipped his pen in sulphuric 
acid, and more frequently fired his 
gun toward those who might be con- 
sidered his friends than towards his 
enemies, he scored a good many fine 
points. He has gone the way of all 
the earth, dying Jan. 27. A good photo 
of him appears in said journal for 
April." 

We, too, are inclined to regard it as 
a calamity tha* the Deacoii should 
have been cut down in the very hay- 
day, so to speak, of his terrestrial use- 
fulness, for it did seem that the effort 
and chief desii^e of his life were to 
effect a reformation in beedom; and 
since his demise, as we tear the wrap- 
pers from our exchanges by the dim 
light of our lonely sanctum, there is 
sometimes what may be described as 
an undescribable turbulence about 
the dark corners of our nocturnal re- 
treat, as if Uncle John were vainly 
struggling to impart some important 
criticism. 



I 



130 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



July 



Now, we are no spiritualist, and are 
therefore at sea as to a method of 
relief; but are deeply impressed with 
a thought that since Uncle John's de- 
parture a number of things have ac- 
cumulated Avhich are regarded as 
needing attention; and we have there- 
fore called into requisition the sei'- 
vices of a mediumistic friend, who, 
it is hoped, will be able to clear up the 
mystery of these manifestations. We 
have also set a number of cameras 
about the office in such a way, and so 
equipped, tliat we may be able to illus- 
trate any phenomenal message which 
Uncle John may succeed in transmit- 
ting to The Bee-Keeper. 

This is rather an unusual departure 
in bee journalism, and a venture which 
is not unattended with difficulties to 
one unskilled in the intricacies of 
spiritualism; but through these efforts 
we seek relief from such disquieting 
conditions when concentration of 
thought upon our editorial work is so 
important. What the outcome shall 
be, our readers will learn. We only 
hope Uncle John will spare us any 
weird tales of bee-keepers he has re- 
cently met, and confine himself to this 
mundane sphere. 



THE OLD WILEY PLEASANTRY. 

The Ladies' Home .Journal, one of 
the most widely circulated and influ- 
ential home magazines in the English 
language, publishes in its June issue a 
two-column article contributed by Em- 
ma E. Walker, M. D.. entitled "Is 
Candy-Eating Hamiful for Girls? ' 
Dr. Walker treats her subject in a 
manner to convince the reader that he 
is following one eminently qualified to 
speak; but when a bee-keeper of the 
twentieth century comes to the follow- 
ing paragraphs his faith in the writer's 
wisdom drops below zero. Listen to 
Emma E. Walker. M.D.: 

"One of the causes of indigestion 
from candy-eating is an adulterant 
that is sometimes employed — paraffin. 
This is especially used in caramels in 
order to make them cut well wuen 
poured out of lue mold, and it is some- 
times formd in old-fashioned molasses 
candy. A most ingenious use to which 
paraffin has been put in America has 
been the manufacture of artificial 
honeycomb. It duplicates the natural 
conilis remarkably well; the little cells 
are then filled with glucose slightly 
•flavored to give the honey taste, and 



the artificial product is ready for use. 
This is not harmful, but it is not hon- 
ey. Paraffin is not poison, but it is an 
adulterant, and taken into the stomach 
it is indigestible." 

To the toiling bee-Keeper whose ev- 
ery energy for years has been bent to 
produce and market a pure, whole- 
some article, educate the fraternity in 
the science of producing and handling 
rich, thick, delicious honey, and con- 
tributing to a national fund the chief 
purpose of which is prosecuting those 
who adulterate liquid honey, is it not 
enough to bring drops of sweat to his 
brow to read this hoarj' canard now 
in the columns of a magazine tJie read- 
ers of which are numbered by the hun- 
dreds of thousa,nds? The damage to 
honey producing interests of America 
alone, by the publication of this sin- 
gle paragraph cannot be computed, 
but it is enormous; and it is the obvi- 
ous duty of every bee-keeper, every- 
where, to lend his aid in securing re- 
dress for the Injury thereby sustained, 
by writing the editor of the Ladies' 
Home Journal, Philadelphia, Pa., ask- 
ing the editor to be kind enough to 
assist us in undoing the wrong by 
stating the truth of the matter to his 
numerous readers. It will require a 
very urgent demand to secure such a 
retraction, for the editors of such 
publications are loth to acknowledge 
errors committed by the journals over 
Avhlch they preside. However, about 
ten thousand letters from bee-keepers 
may have the desired effect. We trust 
the reader will promptly contribute 
his mite by writing an urgent but re- 
spectful letter at once. 

Below we submit a letter just re- 
ceived in response to a very urgent 
appeal which we wrote to the Ladies' 
Home Journal upon reading the fore- 
going paragraph in its columns: 

Philadelphia, June 17, 1904. 
Dear Sir: 

We regret that you feel disturbed by 
a blunder which appears to have been 
made by Dr. Walker in her reference 
to adulterated honey. We shall for- 
ward your letter to her, and quite 
likely she may be moved to make 
some reply directly to you. 
Very truly yours. 
Wm. V. Alexander, 

Managing Editor. 

Now, in the name of all that is good 
and great, in this world and elsewhere, 
what good Avill it do if Dr. Walker 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEF-: I'E^:. 



151 



should condesceml to "make some re- 
pjy directly" totlie editor of Tlae Bee- 
Keeper; or, indeed, if she should 
write personally to each of the 400,000 
bee-keepers in the United States? 
What we want is that readers of the 
Ladies' Home Journal be informed 
that artificial comb honey is not and 
never was in existence. The Ladies' 
Home Journal has told its readers that 
artificial comb honey is made, and it 
is its obvious duty to take it back, if 
it cares to sustain a reputation for re- 
liability. If it is honest, and desires 
to deal honestly with its patrons, it 
will not hesitate to make an open 
Statement of the truth; but it devolves 
upon the bee-keepers to impress this 
truth upon the editor of the offending 
periodical. The statement is libelous 
and extremely damaging to an im- 
portant industry, and the case is sutli- 
ciently imporatnt to be taken in hand 
by the National Bee-Keepers' Associa- 
tion. As an initiatory step, .each and 
every officer of the Association should 
write a strong letter to the Ladies' 
Home Journal. If this shonld fail to 
elicit the desired retraction, proceed- 
ings of a more formal character might 
be considered. However, the readers 
of the Ladies' Home Journal must not 
be left to believe this falsehood, and it 
is up to the bee-keepers to consider 
how the evil may best be dealt with. 



ANTICIPATED SWARMING. 

On page 113 of The Bee-Keeper for 
June was published an article on "An- 
ticipated Swarming," from tiie pen of 
Mr. Adrian Getaz. This the American 
Bee Journal has reproduced, with the 
suggestion that it might be worth con- 
sidering. The Journal also calls at- 
tention to one point which may possi- 
bly appear obscure to some readers, 
as follows: 

"Mr. Getaz says of hive No. 2, 'The 
absence of its queen during the eight 
days that the brood nests were ex- 
changed, has killed the .swarming 
fever completely.' According to the 
description, the queen has not been 
absent from the hive at all, but the 
removal of the colony to stand No. 3 
has deprived it of its flying force, and 
I that continued for eight days would 
[certainly destroy all impulse to swarm. 
The queen, however, will continue 
I laying without interruption, and when 
iBetumed to stand No. 2 the colony will 
I be as strong as ever. Is it not likely 



that in many cases it will then decide 
to swarm?" 

We think it will be i-eadily under- 
stood that while in realit3f the queen 
has not been absent from hive No. 2, 
she has been absent from the working 
force during the period of occupancy 
upon stand No. 3; and it is, doubtless, 
this interruption the influence of 
which is supposed to allay the swarn.- 
iug inclination. 

Theorizing in .such matters is all 
right as far as it goes, but it does not 
go very far. If the plan has proven 
successful by practical demonstration, 
those interested are at .x^erty to test 
its merits in their own practice, and 
personal opinions a,s to what may be 
tue outcome are utterly valueless. 



MR. THEILMANN DEAD. 
In the June edition of The Bee- 
Keeper was published an article on 
the "Prevention of Increase," by Mr. 
C. Theilmann, together with a portrait 
of the venerable author. The article 
was written last August, and was 
held until this year for publication in 
oi-der that it migiit be more season- 
able. When sending in the contribu- 
tion, Mr. Theilmann, in a personal let- 
ter to the editor, said: "This will 
probably be the last article I shall 
ever write for publication." After 
holding his article for nearly a year, 
it is rather a noteworthy coincidence 
that upon May 30, the very day that 
the June edition was being wrapped 
for mailing — the edition in which ap- 
peared his article and portrait — Mr. 
Theilmann bid adieu to this "vale of 
tears." The apiarian fraternity, 
through the death of Mr. Theilmann, 
has lost a worthy and highly esteemed 
member, and The American Bee- 
Keeper mourns the loss of a true 
friend. 



Doubtless many bee-keepers will 
have become discouraged as a result 
of the heavy losses of last winter, and 
therefore discontinue the business. 
The time to stick, and stick fast, to 
any business is when others are with- 
drawing. Such a general decrease in 
the producing capacity of the coun- 
try will have a reaction favorable to 
those still holding on and increasing 
their capacity for production. 



When writing to advertisers mention 
The American Bee-Keeper. 



An able and experienced bee-keeper 
in Massachusetts writes: "I consider 
The Bee-Keeper first-class, and look 
forward to its coming each month 
with much interest." That appears 
to be the general consensus, and is 
very gratifying to the publishers and 
editor. 



A letter from Editor Putnam, of the 
Rural Bee-Keeper, River Falls, Wis., 
under date of June 9, says: "White 
clover honey bids fair to be a good 
crop this season. Bees are building 
up fine and clover is looking well." 
We trust the fondest hopes of the Wis- 
consin boys may be realized. 



Sunshine 



is gaining ad- 
miration as a 
fjopular litera- 
ry family 

^-^-^^~"^^^"^^ MAGAZINE. 
It entertains its readers -with good short stor- 
ies, sketches and poems by the most famous 
authors of the day and is a magazine of supe- 
rior merit. 

It is a welcome visitor in every home. 

Price 25 cents a year. 

We ^vish to haye our magazine in your 
vicinity and as a special offer for new readers 
we will send you 

Sunshine for 1 Year for lOc. 

Think of it. less than one cent a copy. Can't 
you act as our agent ? 

ADD. MAYES PUB. CO., 
LOUISVILLE, = KENTUCKY. 



Clubbing Offers 

Here Is a Sample: 

Modern Farmer $ .50 

Western Fruit Grower 50 

Poultry Gazette 25 

Gleanings in Bee Culture 1.00 

$2.25 
All One Year for only $1.00. 

Write for others just as good, or bet- 
ter. 

SAMPLE FREE. 

New subscribers can have the Amer- 
can Bee Journal in place of Gleanings, 
if they wish, or all for $1.60. Renew- 
als to A. B. J. add 40c. more. 

MODERN FARMER, 

The Clean Farm Paper 
St. Joseph, Mo. 



3 and 5=Banded Italian 
and Carniolan Queens. 

Say friends, you who have support* 
ed us during the past season, w< 
desire to express our thanks foi 
your patronage in the past, anc 
respectfully solicit a continuance o) 
your valued favors through the seai 
son of 1904, 
Our queens now stand upon theb 
merits and foi*mer record. We an 
preparing for next season, and seeb 
ing the patronage of large apiaristJ 
and dealers. We do not claim tha 
our queens are superior to all otb 
ers, but that they are as good ai 
the best. We will furnish from om 
to a thousand at the followinj 
prices: "''^sted of either race, $1 
one unte d, 75c., 5 for $3.25, 1 
for $G, 15 for $8.25, 25 for $12.50, 5 
for $23.50, 100 for $45. 
For descriptive circulars address, 

JOHN W. PHARR, Prop., 

New Century Queen Rearing Co., Bei 
Clair, Goliad Co., Texas. 



IF YOU 

WANT TO GROW 

Vegetables, Fruits and Farm 
Products in Florida subscribe 
for the FLORIDA AQRICUL= 
JURIST. Sample copy sent 
on application. 



E.O. Painter Pub. Co. I 



JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA. 




BEWARE 

WHERE YOU BUY YOUR 

BEEWARE 



i 



J^ 



WATER TOWN, 



WIS! 



MAKES THE FINEST 



G. B. LEWIS ik CO. 
Watertown, Wis. 



Send fc 
Catalof 




ONE-HALr INCH SPACE ONE YEAR ON THIS PAGE, $3.00. 



■HE A. I. ROOT CO.. MEDi.>A, OHIO. 
Breeders of Italian bees and queens. 



^ UEENS from Jamaica any day in the 
i^ year Untested, 66c.; tested, $1.00; se- 
ct tested, $1.50. Our queens are reared from 
very finest strains. Geo. W. Phillips, Sav- 
■Mar P O., Jamaica, W. I. (5-5) 



AWRENCE C. MILLER, BOX 1113, PROVI- 
DENCE, R. I., is tilling orders for the popu- 
hardy, honey-getting rrovidence strain of 

leens. Write for free information. 



H. W. WEBER, CINCINNATI, OHIO 

(Cor. Central and Freeman Aves.) 

)lden yellow, Red Clover and Carniolan 

eens, bred from select mothers in separate 

iaries. 



)HN M. DAVIS, SPRING HILL. TENN.. 

sends out the choicest 3-banded and gold 

Italian queens that skill and experience 

produce. Satisfaction guaranteed. No 

ease. 



UIRIN, the Queen Breeder, has an ex- 
ceptionally hardy strain of Italian bees; 
wintered on their summer stands within 
ew miles of bleak Lake Erie. Send for 
« Circular. BelleVue, Ohio. (5-5) 



J. DAVIS. Jr., YOUNGSVILLE, PA., breed- 
•_ er of Choice Italian Bees and Queens. 
Jity, not quantity, is my motto. ~ 



C WARTHMORE APIARIES, SWARTH- 
'-' MORE, PA. Our bees and queens are 
the brightest Italians procurable. Satisfaction 
guaranteed. Correspondence in English, 
French, German and Spanish. Shipments to 
all parts of the world. 



C LONE BEE CO., SLONE; LOUISIANA. 
"-^ Fine Golden Queens. Leather-Colared 
Italians and Holy Lands. Prices low. 



QUEEN BEES are now ready to mail. 
Golden Italians, Red Clover three-banded 
queens and Camiolans. We guarantee safe 
arrival The Fred W. Muth Co., 51 Walnut 
St., Cincinnati, Ohio. (5-5) 



w. 



Z. HUTCHINSON, FLINT, MICH. 
Superior stock queens, $1.50 each; 
queen and Bee-Keepers' Review one year for 
only $2.00. 



m 



CORE'S LONG-TONGUED STRAIN 
of Italians become more and more popu- 
lar each year. Those who have tested them 
know why. Descriptive circular free to all. 
Write J. P. Moore, L. Box 1, Morgan, Ky. 4 



'rHE HONEY AND BEE COMPANY. 
1 BEEVILLE, TEXAS. Holy Land, Car- 
niolan, Cyprian, Albino and 3 and 5-banded 
Italian queens. Write for our low prices. 
Satisfaction guaranteed. 



pUNIC BEES. All other races are dis- 

• carded after trial of these wonderful bees, 

r'articulars post free. John Hewitt & Co., 
Sheffield, England. 4 



;^"Lrnder this heading will be inserted, for reliable dealers, two lines one 
year for $1.25. Additional words, 12c a word. No announcement can 
be accepted for less than one year at these rates. „^ 



OHIO. 



C. H. W. WEBER, Freeman and Central 
Aves., Cincinnati, Ohio. If for sale, mail 
sample, and state price expected delivered 
in Cincinnati. If in want, write lor prices. 
and state quality and quantity wanted. 

(5-5) 



We are always in the marktt for extracted 
honey, as we sell unlimited quantities. Send 
us a sample and your best price delivered 
here. THE FRED W. MUTH CO., 51 
Walnut St., Cincinnati, Ohio. (5-5) 



COLORADO. 



THE COLORADO HONEY PRODUCEl 
ASS'N, 1440 Market St., Denver, Colo. 



ILLINOIS. 



R. A. BURNETT & CO., 199 South W< 
Street, Chicago. (5-; 



HONEY AND BEESWAX 
MARKET. 

Denver, Colo., June 11. — The supply of ex- 
tracted honey is plentiful, with slow demana. 
We quote today as follows: Xo. 1 white, per 
case of 24 sections, $2.75. Extracted, in a 
local way, 7 to 7H cents. Beeswax. 22 to 2S 
cents. Arrival of small fruits has depressing 
effect on honey market. We are cleared up 
on comb honey. 

Colorado Honey Producers' Assn., 

1440 Market Street. 



Kansas City, Mo, June 10. — The supply of 
honey is very limited, with steady demand. 
New honey has not begun to arrive yet, and 
we look for the market to remain in its pres- 
ent condition for awhile. We quote our mar- 
ket today as follows: Comb, $2.25 to $3.00 
per case. Extracted, dull. Beeswax, 30 cents. 
C. C. demons & Co. 

Chicago, May 9. — The market has an over- 
supply of comb honey, very little of which 
will pass as No. 1 grade. Price is 11 to 12 
cents per pound, and off grades at a corre^ 
sponding value. Extracted, S to 7 cents per 
pound for best grades of white; amber colors, 
5 to 6 cents per pound. Beeswax, 30 cents 
per pound. 

R. A. Burnett & Co., 

199 South Water Street. 



New York, May 17. — Comb honey very 
(Juiet and dark grades or anything but fancy 
is in no demand. The supply of honey is 
large. We quote our market today as fol- 
lows: Fancy comb, 13c.; No. 1, i2c. ; am- 
ber, 10c. Extracted, white, 6^2-. , amber, 5 to 
5V^c. Beeswax, 30c. 

Hiidreth & Segelken. 



Cincinnati, Ohio, June 15. — The demand , 
honey is slow for this season of the y 
which is due to the vast quantities that 
held over from last season, and the impc 
tion of Cuban honey. We quote amber, 
barrels and cans, at 5J^4 to V/i cents. W 
clover, 6^/^ to 8 cents. Beeswax, 30 cents 
The Fred W. Muth Co., 

No. 51 Walnut Stre(, 



Dublin, Ireland, June 8. — Old crop 
cleared up. No new stock offering yet. 

O. & R. Fry 



Cent=a=Word Colum 



"INCREASE" is the title of a little b 
let by Swarthmore; tells how to make 
winter losses without much labor and i 
out breaking up full colonies; entirely 
plan. 25 cents. Prospectus free, 
dress E. L. Pratt, Swarthmore, Pa. 



Buffalo, May 16. — Fruit hurts the sale of all 
grades of honey and we cannot encourage 
shipments here unless shinpers want their 
honey sold low. The supply is moderate and 
the demand very light. We quote as follows 
today: Comb, 7 to 12c., as to quality. Ex- 
tracted, 5 to 8c. Beeswax, 28 to 32c. 

Batterson & Co. 

Matanzas, Cuba, May 26. — Old crop is about 
all sold. Last sales were at 26 cents a gallon ; 
one cent additional for each gallon in casks. 
Beeswax is quoted at $31.25, Spanish gold, per 

cwt. ■, if 



FOR SALE— A Hawkeye, Jr., Camera c 
plete. Uses both film and plates. Cost $ 
will sell with leather case for J-'?.50 c 
Address Empire Washer Co., Falconer,* 
Y. 



A TANDEM BICYCLE (for man and 1: 
cost J150, in first-class condition, was bui 
order for the owner. Tires new. \\i\\ 
for ^25 cash. Satisfaction guaranteed, 
dress J. Clayborne Merrill, 130 Lakev f^ 
ave., Jamestown, N. Y. 

AGENTS WANTED to sell advertising 
ties, good commission allowed. Send 
catalogue and terms. American Mam I 
turing Concern, Jamestown, N. Y. 



WANTED — To exchange six-month's 
subscription to The American Bee-Ke I 
for 20 cents in postage stamps. Add,! 
Bee-Keeper, Falconer, N. Y. 



LEOTA APIARY.— Pure honey for sail 
all times. Thos. Worthington, L^ 
Miss. <« 



The Pacific States Bee Journal 
AND THE 

Kocky Mountain Bee Journal 

Have been consolidated, and 
will hereafter be published as 
one journal under the name. 

WESTERN BEE JOURNAL 

The new publication will be 
larger and better than either of 
its predecessors, and its pub- 
lisher will make every effort to 
make it the best bee journal 
published anywhere. It is pub- 
lished in the west, where the 
largest apiaries in the world are 
located, and is therefore most in 
touch with what is best and 
most practical in beetlom. 

Write for free Sample copy. 

Subscription $1.00 per annum. 

P. F. ADELSBACH, 

I Editor and Publisher, 

HANFORD, CALIFORNIA 



National Bee^Keepers' Association, 

The largest bee-keepers' society in the 
orld. 

Organized to protect and promote the 
iterests of its members. 

Memb ership Fee, $1.00 a Year. 

<. E.FRANCE, Platteville, Wis., 

General Manager and Treasurer. 



.■jH<|<J)V(yJl tuaJlLjiiil uNlfc^iUjKJ^ityjt^A^nt ^^t^^^^^A^A^li^ ^^^J^j^t^iyl^^^^ 

D Subscription Agencies. C 

J Subscinptions for the Ameri- ^ 

3 can Bee-Keeper may be entered © 

3 through any of the following C 

3 ag'ents, when more convenient © 

I than remitting to our offices at i^ 

I Fort Pierce, Florida, or James- $ 

I town, N. Y.: © 

J. E. Jonhson, Williamsfield, c 

:ii. I 

The Fred W. Muth Company, g 

51 Walnut St., Cincinnati, Ohio. C 

John W. Pharr, Berclair, Tex. ^ 

Miss S. Swan, Port Burwell, © 

Ontario. ^ 



\ 



1 3 G. A. Nunez, Stann Creek, C 

I 2 British Honduras. £ 

ij Walter T. Mills, Burnham, N. © 

^ Rochester, Kent Co., Iran House, © 

1 England. © 
3 G. J. S. Small, Marton, Wang- © 
3 anui, New Zealand. S 
5 H. H. Robinson, Independeucia © 

2 16, Matanzas, Cuba. ^ 
5 Colorado Honey Producers' © 
I Association. 1440 Market St., © 

3 Denver, Colo. © 




A Boon 
For 



PoiiltrjKeerBB 



How we make our bens pay 400 
per cent, profit, new system, our 
own method, fully explained in 
our Illustrated Poultry Book, which contains 
Poultry Keepers' Acc't and Eag Record showing 
K^lns or losses e verj- month for one year. Worth 35 
cts, sent to you for lOc. If you wUl send names of 5 
mltry keepers with your order; Address, 

VlBliERT. P.B. 56. ClintonTille. Conn 



r 



CASH FOR YOl 



The American Bee-Keeper is in the market to buy arti- 
cles on bee-keeping subjects. Articles with photographs 
to illustrate are especially desired. We will pay well for 
good work. We want reporters in all parts of the world. 
Give us an opportunity to bid on your pen productions 
and the results of your photographic skill. Address, 

THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 

Fort Pierce, Fla. 



special Notice to Bee=kcepcrs! ^ 

BOSTON 

MoBcy in Bees for You. 
Catalog Price on 

ROOT^S SUPPLIES 1 

Catalog for the Asking. tj 



F. H. Farmer, 182 Friend St., § 
Boston, Mass. i^ 

L Up First Flight. ^ 




P ROVIDENCE QUEERS 
ROVE THEIR (JOALITEIS 

TO BE 

UNEXCELLED 

Head your colonies with them. 
Use them to invigorate your stock. 
They will increase your profits. 
Produced by many years of careful 
breeding. A circular will be sent 
on request. 

LAWRENCE C. MILLER, 
P. O.Box 1113. Providence, R. I. 

Put Your Trust in Providence Queens 



20 per cent. Profit 

Pineapples, Oranges, Grape Fruit 

Make a Specialty for Non-Resident Owners 
and Intending Settlers in the 

Lovely Lake Region of South Florida. 

20 er cent, annual return on investment. 

Pure air, pure water, no mosquitoes. High 
pine and oak land, bordered by fresh water 
lakes, suited to all citrus fruits and pineapples. 
Good title. Time payments. Address for de- 
scriptive matter, W. E. Pabor, Manager Pa- 
bor Lake Pineries, Avon Park, Fla. tf 



mmm 



CAVEATS, TRADE MARKS, 

COPYRIGHTS AND DESIGNS.) 

' Send your business direct to 'Washington, < 
saves time, costs less, better service, J 

My ofSce close to U. 3. Patent Office. FREE preUmln- ( 
• ary examinaMonB made. Atty's fee not due until patent ( 
> is secured. PERSONAL ATTENTION GIVEN-19 YEARS t 
' ACTUAL EXPERIENCE. Book "How to obtain Patents," i' 
[etc., sent free. Patents procured through E. G. Siggen' 
I receive special notice, without charge, in the J 

INVENTIVE AGE; 

[illustrated monthly— Eleventh year— terms, $1. a year. 

iE.G.8IGGERS,rs„^,«=jTbi?.o«'i: 



H. K 



If, BIKGHAI 

J has made all the Im, 
provemeiits ii 

Bee Smokers anc 
Honey Knives 

made in ilie last 20 years, undoubted!) 
he makes the best on earth. 

Smoke Engine, 4 inch stove, none too largt, sen 

postpaid, per mail $1.5 

3^ inch 1.1 

Knife, 80 cents. 3 inch 1.0. 

2!^ inch 9 

r. F.Bingham, ^'"^''wy v:" 'l 

_ ., .«, ^ Lattle Wonder, 2 in. .6 

Farwell, Mich. 

Patent Wired Comb Foandatlon 

has no sag^ in brood frames 

Thin Flat Bottom FouodatiOB 

has no Fish-bone in Surplus Honey 
Being the cleanest is usually worked th f 
quickest of any foundation made. The tal 
about wiring frames seems absurd. We furnisl ' 
a Wired Foundation that is Better, Cheape 
and not half the trouble to use that it is t' ' 
wire brood frames. 
Circulars and sample free. 

J. VAN DEUSEN A SONS, 

Sole Manufacturers 
Montgomery Co., Sprout Brook, N. Yl 



1. J. STRINQHAM, 105 Park PI., N. Y. City 

Keeps a full stock of hives, sections, and smokers— in factt 
everything a bee-keeper uses. 



Colonies of Italian Bees, in shipping boxes, 
3 fr, nuc. col. 

Unt. Italian Queens, _ _ - 

Tested Italian Queens, - - - 

Apiaries. Glen Cove, L. I. 



$5.75 

3.75 

.85 

J. 00 

Catalog free. 



HE ONLY GERMAN AGRICULTIRAL MONTN- 
Y IN THE UNITED STATES Jtjtjltjtjtjijltjlt 

^ARM UND HAUS 

The most carefully edited German 
•agricultural journal. It is brimful of 
iractical information and useful hints 
or the up-to-date farmer; devoted to 
tock raising, general farming, garden- 
ig, poultry, bee-keeping, etc., and con- 
ains a department for the household, 
jhich. many find valuable. Another de- 
artment giving valuable receipts and 
emedies called "Hasarzt," in fact every 
umber contains articles of real prac- 

cal use. 

Price only 35 CENTS per year. Sarn- 
ie copy free. 

Send subscriptions to, 

'ARM UND HAUS 

tf- BLUFFTON, OHIO. 


Are You Looking for a Home? 

No farmer should think of buying land 
before seeing a copy of THE FARM AND 
REAL ESTATE JOURNAL. It contains 
the largest list of lands for sale of any 
paper published in Iowa. Reaches 30,000 
readers each issue, and is one of the best 
advertising mediums to reach the farmers 
and the Home-Seekers that you can ad- 
vertise in. For 75e. we will mail you the 
Journal for 1 year, or for ten cents in 
silver or stamps we will send you the 
Journal 2 months on trial. Address, 

Farm and Real Estate Journal, 

TRAEB, TAMA CO., IOWA. 
10-tf. 




Strawberries. 




Attica Lithia Springs Hotel 

Lithia-Sulpbur Water aud Mud Baths 


Young, healthy, fresh, vigor- 
ous stock in prime condition for 
spring planting. 

All 

Leading 

Varieties 

Write for prices and terms. 

MONROE STRAWBERRY CO., 

Box 66 MONROE, MICH. 


Nature's Own Great Cure for 

...RHEUMATISM.... 

and Kindred Diseases, sach as Liver 
aod kidaey Complaiats, Slcin aU 
BIcod Biseaies. Coastipation, Nerroni 
Proftratlon, etc. 

A new and up-to-dat« hotel. Large, airy 
ight and finely furnished rooms, with Steam 
aeat, hiectric Lights, Hot and Cold Water 
m eaeh floor. Rates including Room, Board, 
Vlud Baths, Lithia-Sulphur Wuter Baths and 
(ledical Aitead-ince (no extras) J2.50 and 
13.00 a day, acsording to room. 

WRITE FOU BOOKLET. 

Address Box 3, 

j tf Lithia Springs Hotel, Attica, Ind. 



Headquarters for Bee Supplies 

ROOT'S GOODS AT ROOT'S FACTORY PRICES. 

Complete stock for 1904 now on hand. Freight rates from Cincinnati are 
be lowest. Prompt service ie what I practice. Satisfaction guaranteed, 
iangstroth Portico Hives and Standard Honey-Jars at lowest prie-^s. 

You will save money buying from me. Catalog mailed free. Send for 
ame. 

QUEENS NOW READY TO SUPPLY BY RETURN MAIL 

foklen Italians, Red Clover and Garni olan Queens; untested during June 
I— 7SC 6— $4.00 i3"-$7.50 

C. H. W. WEBER 

•Bee and Salesrooms 2146-48 Central Ave. 
arehouses— Freeman and Central Aves. 



CINCINNATI, OHIO. 



La Compania 
Manufacturera Americana 

ofrece los mas reducidos prccios en to- 
da clase de articulos para Apicultorcs. 
Nucstra Fabrica cs una de las mis 
grandes y mas antiguas de America. 
Especialidad en Colmenas, Ahumadorcs 
para Colmenas, Extractores, etc. In 
ventores y perfeccionadores de muchos 
articulos de suma utilidad en la Apicul- 
tura. Enviamos gratis nuestro catalogo 
y precios a quicnes lo soliciten. Dirija- 

°^* *THE AMERICAN MFG. CO., 

Jamestown, N. Y., E. U. A- 



^e^fc 



The only strictly agricultural 
paper published in this State. The 
only agricultural paper published 
every week. It goes to every post 
office in State of Tennessee and to 
many offices in Kentucky, Alabama, 
Georgia, Mississippi, Arkansas, 
Texas, Florida and Louisiana. It 
is the official organ of the Agricul- 
tural Department of Tennessee and 
Live Stock Commission. Subscrip- 
tion $1 per year in advance. 

Tennessee Fanner Pub. Co., 
•tt Nashville, Tenn. 



The Eecord. 

The Oldest and Leading Belgian 
Hare Journal of America and 
England. 

R. J. FiNLEY, Editor and Publisher, 

The only journal having 
an English Belgian Hare 
Department. 

One copy worth the yearly 
subscription. 

If interestea, aon't fail to 
send 2-cent stamp for sample 
copy at once. Address, 



tf. 



R. J. FINLEY, 

MACON , MO. 



I To Subscribers of 

I THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 

I And Others! 

I Until Further Notice 

1 We Will Send The 



BEGINNERS. 

sbon.d h»Te » copy of 

The Amateur Bee-keeper, 

a 70 page book, by Prof. J. W. RouBe; writte» m- 
pecially lor amateurs. Second •dition ju«t •»' 
First ©dition of 1,000 sold in less tha* two year* 
Editor York says: "It U the finest little book pub- 
lished at the present time." Price 24 oenU; by 
Bail 28 cents. The little book and 

The Progressive Bee-keeper, 

(a lire. pro(cre»«iTe, 28 page monthly journal,) one 
year lor 65c. Apply to any first-claas dealer, •r 
address 

LEAHY MFG- CO., Hit gimiTiu., m.. 



Country 
Journal 



to any address in the U. S. A. one 

I year for 10 cents, providing you 
_ mention American Bee-Keeper. 

The Country Journal treats on 
Farm, Orchard and Garden, Poul- 
try and Fashion. It's the best pa- 
per printed for the price. 
Address 

The Country Journal, 

Allentown, Pa. 
2tf 



W. B. VATJGHAN 

NEWBURGH, N. Y. 

Agent for The W. T. Falconer Mfg 

Go's. 

BEE=KEEPERS' SUPPLIES. 

Jy-4 Catalogue free. 



AGENTS Wanted "waThTng Machines. 

You can double your money every time you sell one 

and they sell easily. We have sold over 150,000 in the last fourteen years. They 
ail' cheaper than C'er. Catalogue Free. 

The Empire Washer Co., JamQstown, N.Y. 




The Tow a 

Horticultural 

Paper. 

Monthly, 
50 cents 
per year. 

It is unique, 
])lanned on 
original lines. 

You cannot 
be up-to-date 
II fruit growing unless you read it. 

Balance of this year free to new 
ubscribers. 

THE FRUITMAN, 

Mt. Vernon, Iowa. 



PATEHTS 



promptlj obtained OR HO FEE. Trade-Marks, 
Caveats, Copyrights and Label* registered. 
TWENTT TEARS' PRACTICE. Highest references. 
Send model, sketch or photo, for free report 
on patentability. All business confidential. 
HAND-BOOK FREE. Explains everytliing. Tells 
Hov7to Obtain and Sell Patents, What Inventions 
Will Pay, How to (Jet a Partner, explains best 
mechanical movements, and contains 300 other 
subjects of importance to inventors. Actress, 

H. B. WILLSOH & GO. """' 



790 F Street North. 




Attorneys 
WASHINGTON, OX, 



BARNES' 

'^■^Q{ PiW p MrCMn ry, 

This cut represents our 
Combined Machine, which 
IS the best machine made 
for use in the construction 
of Hives, Sections, Boxes, | 
etc. Sent on trial. Send for | 
Catalogue and Price List, i 
U. F & I ISARNES CO., 
913 Ruby St., Rockford. III. I 



50 YEARS' 
EXPERIENCE 




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AND INVESTORS, who jire iiiteivst 
•'1 in tlic S'lMfheni section of tlH> 
ri'ioii, .slionkl subscribe for TUP"' 
!iI.\IE IIO.AfKSI'EKER. a bniHlsoiiK 
illnstr.-ited iiiapiizine, describiiic: th<' 
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jiimI its niiiny advantages to lioiiu'seeU- 
(•••s and investors. Sont one year (»n 
Ilia I for 15c. Address, 

THR DIXIE HOMESEEKER, 
West Appomattox, Va tf 



Honey 



I 



PRODUCTIO^ 

AND 

SELLING. 





These are the two main problems of the bee-keeper, and each is as im- 
portant as tlie other. Many can produce fine honey ,but fail to get the best 
prices. Your ci'op in attractive jtackages is half sold. The first honey in 
the market sells the best; so don't put off ordering supplies. 

- No-drip Shipping Cases. 

Do not put your section, honey i 
poorly maide section cases. It wi 
bring lt>ss if you do. We make oi 
ca,ses of white bass-w©od, and tlu 
are constructed so they will not lea 
Neither do the sections gt<t stuck i 
with honey. Made for all kind> 
sections, and in all sizes. Also gla 
for fronts. For retailing honey the 
is nothing neater than the Dan: 
<'arton. A,sk for our catalogue givii 
Hersniser Jars. complete prices and descriptions. 

The ifinest of all glass pack- 
ages for extracted honey. Made 
of clejir glass with aluniinuin 
caps, wliich seal them tight. We 
sell other styles of glass i)ack- 
ages. Don't fail to study the 
candied honey question. There 
is a great future for this. We 
sell the famous Aiken Honey 
BbK f<»'" retailing candied honey. 
See our general catalogue for 
further description and prices. 



Five-Gallon Tin Cans. 

The favorite package for shippi 

extracted honey. No leaking, 

tainted iioney. The cans being ,squa 

eeonimiize spaice, and :ire easily boX' 

Also smaller sizes. Cans fnniisl) 

vith dilferent widths of screw cj[ 

r Iioney gates. Don't fail t«) get (I 

■.rices befoi-e ordering. Uenienill 

liat freight charges .should lie C'[ 

sidered witli the |trices. We can sl| 

from our branch hou.ses. 



Complete Description and Prices in (Jeiieral. Catalogue. 

THE A. I. ROOT CO. 

Factory and Executive Office - = MEDINA, OJ 

KUANCHES— Chicago, 111., 144 East Erie St.: Philadelphia. Pa., 10 Vine Sll 
New Y(n-k City, N. ¥., 44 Vesey St.; Syracuse, X. Y.; Mtn-luinic Falls..Mel 
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inno Md. Av.; Havana, Cuba, 17 San Ignacio: Kingston, Jamaica, I'l 
Tl.irbour St. 






Homes in 

Old Virginia. 

It is gradually brought to light 
that the Civil war has made great 
changes, freed the slaves, And in 
consequence has made the large 
land owners poor and finally freed 
the land from the original owners 
who would not sell until they were 
compelled to do so. There are some 
of the finest lands in the market at 
very low prices, lands that produce 
all kinds of crops, grasses, fruits, 
and berries; fine for stock. You 
find green truck patches, such as 
cabbage, turnips, lettuce, kale, 
spinach, etc., growing all the win- 
tec. The climate is the best all th© 
year around to be found, not too 
cold nor too warm. Good water. 
Healthy. Railroads running in 
every direction. If you desire to 
know all about Virginia send 10c. 
for three months subscription of 

the VIRGINIA FARMER to 

Farmer Co. , Emporia, Va. 



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By good journals than that of the farmer. Uni.- 
tellicent nnproeressiTesess has now no excuse. 



A BATH 



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wher UMPIRE 
taken it. an iJ Portable 

Folding BATH TUB. 

Used in any room 

Agknts Waxteo 

Catiilogue Free. 
-.THfc EMPIRE 
^WASHER CO., 

Jamestown,n.y. 




i BEE = SUPPLIES I 



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vl/ 
v» 



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And everything used by bee-keepers. 
Largest stock iu the Central States. Low 
freight rates. Catalogue free. 

jy4 C. M. SCOTT & CO. 

1004 E. Washington St., Indianapolis, Ind. 



'^€€€€=€€€;««$:€€S«*€§€€«€€^- 



THE DIXIE HOME MAGAZINE 

10c a year. Largest.Brighlest and Finest Illustrated 
Magazine In the World for 10c a year, to intro- 
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It is bright and up-to-date. Tells 
all about Southern Home Life. It is 
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anywhere in the U. S., Canada and 
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names 50c., 12 for $1. Send us a club. 
Money back if not delighted. Stamps 
taken. Cut this out. Send today. 

THE DIXIR HOME, 

Birmingham, Ala. 

When writing, mention the Am. BeelCeeper. 



POULTRY success 

THE 20th 



CO. 



CENTURY POULTRY 
MAGAZINE. 

15th year. 32 to 64 pages. Beautifully il 
lustrated, up-to-date and helpful. Best knowr 
writers. Shows readers how to succeed witl 
poultry. 50 CENTS PER YEAR. Specia 
introductory offers: 10 months, 25 cents, in 
eluding large practical poultry book free; fou 
monthsl trial, 10 cents. Stamps accepted 
Sample copy free. Poultry Success Co., Dept 
16, Springfield, Ohio, or DesMoines, Iowa. 



When writing to advei-tisers mentio: 
The American Bee-Keeper. 



SHINE! 

The Empire Washer Company, Jamestown, 
N. y., makes a Shine Cabinet, furnished with 
foot stand, blacking, russet dressing, shoe 
rubber— sn fact, all articles and materials need- 
ed to keep shoes looking their best — pnd it is 
made to be fastened to the wall of the toilet 
room or kitchen. It does away with the vexa- 
tious searching after these articles which is 
altogether too common. A postal will bring 
you details of this and other good things. 



American 




BEE 



Journal 

16 - p. Weekly 

Sample Free 

49* All about Bees and thei 

profitable care. Best writers 

Oldest bee-paper; illustrated 

Departments for beginaer 

and for women bee-keepers. 

Address 

GEORdE W. YORK & CO., 

144 & 146 Erie St. Chicago.Ili 



f-*f-\f~T< Send 10 cents for one v-ear's sul 
P l\ tlCr st;"P''Oii to AMERICAN STORlP 
V*-'*-' the best monthly magazine pu! 
lished, and we will send yon samples of 100 oth' 
magazines, all dilferent, free. AMERICA 
STORIES, Dept- H. I)., Urand Rapids. Mich. 






s^ 



Bee H i ves 
Sections 

EVERYTHING 



THAT IS USED BY BEE-KEEPERS CAN BE 
PROCURED OF US AS CHEAPLY AS ANY- 
WHERE, AND WE KNOW. 

Our Goods are Superior 

BOTH IN MATERIALS AND WORKMAN- 
SHIP TO THOSE OF ANY COMPETITOR. 

One Trial Will Convince You 

THAT'S ALL WE ASK. WE KNOW YOU 
WILL NEVER BUY OF ANYBODY ELSE. 

Our new illustrated catalog and price list is now 
ready. Send for one on a postal card. 



The W. T. 
FALCONER WIANFG. CO., 

JMMETSTOW^', N. Y. 



THE BEST PRINTED PAPER! 



.5^ .5^ IN FLORIDA J- J- 



Located in the Heart of the Cel- 
'urated Pineapple Belt and sur- 
rounded by many of the finest 
orange groves on the Indian Riv- 
er Fort Pierce is the largest and 
most important town in Brevard 
county and 



The FORT PIERCE NEWS 



is the best paper in the county 
and the best weekly in Florida. 
It contains reliable information 
about this section in every issue. 
Only $1.00 a year. Write for 
sample copy. tf. 

The News, Fort Pierce,Fla 



Beeswax 



We pay 2S cents cash or 30 cents 
in goods for good quality of Beeswax, 
freight paid to Falconer, N. Y. If yon 
have any, ship it to us at once. Prices 
subject to change without notice. 
THE W. T. FALCONER MFG. CO. 



DON'T KILL 

YOURSELF, WASHING THB^uj^ 

WAY, BUT BUY AN E M P I R E 

WASHER, yoiih ychioK ih* 
frailett woman ean do an or- 
dinarv tDothing in one hour, 

without wetting her handt. 

Sample atwholetaltprice. Satisfaction Guaranteed. 
No pay until tried, yfrite/or Jlhittrafed Cataloa%4 
anapricee of Wringert, Ironing Tablet, Clothfi ReeU, 
Drying Bart,WaaonJaok*,(be. AgentsWantecL Lilv 
•ral Terms. QuickS&lesl Litt 
.id<{reM,THl EMriBiW ASHXK 




re. AgentsWanted. tilb- 
littleWorkll Big PwyHI 
■K Co.. Junestewn.N.Y . 



WHAT THEY SAY. 

W. H. Putnam, River Falls, Wis. 

Dear Sir: — I delayed answering 
your letter until I had read the .Tune 
number of the Rural Bee Keeper and 
must say as a Bee Keeper of 22 
years experience I am more than 
pleased with it, regardless of the 
assertions of some that the pub- 
lishing in rhis line was already 
overdone, and if the improvements 
continue, it will certainly be sec- 
ond to none Avithin its first year of 
publication. I consider the June num- 
ber alone worth several years subscrip- 
tion to any practical, live bee keeper 
and I will say let the good work go on 
and on. You have a good field and 
the fact of our having a Bee Journal 
pul)lished in our own state, should be 
a lasting stimulant to all bee keepers 
of AVisconsin and the Northwest and 
50c certainly cannot be invested to bet- 
ter advantage. You may send me 
some more lilanks. 

Yours truly Elias Fox. 

Hillsboro, Wis. 

Send lOcts for three back numbers 
or 50c. for one year. 



MAPS. 

A vest pocket Map of your State. 

New issue. These maps show all 
the Counties, in seven colors, all 
railroads, postoffices — and mnny. 
towns not given in the postal guide! 
— rivers, lakes and mountains, with' 
index and population of counties, 
cities and towns. Census — it gives 
all official returns. We will send 
you postpaid any state map yotj 
wish for 

20 cents (siver) 

JOHN V7. HANN, 

Wauneta, Neb 



4tf 



$25,000.00 CASH 

in, 500 priz'os. First prize, $10,000.00. To 
those making nearest correct puesses of the 
total popular vote to be cast November Sth 
1904, for President of the United States. 

There are eight special prizes of $500.00 eacl 
for early estimates. 
This may be fortune's knock at your door 
It costs nothing to enter the contest and 
only a postage stamp for particulars. Addres' 
Hosterman Publishing Co., Box 16, Sprmg 
field, Ohio. 

When writing to advertisers mention 
' The American Bee-Keeper. 



The American Farmer 



AND 



The American Bee=Keeper 

Both one Year tor $1.00. 



Sunshine 



is gaining ad- 
miration as a 
popular litera- 

rv famDv 

■■"''""■=~"~'"=™~~™" MAGAZINE. 
It entertains its readers with good sliort stor- 
ies, sketches and poems by the most famous 
authors of the day and is a magazine of supe- 
rior merit. 

It is a ^velcome visitor in every home. 

Price 25 cents a year. 

We wisli to have our magazine in your 
vicinity and as a special offer for new readers 
we will send you 

Sunshine for I Year for 10c. 

Think of it. less than one cent a copy. Can't 
you act as our agent ? 

ADD. MAYES PUB. CO., 
LOUISVILLE, = KENTUCKY. 



Clubbing Offers 

Here Is a Sample: 

Modern Farmer $ .50 

Western Fruit Grower 50 

Poultry Gazette 25 

Gleanings in Bee Culture 1.00 

$2.25 
All One Year for only $1.00. 

Write for others just as good, or bet- 
ter. 

SAMPLE FREE. 

New subscribers can have the Amer- 
can Bee Journal in place of Gleanings, 
if they wish, or all for $1.60. Renew- 
als to A. B. J. add 40c. more. 

MODERN FARMER, 

The Clean Farm Paper 
St. .Joseph, Mo. 



3 and 5=Banded Italian 
and Carniolan Queens. 

Say friends, you who have support- 
ed us during the past seasou, we 
desire to express our thanks for 
your patronage in the past, and 
respectfully solicit a continuance of 
your valued favors through the sea- 
son of 1904. 

Our queens now stand upon their 
merits and former record. We are 
preparing for next season, and seek- 
ing the patronage of large apiarists 
and dealers. We do not claim that 
our queens are superior to all oth- 
ers, but that they are as good as 
the best. We will furnish from one 
to a thousand at the following 
prices: '^■sted of either race, $1; 
one unte d, 75c., 5 for $3.25. 10 
for $6. 15 for .$8.25, 25 for $12.50, 50 
for $23.50, 100 for $45. 
For descriptive circulars address, 

JOHN W. PHARR, Prop., 

New Century Queen Rearing Co., Ber- 
clair, Goliad Co., Texas. 




Si Vegetables, Fruits and Farm 

^ Products in Florida subscribe 

% for the FLORIDA AQRICUL= 

g TURIST. Sample copy sent 

^ on application. 

I E.O.PaintefPub.Co. 

y JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA. 




BEWARE 

WHERE YOU BUY YOUR 

BEEWARE 



n fg" 

I WATER TOWN, 



WIS! 



MAKES THE FINEST 



(J. B. LEWIS CO., 
Watertown, Wis. 



Send for 
Catalog. 



WANTED 



EXTRACIED HONEY. 



Mail sample, and always quote lowest 
price delivered here. We remit imme- 
diately upon receipt of shipment. 



THE FRED W. MUTH CO., 

^ No. 51 Walnut Street, 



References :, 
German National Bank, Cincinnati, 0. 
Any Mercantile Agency, or the Editor. 



CINCINNATI, O. 



AUSTRALIANS. 

NOTE the address — 

Pender Bros., 

WEST MAITLAND, 
New South Wales, Australia. 

The largest manufacturers of Beekeepers' 
Supplies in the Southern Hemisphere, 
and publishers of the AUSTRALASIAN 
BEEKEEPER, the leading bee journal south 
of the equator. 
Sample copy and 64-page catalogue, FREE 
(i-tf 



THE NEBRASKA FARM JOURNAL 

I A monthly .lournal devoted to agri- 
I cultural interests. Largest circulation 
j of any agricultural paper in the west. ,1 
I It circulates is Missouri, Kansas, Ne- 
j bra,ska, loAva and Colorado. 

.T. W. EARLEY, Editor, 



Itf 



1123 N St., Lincoln. Neb. 



American 




BEE 



Journal 



16 -p. Weekly. 

Sample Free. 

j8®=" All about Bees and their 

profitable care. Best writers, < 

Oldest bee-paper; illustrated.^ 

Departments fi r beg'ianenil 

and for women bee-keepers. 

Address, 

OeORQB W. YORK & 60.. 

144 & 1<'6 Erie St. Chicago.Iu. i 



SEND US ONE NEW SUBSCRIBER, 

WITH 50 CENTS FOR ONE YEAR, AND GET 

THE AMERICAN FARMER 

FOR YOURSELF, ABSOLUTELY FREE FOR A WHOLE YEAR 

AMERICAN BEE=KEEPER, Jamestown, N.Y.I 




Vol. XIV 



AUGUST, 1904. 



No. 8 



A PICTURE WANTED. 



THEY tell me you are au artist 
Who can paint on the canvas 
white 
Pictures of scenes you nevei" saw, 

In colors of shade and light. 
If you can do this, good painter, 

I would have you make for me, 
A scene of my father's hill-farm, 
Where the winds blew loud and free. 

The house was large and pleasant, 
Near the road tall Balsams fair, 

And a Thorn Apple tree, and Locusts, 
Were stirred by the balmy air. 

At the corner, near the doorway. 
Aglow with color bright. 
Grew a bush of Honeysuckle, 
With blossoms pink and white. 

And close by my mother's window, 

In beauty and fragrant bloom. 
Stood a bush of yellow Roses, 

Whose sweet breath filled the room. 
And Roses red and blush and white. 

And Lily bells fair to see. 
With a bed of purple Pansies 

I want you to paint for me. 

The Cherry trees that each summer 

Bore luscious fruit and sweet. 
Grew south of the house, and in 
springtime 
Oast their white bloom at our feet. 
The meadows were near and the corn- 
field, 
While the woods not far away, 



Was the home of the birds whose 
music 
We heard at the break of day. 

And down past the barns, through the 
orchard. 
And the lane, o'er the nny brook. 
Which flowed with a pleasant mur- 
mur, 
My way I often took. 
Down the hill and through the valley. 
Where the red wild Strawberries 
grew. 
And the Willows droop over the 
streamlets, 
I wandered long ago. 

Gathering flowers in the woodland. 

Blue and white Violets rare. 
And the Ferns which grew by the 
brookside. 

And yellow Cowslips fair. 
Be siu-e that these are pictured. 

And paint them in colors bright, 
That shall make the dim old forest 

Seem radiant with bloom and light. 

There's the house, and the road, and 
the Thorntree, 

The Balsams and Locusts tall. 
And the Roses and Honeysuckles, 

Which grew by the eastern wall; 
The Cherry trees and the meadows. 

The cornfields and orchards old; 
If you paint all these and the forest. 

It Avill be more to me than gold. 

—Park's Floral Magazine. 



1 



154 



AVHAT 



THE 

CONSTITUTES 

QUEEN? 



A GOOD 



Bv ArtUiir C. .Milltc 



I HAVE often asked myself this 
question and 1 liave as otten tried 
to answer it both for myself and 
for others. 1 have tried to enumerate 
the virtues of good (lueens, but after 
all is said it comes to this: the good 
queen is the one whose colony gets 
the most and best honey. 

In looking at the work of some of 
my trial stock my attention was ar- 
rested by the colony of a queen which 
I have called, for convenience, the 
Vermonter. She is an Italio-Black hy- 
brid which my son got in Vermont in 
1902. His attention was attracted by 
the large size of the swarm she was 
with and by the quantity and quality 
of the work the parent colony had 
done. 

I introduced her to a small nu- 
cleus late in July. This she quickly 
built up into a good colony and pro- 
duced about 30 pounds extracted hon- 
ey from fall flowers. Wintered on 
summer stand and without any pro- 
tection other than the thin hive, the 
colony came through strong and at 
this writing (.June 18) has already 
yielded .30 pounds extracted honey 
and has two 28 pound cases of comb 
honey well under way. As the col- 
ony fills three shallow chambers and 
two supers. I looked for signs of 
swarming and I also wanted to save 
the extra queen cells. There were no 
external symptoms, and within all was 
serene. Not a queen cell oir cup to be 
seen. Each brood chamber was 
packed with brood except drone comb. 
Such cells the queen had completely 
avoided, even though in several 
places she had laid in worker cells 
all around the drone cells. These lat- 
ter were all varnished and ready for 
use. Apparently the workers wanted 
drones but the queen did not. 

The case is interesting. The queen 
is in her fourth summer at least, and 
has once been out with a swnrm and 
yet now when she should be declin- 
ing she is keeping the equivalent of 
in L frames packed with brood and 
declines to raise drones. Is she a 



AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. August, 

good queen? I care nothing for the 
markings of her bees but I do care 
for the stamina which she possesses. 
Her vigor is reproduced in her bees 
as is shown by the size of her colony, 
for it matters not how prolific a queen 
may be, if her bees are not long-lived 
the colony will not get big and stay 
big. According to custom the bees 
from this queen should be cross, but 
they are not. They are not angelic 
to be sure, but they handle well, mind 
their own business and hustle. 

Such a strain of bees is worth hav- 
ing. Being a hybrid it will be diffi- 
cult to foretell the qualities of queens 
raised from lier, but vigor they doubt- 
less will have, and that means a 
whole lot. I sometimes think it is be- 
ing lost sight of entirely. I am con- 
stantly testing queens from diiferent 
parts of the country and the virtue 
most often conspicuous by its absence 
is vigor. Queen after queen will die 
young and their daughters are no bet-< 
ter. Not all purchased queens are so 
but their proportion is far too great 
for the best good of the industry. 

Another colony of interest in com- 
parison with the Vermonter is head- 
ed by a queen of the so-called leath- 
er-colored Italians. The queen is in 
her third summer and the colony is of 
apparently the same population as the 
other. Both have been subjected to 
the same treatment. This Italian 
stock has produced the same amount 
of honey as the Vermonter, btit has 
a host of drones and are too ugly to 
live with. They are not content with 
defending their home but are out 
looking for trouble all the time and 
it is almost impossible to handle them. 

Here are two apparently equal col- 
onies doing equal work and yet one 
has a host of drones and the other 
none. Apparently the drones are no 
drain on the colony and yet I think 
that assumption is wrong. Drones 
feed liberally on freshly stored honey 
provided the cells are full enough for 
them to reach it. but when honey iS' 
scarce they have to rely entirely on 
the workers. Removal of the drones 
(about 3 pints )has so far failed to 
show any appreciable difference iu 
honey supply. 

.Tune 18, 1004. 






^ 






1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



loo 



LATER. 

Since the foregoing was written 
tlie Vermont stock lias prepared to 
swarm. A dozen fine queen cells 
were completed and all the premon- 
itory symptoms were present, when I 
forced the swafm and saved a few of 
the cells which later produced fine 
queens. At the time I forced the 
swarm there was a goodly amount 
of worker brood but not a single cell 
of drone brood in any stage could I 
find. The drone cells were all nice- 
ly polished but contained no eggs. 

I made a very careful inspection of 
the bees as they passed into the hive 
and I found just three drones. These 
may have come from some other stock 
but I could not tell. 

Here was a big thrifty colony all 
ready to divide itself l>ut failing to 
produce any males. 

The reason therefor I do not even 
hazard a guess at. If the workers 
controlled the production of males 
then surely they should have been 
present. The desire for them seems 
to have been present because drone 
cells were made ready for the queen. 

The ordinary need of them was 
there in the coming of the young 
queens. 

To all appearance the queen was 
normal, laid regularly and well, was 
large and strong and had. during the 
previous season, produced drones in 
ordinary numbers. The queen's age 
may have something to do with it, 
but usually in a failing queen we get 
an excess of drones or drones to the 
exclusion of all others. 

If the queen will deign to live 
a while longer I will study her and 
her colony most carefully. 

To a limited extent this case sup- 
ports my belief that aside from the 
ijueen's dependence on the workers 
for her food she lives and acts accord- 
ng to her own instincts and will (if 
we may use that term in connection 
with bees). 

Providence, R. I.. July 11. 1904. 



HIVE VENTILATION. 



By W. W. McNeul. 



The Rural Bee-Keeper for .July 
homes to hand in a new and especially 
llesigned oo-ser. The new journal is 

credit to its publishers. 



PERHAPS it will not be amiss to 
have a little talk just now upon 
the subject of hive ventilation. 
Good honej- fiows,good hives and good 
strong swarms are all very necessary 
to success, but the advantage there- 
of will be rendered futile by poor ven- 
tilation. 

The heat generated by a colons' of 
bees when storing honey rapidly of- 
ten becomes intensely annoying and 
forces the wax-workers to seek the 
open air in large clusters on the front 
of the hive. While they are there 
their owner is losing good money on 
them just as surely as night follows 
the day. And that is not all; it is 
provocative of swarming, which 
causes an outlay of money for hives 
and fixtures that eclipses the profits 
that should accrue to the keeping of 
bees. But however necessary good 
ventilation may be, provision for it 
should always be made at the bot- 
tom of the hive and not at the top. 
Bees are very much indisposed to 
store honey close to where light and 
air enter the hive and foe that rea- 
son all openings that admit air direct- 
ly into the hive should be at the bot- 
tom. It would be better were hives 
so made that the greater part of the 
front end of the brood chamber could 
be thrown open during the flush of 
the honey season. This would enable 
the liive bees to stay in the supers 
and work at the very time they should 
be there. 

If for any reason it is deemed ad- 
visable to give ventilation above the 
brood chamber, or above a queen ex- 
cluding honey-board. the supers should 
then be made double-walled. By allow- 
ing, say. one-half inch space between 
the inner and outer wall an entrance 
may be cut through the outer wall in 
the middle or upper half of the super, 
thus permitting of fairly good venti- 
lation without the evils arising from 
a direct entrance into the super. But 
the main source of ventilation should 
come from below and there should be 
enough of it to insure against such a 
disaster as the clustering of bees on 



156 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



August, 



the front of the liive during a good 
honey flow. 

NoAv, another thing in connection 
with this is the manipulation of the 
supers. Bee-keepers have largely 
been instructed to place an empty su- 
per between a partly-filled one and 
the brood chamber, when wishing to 
give more room, instead of putting it 
on top of the one that is already on 
the hive. It has been claimed for 
this that the bees are spurred to 
greater activity to fill in the empty 
space thus made between their sur- 
plus honey and brood combs than 
could be achieved in any other way. 
But careful observation leads me to 
question the correctness of such ma- 
nipulation. My experience has been 
that the farther I could draw the 
comb builders from the brood combs 
by hive manipulation the better were 
the results in honey secured. We all 
know that young bees are prone to 
cluster on cr to keep close to the 
brood combs and this action seriously 
obsti'ucts ventilation which in turn 
provokes swarming. The empty super 
next to the brood chamber might do 
all I'ight where the hive sits in the 
cool shade of a tree, but when it has 
no further protection from the sun's 
rays than an ordinary shade board, 
I feel positively certain that better re- 
sults will be obtained by putting it on 
top. When suitable bait combs are 
given, the young bees are soon im- 
pelled to go above, thus effectiug a 
general distribution of them through- 
out the hive and preventing that un- 
bearable jamming or clogging of the 
passage-ways in the brood chambers. 

Grive your bees plenty of cool, fresh 
air during the liot season. It is real 
economy to do so and any hive that 
does not afford good ventilation is not 
practical and would be dear at any 
price. 



Can Bees Rear Drone Brood from Eggs Laid in 
Worker Cells. 

I am not going to say that they 
can; neither am I going to say they 
cannot; but I will say that I have 
seen them do some things that looked 
very much like they were able to rear 
da'ones from fertile eggs laid in work- 
er cells. 



During the latter part of June I 
shook the bees of a good strong col- 
ony into an empty brood chamber, 
put on a queen excluding honey-board 
and then gave them the same exti'act- 
ing super that Avas on the old hive. 
The combs in the super were all nice 
straight worker comb and the queen 
had free access to them, before the 
change was made into the new hive. 
About one week later I looked into 
the hive and found what might be ex- 
pected, that the bees had done prac- 
tically nothing below but had carried 
their pollen and honey into the super; 
queen cells had been started and alto- 
gether the colony had behaved about 
like a queenless colony. There be- 
ing no drone brood in the super and 
the bees feeling the need of drones, 
they had presumed to rear them from 
larwae in the worker combs. The cells 
were accordingly lengthened and from 
the size of the larvae it was evident 
that fertile workers were not respon- 
sible for the state of affairs, for 
there had not been time enough for 
larvae to attain that size from eggs 
laid by them. There was not just a 
few scatten'ing cells that were thus 
lengthened but puite a large amoiint 
of comb was raised to accommodate 
the apparently changed condition of 
the larvae. I have witnessed the 
same thing many times in queenless 
colonies and in queenless nuclei. I 
know that in changing from worker 
to drone size of cells or vice versa, 
when building comb, bees will often 
construct cells which to the eye ap- 
pear to be of worker size but in 
reality are a little larger. But this 
brood that was in the lengthened cells 
was not sandwiched in between drone 
and worker cells in the same comb, 
but it was in comb that was uniform- 
ly of the worker size of cell. Now 
gentlemen, you may draw your own 
conclusions, I pass it up. 

Wheelersburg, O.. July 11, 1904. 



The Rocky Mountain Bee Journal 
and the Pacific States Bee Journal 
have been consolidated iinder the 
name of the Western Bee Journal, 
with P. F. Adelsbaugh at the editorial 
helm. The new journal is neat, spicy 
and instructive. It deserves success. 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPEK. 



157 



ORANGE BLOSSOM HONEY. 

By E. B. Rood. 



MERICAN BEE-KEEPER:— ] 
was surpriseil at Mr. W. S 
■ Hart's article in tlie July Bee- lurking in your mouth." 



conipellecl to yive an eight-frame hive 
four stories. I regret that my un- 
mixed orange blosscjm honey is all 
gone, but if you care for some nyxt 
spring you may expect a sample of 
light amber honey, of good (luality 
that will leave no "disagreeable taste 



Keeper, in which he expresses an 
opinion that a barrel of pure orange 
blossom honey was never shipped 
froui Florida and still more surprised 
that the editor of the Bee-Keeper has 
only once in his life tasted what was 
"said to be pure orange-blossom 
honey." 



Braidentown, Fla., July 4th, 1904. 



This IS very interesting, and the ed- 
itor of The Bee-Iveeper will greatly 
appreciate a sample of pvfe orange 
blossom honey. Possibly, the nature 
of the soil upon which the trees grow 
My first enthusiasm fcir bee-keeping ^^^ something to do with the nectar 

secretion, which may account for the 
diversity of opinion in this regard. We 
requested Mr. Brown to contribute an 
article upon this subject for our last 



was aroused by A. F. Brown's (the 
migratory liee-keeper) success in se- 
curing orange blossom honey at Glen- 
wood , Volusia county. Florida 



By "Swarthmore." 



March 1SIJ4. He brought 200 colonies |««"e, but he declined to do so.— Ed- 
there just as the blossoms were open- ^*^'''- 
ing. They had been fed up strong 

and immediately began to store honey ADVERTISING HONEY. 
quite freely. He sold us comb and 
extracted honey and we thought he 

was producing it in almost unlimited 

quantities. He has since told me, T WAS very much interested in Mr. 
however, that he secured 10,000 J[ W. L. Coggshell's reference to the 
pounds, or ."iO pounds per colony. Th.s sale of honey through an adv. 
must have been ahnost pure orangv placed in an Ithaca local newspaper 
blossom honey, for nothing else was because I had exactly the same ex- 
near that any one claims produced an perience, with the exception of the 
appreciable amount of honey. It was word "strained" which I did not use; 
before gall berry or palmetto and very but I did say that the prodiict offered 
tittle of either were within range. for sale was "guaranteed pure." 

I am located in the heart of the or- I am of the opinion that it was not 
ange groves of Manatee county, and, the tcfm "strained'' entirely that sold 
though I have never equalled Mr. Mr. Cogshell's honey, it was the pub- 
Brown's record, I get several barrels licity given to an excellent article of 
)f crange blossom honey every year, food which created a craving among 

Two years ago I exti'aeted .30 all who read the "ad." 
)ounds per colony from one apiary The most successful articles of food 
ind this year I extracted in all about are those which are widely adver- 
,000 pounds, but my gall berry ter- tised. People will read what one has 
toi'y was badly burned and the saw to say. They have no time to listen 
almetto a total failure, so I did not at the door. Honey judiciously ad- 
xtract closely. It is quite true that vertised and properly packed would 
range blossoms aire not a prolific stand as good a show in tlie general 
ource of honey, but I expect a strong market as any of the canned or 
|olony to store 2.0 to .'iO pounds if it tinned good.s now crc-ried in enormous 
oes not swarm. I have shaken a stocks all the way down froiu the job- 
using colony on foundation in a ten- ber in groceries to the smallest re- 
rame hive, adding a second story of taller of table goods. 
mbs a few days later and in two As an experiment I placed a stock 
eeks both were fuU. the lower story of extfacte<I honey in glass with my 
brood and the upiier of sealed hon- grocer and started a series of five-line 
And it is not uncommon to be readers in my own local newspaper 



158 . THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 

and it was not long before my gfo- 
cer informed me tliat be was out of 
boney. Several dozens were rapidly 
moved by small advertising — wbat 
could be reasonably expected if effort 
of tbis kind on a larger scale sbould 
be spread over an entire country? I 
doubt if the demand could be sup- 
plied. 

\Mtb central points to which bee- 
keepers of a given territory could ship 
their honey, with the assurance that 
a certain amount of cash for the ship- 
ment would be forthcoming in a stip- 
ulated length of time, stocks would 
be accumulated from which selections 
as to kinds and grades could be made 
for the different localities throughout foom and 
the country. Each central point them a lar 
could determine the market for the 
flavors which would be most accept- 
able to the general palate and tin ac- 
cordiagly. With such conditions 
the producer could barrel his honey, 
ship quicker and sell cheaper with less 
labor and more profit. With a sure 

market of this kind output would in- 
crease rapidly. 

Salesmen, of which there is an 

army, would show the package as 

they are now showing and loudly 

praising a certain cheap sweet, put 

up in nice, salable shape, which is 

hardly fit to eat — I have tried this 

stuff and am quite sure it contains 

glucose in more or less quantities, yet 

it is adrertised and widely sold as 

something '-Retter than Honey." 
We are slow; we are attempting to 

compete with twentieth century bus- 
iness enterrrises of world-wide scope, 

with our one-horse wagon and a tin 

horn. 

Brothers Selser and Muth can sell 

honey — Why in the world cannot we 

or some corporation employ a thou- 
sand such men? And help them along 

by wide advertising. 



Swarthinore. Pa., March 11. 1004. 



August. 

by Arthur C. Miller. He says on page 
30, second column: "Bee clustered in 
L frames start from two to five 
combs and they meet and extended 
along the whole 17 inches of the top 
bar before they are within an inch 
of the bottom bar at any point. This 
is two inches of lateral gcowtb to one 
of vertical for one frame, but the 
work is i^rogressing simultaneously in 
ten frames and we have an aggregate 
lateral growth of 170 inches to eight 
inches vertical, a ratio of 21 to 1." 

I am of the opinion that Mr. Mil- 
ler is a little too fast in his conclu- 
sions. By confining bees in a certain 
room, they adapt themselves to this 
build accordingly. Give 
_er room without any in- 
ducement by combs, foundation or 
starters, so that the whole colony does 
not feel like being confined, and we 
shall very likely never see the ratic 
of 21 to 1. My experience tells mc 
that lateral and vertical progress ir 
comb-building is very often about tht 
same, if not interfered with. It is 
natuc-al that the bees build combs sid( 
by side for protection, but it is wrons 
to consider these different combs oij 
an aggregate basis, as one comb ha 
nothing to do with the other. We ma; 
just as well put the second comb ur 
derneath the first one. as on the sidt 
and make our conclusions accordinglj 
Biit the proper way is to conside 
each comb alone for itself, and sti 
better, really the proof of the whohj 
Observe the comb built in the ope 
air not being confined at all. and w 
often find the vertical growth one an 
one-half to two times as large as tb 
lateral. 

As far as hives are concerned ff 
the benefit of the robber (generall 
the human race), there is hardly an 
question that the shallow hive hi 
great advantages against deep hiv( 
for different reasons. 



: 



COMB-BUILDING IN SHALLOW 
AND DEEP FRAMES. 

Bv Otto Luhdorff. 



Visalia, Calif., May 1. 1004. 



III.VA'E a copy of the American 
Bee-Keei)eir of February 1004 be- 
fore me and have just read an ar- 
ticle on "Shallow or Deep Frames." 



Mr. E. F. Atwaier, Boise, Idah 
with one helper, runs GoO colonic 
and of this number about 400 are n 
for comb honev. We regret to leai 
thai^ Mr. Atwater has recently unde 
gone a siege of typhoid fever. whi( 
materially interfered with his prep 
ration for the season's business. 



if :/ 







160 THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. August, 

BACTERIA. their poAvcrs of i ft-oduciiig eliemieal 

c'liaiiges during tbeir growth that they 

By Prof. R. M. Buudy. owe their importance in the world. 

. Bacteria are more universally prev- 

MANY TIMES during the period alent in uatur» than any othcf forms 
that I have been engaged in of plants or the animals. They are 
microscopical and bacteriolog- in the air, water and soil. They also 
ical work, I have felt that some little cling in vast numbers to almost every 
explanation, in a simple way, regard- object on the earth including man and 
lug bacteria and the many terms per- the lower animals. They do not, how- 
taining to them might be appreciated ever, occur ncL-mally in the healthy 
by at least a few interested readers. tissues of man nor animals. Under 
The knowledge of germ life that favorable conditions bacteria grow 
is possessed by the majority of the and multiply with enormous rapidity, 
people is the result of reading the A single bacterium in contact with a 
newspapers. To those having made nutritious substance, like beef gelatin 
some study of the subject from reput- will produce over fifteen million of its 
able works, many of the newspaper kind in twentj'-four hours. When 
items appert- rather absurd, and are thus surrounded by an ample food 
truly misleading. With the many im- supply of the proper kind they in-' 
portant improvements that have been crease or multiply by what is known j 
made during the last few years upon as fission or simple dividing. Each 
the microscope, the science of bac- individual upon reaching a certain 
teriology has advanced very rapidly stage iu its groAVth will divide in tht 
and is developing much information middle into two similar halves, eacl 
that will add to the betterment of of which immediately starts to gro-\\' 
many conditions in our everyday life, and r.-ei)eat the i)rocess. Some species 

Bacteria is the name given to a havo been carefully watched undei 
class of vegetable cc-ganisms that ex- the microscope during their develop 
ist everywhere and in countless num- ment and lia,ve been found to divide 
bers. Because of their minute size as often as every half hour and ii 
they are called micro-organisms, being some cases in still less time. Notwitt 
discernable only by aid of the highest standing the hundreds of differen 
powers of the microscope, in most in- species of bacteria there are onl 
stances. three general ' fovms— spheres, rod 

The more common word "germ", and spirals. Some of the spheres ar 
meaning embryo, has come into gen- large and some small, while the rod 
et-al use because of certain forms of may'be long or short, thick or slende 
bacteria being the origin of disease, with either rounded or flat ends an 
Bacteria are simply a class of low the spjrals may be loosely or fightll 
plants. They are the active principle coiled. To illustrate we might sa 
in many of natui'c's processes and are the three formi"; resemble marble j| 
as necessary to our life as the blood pieces of slate pencils and coiled wii 
in our veins. They are the cause of springs. In size the spheres vary fro: 
jtutref action cc* decay of all animal twelve one millionth to six one hui 
and vegetable substances. They en- dred thousandths of an inch in diain 
rich the soil by a process of nitrifi- ter, while the rods and spirals vm 
cation in a way that cannot be done in diameter from ififteen millionths 
by artificial means. They are the cm*- one ten thousandth of an inch and 
iiig agents of the farmer's hay in the length from one but little more thi 
mow, as well as his fodder in the silo, their diameter to threads as long 
In the dairy they are of gretit impor- one hundredth of an inch. BactOT 
tance, the sonving of milk being are usually given a generic nam 
caused by the action of bacteria, con- based upon thele- appearance ur^'dl 
verting the sugar of the milk into the microscope and their method 
lactic acid. The ripening of cream dividing during growth. Some of t 
and its changes into butter and the more common names are microeocev 
ripening of cheese are the direct re- strei)tococcus, staphylococcus and Sf 
suits of bacteria growth. It is to ciua. all of which are given to t 






Ilt04 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



101 



siilierical furms. The rod forms ace 
all given the geueric name of Bacillus 
and to this is usually added a specific 
name based upon soniw physiological 
character as bacillus typhus — those 
causing typhoid fever. And in much 
tlKe same way the spiral forms Iiare 
come to be designated as spirallum— 
spirallum dentinum being a form 
which occur in the so-called fuc- of the 
eth. 

Many species of bacteria have an- 
other method of reproduction besides 
iiple division or fission. It is by 
means of spores, which are usually 
round or oval particles of substance 
called bacteria protoplasm. These 
spores or protoplastic particles are ca- 
palde of resisting conditions of heat, 
cold or starvation that would destroy 
the ordinary bacteria. 

There are among bacteria two dif- 
ferent methods of spore formation — 
endogenous and arthrogenpus. The 
endogenous spores are developed in- 
side of the rod and spiral forms of 
bacteria itself. They usually break 
3Ut of the rods and may remain inert 
for a long period of time or until they 
?ome in contact with i»roper food ma- 
terials and conditions for develop- 
oient when they start, to grow and 
nultiply in the ordinary way. It is 
:o this class of bacteria that the Bac- 
llus milli of ''Black Brood" belong. 
Irthrogenous spores are formed by 
)reaking up of a long rod into short 
segments or sections. This form will 
lot resist adverse conditions as well 
s the endogenous and some author- 
ties claim they are not true spores 
ut are simply resting cells. What- 
ver the method of forming the spores 
ts purpose in the life of the bacter- 
.im is that of insuring a perpetuation 
f the species, through its increased 
lowers of resistance. Some species 
bacteria possess the power of mo- 
[on to and fro in the media in which 
ley are growing. This motion is 
reduced by hair like api^endages, one 
more in number, which protrude 
hom the ends or sides of the bacter- 
\ta and are called flagella. It is be- 
ived that the flagella are develpoed 
I'om a protoplastic film surrounding 
|e bacterium, their distribution be- 
|g different in the different forms of 
icteria. 



llegartling the internal structurw of 
bacteria little is known other than 
that they are of very simple make-up. 

Of the many hinidred of different 
species of bacteria there are but a 
comparatively few that are harmful 
to mankind. Of this class which are 
the cause of disease the largest num- 
ber are bacillus and are called path- 
ogenic, while the harmless ones are 
callei^l non-pathogenic. The pathogen- 
ic species are of two classes, those 
which are true parasites and those 
which are not. By true parasites we 
mean those which live upon and con- 
sume the tissues of the body in their 
growth during which time they pro- 
duce poisonous substances that may 
prove fatal when of sufficient quan- 
tify. Under this class may be cited 
the Bacillus tuberculosis as a repre- 
sentative. The class of pathogenic 
bacteria which are not true parasites 
include those capable of living free 
in nature and though they develop 
the poisonous products during their 
growth in organic substances, it does 
no harm unless taken into the hu- 
man system with the food. The poi- 
sons produced thus free in nature, ul- 
timately become oxidized into harm- 
less substances by their further de- 
composition. It will be seen there- 
fore that only during the period be- 
tween the forming of the iwisons and 
their oxidation are they harmful. In 
contracting disease by inoculation 
with these pathogenic bacteria or 
germs much depends upon the phys- 
iological condition of the body at the 
time. If in a thoroughly vigorous 
state of health the tissues will be 
built up and the poisons eliminated 
before the bacteria can multiply in 
sufficient numbers to break down or 
weaken these natural forces. As be- 
fore noted there are but few harmful 
varieties compared to the whole and 
it is safe to say, that of every hun- 
dred different species of bacteria as 
they exist, at least ninety-ifive are in 
some way beneficial to us. In pre- 
venting the growth of bacteria there 
is usually employed one of two forms 
of substances existing under three 
names — antiseptics, disinfectants and 
germicides. Antiseptics are those 
substances which only retard the 
growth of bacteria, while disinfect- 



162 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



August, 



ants are substances which actually 
destroy the cause of int'ectiou and are 
equivalent to germicides, which kill 
the germs. Disinfectants are usually 
antiseptics if used in a proper way, 
but the latter are not in many cases 
disinfectants. There is another class 
of chemical substances, usually .«;tfong 
oxidizing agents, which will convert 
the strongly smelling products of bac- 
terial decomposition into inodorous 
ones. Thtese are called deodorizers 
and may, or may not be disinfectants. 
It is useless to attempt to disinfect 
fhe air except in tightly closed rooms 
and even then to be effective it re- 
quires a quantity or strength of dis- 
infectants in which it w'ould be im- 
possible for a person to live. Most 
of the so-called disinfectants in the 
market, when diffused through the 
air of an ordinary I'oom have no ac- 
tion upon putrefactive bacteria. 

Cleveland, Ohio, May 30, 1904. 



NATIONAL BEE. KEEPERS' 
ASSOCIATION. 

Los Angeles. Cal., June 18, 1904. 
Editor American Bee-Keeper, 

Dear Sir: — The Annual Session of 
the National Bee-Keepers' Association 
for 1904 will be held in September at 
St. Louis, Mo. 

September 27 and 28 will be devoted 
to association work and its interests. 

Septembeu- 29th. National Day. We 
expect many prominent foreign bee- 
keepers to be present on this day. 

September 30th. Inspectors' Day. 
Twenty bee inspectors from all over 
the United States and Canada are 
counted on to introduce and discuss, 
"The Diseases of Bees, etc." 

Mr. N. E. France will exhibit, in the 
Convention Hall, a large map of the 
United States, Canada, Cuba and Eu- 
rope. Each state and country will 
have a shelf attached to the map with 
a one pound sample of each kind of 
honey produced. Many othen* exhib- 
its of special interests will be shown. 

We expect to see the largest gath- 
ering of bee-keepers ever iield in this 
country. A more detailed program 
will appear later. 

Respectfully, 

Geo. W. Brodbeck, 
Secretary. 




Lawson, Mo., July 8 1904. 
Editor Bee-Keeper : 

Your excellent journal is sent to me 
as a present, by Mr. Willicutt, of 
Massachusetts, who subscribed three 
years in advance for me; and words 
fail to express how much I appreciate 
the American Bee-Keeper. 

In reply to the puzzle on page 143, 
I should say there was something 
transfeoTed to the bees while away 
that caused them to have a scent dif' 
ferent from those in the hive. 

Last year was my first to sell hon- 
ey. One day I was going to Kansas 
City and I took a case with me to sell 
there. I called on a grocer at the cor- 
ner of Tenth and Michigan. He want- 
ed to see the honey, and when he 
looked at the sample he said: "Well, 
here are some marks on the section 
which show that it was put up by the 
bees; and besides, the combs are ir- 
regular — that shows that it is gen- 
uine." 

I told him all comb honey was put 
up by the bees, with an air of one 
having a great knowledge upon the 
subject, for I had read in the Modem 
Farmer that comb honey could not be 
made. Said I, "You might get some- 
thing in a can or jar that was nol 
honey, but not in the comb." 

"Oh." he said, "they make combf 
and put melted sugar in them, anc 
sell it for honey." 

"Well," said I. "I have nerer seer 
any." However, he bought my honey 

I intended writing to Mr. Abbott ir 
regard to what the grocer said, buj 
was so busy for a long time that I for 
got the matter, until I read last even 
ing in the Bee-Keeper, page 150 
where you say it cannot be made, 
will investigate this the little I an 
able, and when I learn will let yoi 
know. I have become much inter 
ested and want to find out. I knoy 
impure honey is sometimes put up li 
glass jars, for we have bought it 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPE,R. 



163 



Wishing yourself and your jourual 
success, I am, Youji's truly, 

Miss tSaleua Mullin. 



Tlie prevalent idea that comb honey 
is manufactured had its origin in an 
article published in 1S88 in the Popu- 
lar Science Monthly, from the pen of 
United States Chemist Wiley. Prof. 
Wiley made the statement as a joke, 
thinking, perhaps, that his readers 
wovild know better; but the wicked 
canard has girded the earth. It has 
sped like a demon of hei. to the ut- 
most ends of the earth, poisoning the 
minds of humanity against one of the 
most delicious, dainty and wholesome 
articles of food with which the woa-ld 
has been blessed. Its baneful influ- 
ence has continued for twenty years 
to sweep the earth, north, south, eest 
and west, until today it is difficidt to 
find anyone outside of the readers of 
of the bee journals who do not hon- 
estly believe that the beautiful, snow- 
white comb honey now seen in the 
markets is a human product. It has 
seemed to be a case of "truth crushed 
toi earth'' without rising, and that the 
"eternal years of God" have given 
place to this vile fabrication bj' which 
modea.'n apiculture has been smitten 
to earth as often as it sought to rise. 
Let every apiarist put forth his 
strength to exti'icate our struggling 
industi'y from the clutches of this 
merciless, menacing demon, the hoary- 
headed W^iley lie. — Ed. 



third time. I gave them two supers full 
of sections filled with foundation. I 
,soon saw there were too many bees for 
their supers so I kept putting on su- 
pers every day or two till I got five 
on that one hive, or 140 one-pound 
sections. 

Today I expect to take oft" one su- 
per of honey, which is already sealed. 
Besides, I have changed supers with 
comb for empty ones. What do you 
think of that? 

I remain, yours very respectfully, 
D. H. Zencker. 



Knoxville, Tenn., Juiy 7, 1904. 
Editor Bee-Keeper: 

In regard to the puzzle page 143 of 
A. B. K. there may have been some 
odor in the room where the supers 
had been that the bees contracted. 

Mr. W. H. F. made a mistake in 
putting the supers in a dark place. 
The bees did not know where to go to. 
When a bee-escape is placed under 
the supers, they know that the brood 
nest is under and go there. But 
when the supers are away from the 
hive they go to the light and out. 
Adrian Getaz. 



Upperco, Md., June 13, 1904. 
Editor American Bee-Keeper: 

I am a beginner in the bee business 

and have ten fairly good colonies, all 

in first-class hives. I am putting my 

Whole study ©n the subject of bees. 

My aim is to keep down swarming, 

land increase by nuclei. I had a 

Iqueer thing happen to me the last 

Iweek in ;May. That is the commence- 

lent of our honey harvest here. I 

lad one colony which had been out 

le second time. @n the 28th of May 

^t came out for the third time. In a 

few minutes after its arrival there 

rere two more that came out. I had 

le queens all clipped so I soon caged 

them. I was watching them and to 

iy surprise here all three were going 

In this hive which had been out the 



Belmont, Ont, July 7, 1904. 
Editor Bee-Keeper: 

We r.re having rather hard times in 
Ontario this year, probably 70 per 
cent of the bees killed by winter and 
spring, the balance in poor shape, 
then short crops of clover honey. 
Those who have access to basswood 
may get a good thing from that if 
weather is favorable. 

Yours truly, , 
Morlev Pettit. 



Greenville. Miss.. July 11,. 1904. 
Editor Bee-Keeper ] 

Owing to a wet and cold spring 
the bees made but little progress un- 
til the 1st of .Tune and little swarming 
until ,Tuly 1st. Now they are gath- 
ering honey rapidly. Have only ex- 
tracted 4.000 pounds from 220 col- 
onies spring count. The low prices of 
honey are so discouraging, I would be 
glad to be out of the busine.is. Have 
14 one-half baiTels in St. Louis for 
almost a year and no demand fcr it. 

Now in regard to friend Arthur C. 
Miller: There is no apology neces- 



164 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



August, 



sary. He must allow for au old bee- 
keeper of TO beiug over-sensitive as 
to his knowledge of apiculture. He, 
no doultt, has a more gentle strain of 
Cyprians. 1 have one colony of a dif- 
ferent sti-ain from the imported ones; 
though quite nervous can be handled 
without much trouble, as instanced a 
few days ago when I removed ten 
surplus combs of honey without a 
sting, when the others punished me 
an hour afterward severely. 

1 have two diflferent strains of Car- 
niolans, one very gentle, the other 
quite vicious; so we must work by 
selection for the most gentle. It has 
been a g»"eat jdeasure to read the ar- 
ticles of Mr. Miller and he can be a.s- 
sured of my best wishes. 
Yours truly, 

O. M. Blanton. 



pects have been, and are splendid, but 
it rains about half of the time. I had, 
spring count, 58 colonies, all in best 
hives, etc., and have thus far in- 
creased to 120, and will increase more 
if possible. 

Fraternally yours, 

Leo F. Hanegan. 



New York, N. Y.. July 10, 1904. 
Editor Bee-Keeper : 

Puzzle on page 143: Offensive smell 
imparted l)y the brush which came in 
contact with the bees. , 

Yours truly, 

Thos. Mocce. 



Williamsfield, 111.. July 14, 1004. 
Editor Bee-Keeper: 

Spring has been very backward so 
that bees were slow in building up 
but honey flow was good. Basswood 
very good, white clover very good, 
but lasted only a few weeks and is 
practically all gone at this date. Sweet 
clover is doing well but is too scarce 
to give much surplus. 

At present I have increased from 
34 to 66 but bought two swarms. We 
Avill not get more than one-third aj< 
much honey iter colony as last year, 
judging from present indications 

Summer has been very dry so corn 
is pretty clean from smartweed. The 
last few days we have had very 
heavy thunder storms and heavy rain 
fall, which may help fall flow some. 
Some colonies have completed two su- 
pers, best colony has nearly completed 
fourth super. Poorest colony just be- 
ginning in super. Four colonies lost 
their queens in April and refused to 
rear (pieen from brood and were final- 
ly given ripe queen cell and reared 
queens but are far behind the rest. 
I guess it would have paid me to have 
doubled them up. 

Yours truly. 

J. E. Johnson. 



Many of our correspondents and 
foreign exchange.s are inclined to con- 
fuse the names of the Amei'ican Bee- 
Keeper and the American Bee Journal. 
The two are entirely septirate publica- 
tions, having no connection whatever, 
and are issued from offices more than a. 
thousand miles apart. We quite fre- 
quently receive letters addressed to the 
American Bee Journal, while foreign 
exchanges not infrequently make use 
of matter ai)pearing in our columns 
and credit our weekly contemporary 
therewith. 



Nomenclature.^I wonder shall we 
ever get done with the use of '"bar 
frame" and "hybrid" in bee papers. 
One might as well talk of a vegeta- 
ble cabbage as of a "bar frame", and 
as for "hybrid," why should the prod- 
uct of an Iri.sh drone and an Ital- 
ian queen be a hybrid any more than 
the child of a French father and a 
German mother? (We give it up. Ask 
us another. Huxley says that hybrid 
is " the product of different species, 
with sterility preventing perpetuation 
for over one or two generations." 
"Hybrid," as denoting a cross, is 
more common than accurate. How 
would "mongrel" suit you? — Ed.)— 
Irish Bee Journal. 



Glenwood. Wis.. 
Dear Friend Hill: 
Bees in this locality 



all that might be wished for. Pros 



American "Courtesy." — ^C. P. Da- 
dant, it appeal's, has issued an invi- 
tation for a delegation of British bee- 
keepers to a convention at St. Louis. 
He has not thought it necessnry to in- 

July 1.", 1004. vite Irish bee-keepers. :Mr. Padant is 
Vice-President of the National B. K. 

are not doing A. of the Fnited States. He ou£:ht to 
know better.— Irish Bee Journal. 



44 MM »»4» MMM 4»»M M » M »^4*» M »» M 4» M 4 M » ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 




THE 



Bee -Keeping World 



staff Contributors : F. GREINER and ADRIAN GETAZ. 

Contributions to this Department are solicited from all quarters of the earth. 



♦ ♦♦^♦♦♦♦♦♦^♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦^♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ MM 4» MMM »» 



BELGIUM. 

Mr. Richards, of Ain.sterdam, under- 
took to keep one colony of bees in tlie 
cit.T. There was no other available 
place but the very low attic of his 
house. He was compelled to place 
the entrance at the top. A little later 
he moved to the suburbs, took there 
his colony of bees. The entrance re- 
mained where it was — that is between 
the brood nest and the supers. An- 
other colony was bought, with the en- 
trance below as usual. The first 
colony, with the entrance above, gave 
every year during three years a large 
amount of surplus, once as much as 
five supers (about the size of the sup- 
ers used by the Dadants) and never of- 
fered to swarm. The other, during 
these three years, gave about one super 
every year and sAvarmed in spite of 
all efforts to prevent it. After that 
Mr. Richards changed also the en- 
trance of the second hive, and from 
thar time, he obtained from it the same 
result, as he did from the first; that 
is no swarms and from each abbut 200 
lbs of extracted honej every year. 
The only inconvenience is that the 
bees are unable to keep the bottom of 
the hive clean and it must be cleaned 
occasionally. A second entrance at 
the bottom might be put in, and open- 
ed occasionally. For the winter it 
might be better to close the top one 
and leave the lower one open to avoid 
loss of heat. — Revue Internationale. 



In a local daily paper of Belgium, 
an advertisement of superior "table 
honey" was inserted. After a few 
days a bee-keeper of the neighborhood 
put in the same paper an ad. stathig 
that the aforesaid "talile honey" was 
nothing Init sugar syrup, colored with 
something or other and fiavored with a 
little .strong dark honey. The effect 
was immediate. The ad. about table 
)ney dissapeared from the paper and 
the stuff itself from the grocery where 
6t had been kept. — I>e Rucher Beige. 



Last year{l903) The Society of Ag- 
riculture of the Province of Brande- 
burg in Belgium, distributed a large 
amount of phacelia seed to its mem- 
bers with a request to report. All ex- 
cept two reported it to be an exception- 
ally superior honey plant, having the 
additional advantage to produce nec- 
tar nearly as well during dry weather 
as during faAorable weather. As for- 
age, either green or dry, it is decided- 
ly inferior and not likely to ever come 
into use for that purpose. All agree 
that the plant will grow in any kind of 
soil. The experiments made at the Ag- 
ricol Institute of Berlin show that the 
phacelia does not fix the nitrogen of 
the air like the clovers and similar 
plants and therefore is not very valu- 
able for green manuring purposes. — 
Le Rucher Beige. 

The honey from the heath is some- 
times so thick that it is almost impos- 
sible to extract it. Mr. Manfroid ad- 
vises to use a kind of comb or brush 
with wire teeth to perforate the combs 
throughout so as to have the bottoms 
of the cells perforated. The pressure 
of the air on the inside of the combs 
helps to "push" the honey out and en- 
ables the apiarist to. extract the thick- 
est honey he may have. — Le Rucher 
Beige. 

One winter Mr. Sior had a colony 
A^hose bees were nearly every day out, 
so to speak, and very often when the 
weather was quite unfavorable. Of 
course, the loss of bees was consider- 
able and Mr. Sior ,saw that if the thing 
kept on that way, only a few bees 
would be left at the end of the winter. 
To cool them down, he uncovered the 
hive and poked in several handfulls of 
snow and closed it again. That 
stopped their going out so completely 
that Mr. Sior did not know but that the 
colony might have been nearly frozen. 
As a matter of fact, it turned out that 
the snow had melted and furnished the 
bees the water they needed, and there- 



166 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



August, 

fore stopped their going out. Com- in. Slie was accepted.— Le Rucher 

menting un the incident, :Mi-. Debieune Beige. 

insists again on the necessity of 

furnishing the bees enough Avater and An apiarist had a colony- which for 
flour to take care of all the brood they four years Avas the best of his apiai-y 
may attempt to raise early iu the by a long way and had nerer swai'med. 
spring. He claims that, contrary to While not exactly gentle by any means,, 
the opinion gen0rally adn\iitted, the it could be handled- The fifth year, 
bees will sometime take flour even af- he decided to requeen, and was sur- 
fer the pollen has appeared in the field, prised to find that the queen which had 
He uses the best wheat flour and puts been so good, was very small, quite 
it in a comb in a sheltered place. The black, with short legs, but exceedingly 
comb is placed horizontally and fur- quick. This shows that with queen 
nishes a foothold for the bees, so they bees as with many other things, ap- 
do not run the risk of being "drowned" pearances can not always be depend- 
in the flour. — Le Rucher Beige. ed on.— Le Rucher Beige. 



It is often diflicult to know exactly 
when to put on the supers. Too soon 
means a loss of heat and thei'efore a 
setback to the work of the colony, and 
too late means a loss of surpuls. Mr. 
Debienne puts the first super on a few 
days before the main honey flow 
comes. At the same time, he uncaps 
whatever old honey is in the brood 
nest. The bees are then forced to car- 
ry it in the super to repair the combs. 
That starts them at once to work in 
the super, rather than crowd the brood 
nest. Needless to say that ^Ir. Debi- 
enne works for extracted honey. — Le 
Rucher Beige. 



Mr. Giot is emphatically in favor of 
placing the extmctiug combs vei-j' far 
apart so the bees will build them very 
thick. There is a saving of wax and 
time for the bees to cap a less number 
of combs. A saving of time for the 
apiarist in handling, uncapping and ex- 
tracting a smaller number of combs 
for the same amount of honey. And 
finally the queen will never lay in such 
deep combs and the bees never deposit 
pollen in them. — Le Rucher Beige. 

The process of wetting a swarm on 
the wing t;> make it settle is well 
known. But sometimes a swarm set- 
tles and before the apiarist can hive it, 
takes "french leave" and departs for 
the woods. To prevent any possibili- 
t.A' of such thing occuring, ^Ir. Wathelet 
gives the settled cluster a good wet- 
ting. That keeps it quiet fee- a while. 
— Le Rucher Beige. 

Mr. Decortis had a colony which re- 
fused to accept a queen. He finally 
smoked it Avith tobacco until the bees 
Avere asphyxiated (not quite dead of 
course), and then merely put the queen 



Another apiarist sold a swarm to a 
neighbor. An unusual actiA^ty was 
soon noticed both by the swarm and 
the old colony. Investigation, Avith 
the help of some flour., soon revealed 
the fact that the swarm was robbing 
the old colony. As the old colony did 
not try at all to repulse the robbers, 
nothing could be done. These i^ro- 
ceedings lasted eight days. Needless 
to say that the neighbor paid the 
owner of the old colony for the honey 
robbed, as near as they couM guess at 
the amount. — Le Rucher Beige. 



The load of nectar that a bee bring!* 
home is estimated at one twentieth of 
a gram (the American pound contains 
4.o2 grams). 2,000 loads or trips are 
therefore required to bring iu lOO 
grams of nectar. But 100 grams of 
nectar contain only 40 grams ®f honey. 
If a colony gathers 10 lbs of honey a 
day or rather the nectar necessary to 
produce it, 250,000 trips will have to be 
made. And if the colony contains 10,- 
000 field bpcs, each bee will have to 
make 25 trips every day- Add to that 
the honey consumed, the pollen and 
water brought in for the brood, and 
we may estimate that during a heaA'y 
flow, every field bee makes 30 or 40 
trips every day. — Le Rucher Beige. 



CHINA. 

In the valley of Anning a tree 
known to the scientists as Ligustrum 
lucidum is found in abundance. In 
the spring the bark of the trunk and 
the limbs, becomes covered with ex- 
ci'escences about the size of a pea. 
Cutting these "peas" in two, shows in 
the interior something like flour, but 
which is really the eggs of the insect 
knoAA'u as the white wax worm. 
These "peas" are gathered and brought 



I90i 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



1G7 



to the city of Chiating. Around 
Chiating are immense orchards or 
woods planted with a kind of ash tree 
(Fraxinus sinensis). The "peas" are 
put in very small sacks and the sacks 
hung to the trees. The sacks are 
made with small holes so as to per- 
mit the insects to come out when they 
hatch. The females lay their eggs in 
the cracks of the bark. The males are 
provided with glands similar to those 
rhat produce the wax from the worker 
bees. They plaster up or rather var- 
nish over the bark of the tree when the 
eggs have been laid with that varnish. 
This varnish is really a kind of wax 
quite white- To harvest it the bark 
covered with the wax, is raked ofC the 
trees and put in boiling water. The 
melted wax comes to the top. 



SPAIN. 

The editor of the Apicultcr tells us 
that Langstroth Revised is now trans- 
lated in Spanish and the translation 
v.'ill be ready next September or there- 
about. 



SWITZERLAND. 

Mr. Kramer in order to study the 
working of the bees put a comb of 
sealed brood from an Italian colony in 
a colony of black bees. At detailed 
report of his observations is given, 
but is too long to insert here. It ap- 
pears that the bees are about three 
days old when they begin to feed the 
queen and the brood. They make 
their first flight when about five days 
old, but do not bring in any nectar or 
pollen until several days older. In 
concluding his communication, he in- 
sists that the condition as to flow of 
nectar, abundance of stores, amount of 
brood, etc., have a considerable influ- 
ence on the working of the bees. If 
necessary quite old bees can take care 
of the brood and quite young bees will 
go to the field rather than starve. — Le 
Rucher Beige. 

An apiculturist of Switzeiiand put a 
comb of eggs and young brood into 
a queenless colony, twenty queen-cells 
were built. Of the 14 cells, two failed. 
Among the .12 queens obtained,nine 
were large, and three small, or rather 
smaller than the other, six were almost 
black, four moi*e yellow and two well 
marked. These two last were among 
the largest. Right here, is an impor- 



tant lesson. In our text books and 
bee-papers the advice is often given, 
in order to prevent second swarms, to 
destroy all the queen cells but one. 
But as we see by the above, the one 
cell left m ly fail, or give an inferior 
queen. Why not cage the last cells 
and select the queen after the hatch- 
ing? — Le Rucher Beige. 



It seems to be the aim of the bee- 
keeping fraternity in Switzerland to 
not only keep the native brown bee in 
its purity but to improve the race by 
selection. I think I have reported be- 
fore that stations have been establish- 
ed for the purpose of mating queen 
bees. Here selected colonies are kept 
to furnish highbred drones, and keep- 
ers may send nuclei colonies with 
virgin queens to their stations and 
Avhen queens are mated have them re- 
turned. This would be pretty expen- 
sive business here in America on ac- 
count of exorbitant express rates and 
long distances. In Switzerland neither 
cut a large figure, and bee-keepers 
avail themselves of the opportunity. In 
selecting breeding stock the motto is: 
"Only the best is good enough." For 
several successive years a bi'eeding 
colony must hare distinguished itself 
by constancy, character, energy, and 
longevity. Hei*e is an idea, I had not 
thought of, but one of the tests of long- 
evity is, a colony with but seven (7) 
broodframes must be able to populate 
a large hive. 



GERMANY. 

Broermann writes in Bwsch. Zen- 
tralblatt of how he prevented swarm- 
ing during the buckwheat season. He 
had discovered that a large portion of 
his prime-swarms as well as the moth- 
er colonies again made preparations 
for swarming. After turning his 
hives bottom side up and leaving them 
thus for eight days swarming was 
given up by his bees. 

(The same thing has been tried here 
when reversible frames and hives had 
their time, but if I remember right did 
not prove altogether a success). 



According to the Phalz Bztg. Distler 
has succeeded in producing a none- 
swarming strain of bees. Two years 
ago he received from his 30 colonies 
only two swarms which were lead by 
virgin queens: last year his bees cast 
no swarms at all. 



168 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



August 



'NeAV and better hives are being in- 
vented all the time. Hartmaunhas 
invented the "ne plus ultra," by means 
of vrhich the yield may be quardi-u- 
pled. I will not tax the reader by a 
description, for the Hartmann hive is 
not universally accepted as anything 
better than we had before. 



ARABIA. 



one everywhere a pest, the other the 
most effective sweetener on earth and 
no mean money raiser. It is as the 
former interferes with the legitimate 
business enterprise of the latter that 
the bee farmer desires to enter his 
vigorous protests. 

Louisiana and Texas are not so sore- 
ly troubled with ant depredations as 
is Florida, where the large red robber 
is a terror, l)nt tlie sum total of tlae 
damage done is not inconsiderable. 
The amount of honey pilfered is far 



The Arabs are quite fond of honey. 
They consume it in its raw state, as an 
ingredient in cake and in drink. It 
does not require very much space for a fi'om the most serious factor. The ex- 
large apiary as the hives are corded up citement in the hives consequent upon 
in two rows closely together on the the visits of these thieves and the loss 
ground. They represent the shape of of time and energy used in largely un- 
pieces of logs, about eight inches in availing chasings count heavilv upon 
diameter and from three to four feet in the labors of the colony, 
length. A covering of grass gives 



them protection from the sun and wind 
Different materials are used to con- 
struct these hives. Some are made 
of the cork oak, some are made of wil- 
low whisps braided together like bas- 



The writer uses with best effect 
stands having feet of half-inch iron, 
eight or ten inches in length, set into 
tin cans, or, better, heavy boarding 
house cups. These cups should fre- 



ket work: some are made of clay Each ^l^^ntly be iilled with Avater, floating 
end of the hives Is closed with a round ^ *"*'^^' ^^'^^^^ '^^ ^^^- ^^ twelve or six- 
piece of bark. When honey is wanted t^*^" ^^^^ stand requires six or seven 
the hive is opened from the back end ^^ these feet. 

and the honey is cut out. To make the stand take two 2x4-s 

At weddings and religious feasts of the required length and securely 

honey is seldom lacking. A common „ail 1x4 pieces 20 inches long into Ihe 

practice is to take butter and honev 



and knead it till it becomes a sort of 
homogeneous mass. A dish of it is 
placed on the middle of the table and 
all sop their bread in it. A drink is 
made of honey, water and lemon juice : 
but whether this is allowed to fer- 
ment or not the Leipz. Bienenztg. does 
not say. The Arabs do not protect 
themselves Avith bee hats and thev 



ends and similar pieces six or eight 
feet apart on Avhat Avill he the loAA'er 
side of the stand. Near the ends bore 
four half-inch holes to AA'ithin a half 
inch through and also one in the mid- 
dle of each long piece or one in the 
middle of the back and two at thirds 
in the front. Into these drive eight 
or ten-inch l»olts or haA'e a smith cut 



AA'ear no pantaloons, but they smudge '-^ half-inch bar into these lengths and 
their bees to subdue them. 



AUSTRIA. 

To make butter more palatable and 
at the same time increase the keep- 
ing qualities Jung-Places advocates in 
Deutsche Imker to add a little honey 
to the butter when making it; about 
one ounce of honey to a i)onnd of but- plans to try crude oil on a small scale 
ter. This is not entirely new, but He Avill raise a ridge several inches 
good and bears repeating. Ino-h for good drainage. This and an 

adjacent strip for some feet he will 

thoroughly saturate, destroying all 
ants within that belt and largely or 



driA'e them. Invert the stand and set 
into cups as directed. Each cup should 
stand on a brick. The hiA-es may 
stand Avithin a few inches of each oth- 
er on this stand, preferably alternate- 
ly facing in opposite directions. 

The great I.ouisiana-Texas oil fields 
may help us to fight ants. The AA'riter 



ANTS AND BEES. 



Our mild Southland is favorable to entirely keej)ing others from approach- 
the rapid increase of these tAvo most ing.— Rice Journal and Gulf Coast 
interesting insect industrialists , the Farmer. 



1004 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



169 




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The theory that the secretion of an 
excess of chyle is responsible for the 
disease, bee-paralysis, as set forth by a 
contributor to Gleaning's some months 
ago, is receiving all kinds of swats and 
knockout blows from the shoulder 
through the Australian press. 



Swarrhmore queen rearing appli- 
ances received first prize at the British 
Royal Show in London, June 2.5 to 30. 



Bees exhil)ited by Messrs. -Faaies Lee 
& Son, which also secured first prize, 
were from Swarthmore stock. An- 
other feather in the cap of American 
beedom. 



The Ladies' Home Journal, which 
took occasion to brush up and again 
roll the old Wiley "chestnut" about 
nianufacturing comb honey, in its June 
issue, has been gaining a little reputa- 
tion for careless statements otherwise. 
In its May issue it purported to en- 
lighten its readers in regard to the in- 
jurious ingredients of certain patent 
medicines on the market. Dr. R. V. 
Pierce promptly instituted suit against 
the publishers, with a result that the 
offending Journal takes it all back and 
apologizes most humbly. Bee-Keepers 
v.-ould be grateful for so wholesome an 
apology for the injustice it has done to 
them. 



"Hitter" a regular conMbutor of 
first class material to the coluaiss of 
the Australasian Bee-Keeper, protests 
against the classing of the dark varie- 
ties of honey as a low-grade product 
simply because of its darker color; and 
calls attention to the fact that honey 
is not necessarily less palatable nor 
less wholesome because it is not wliite. 
He thinks the public should be educat- 
ed to an appreciation of the fact that 
color is not an index of quality. There 
is much sound sense in the suggestion. 
Jellies and jams made fi'om the darker 
varieties of plums or grapes are not re- 
garded as inferior to those made from 
the lighter-colored fruits, nor sold at a 
lower pi'ice. 



Our thanks are due Secretary James 
A. Stone for a copy of the Third An- 
nual Report of the Illinois State Bee- 
Keepers' Association. The report 
comprises 163 pages of solid matter, 
presenting the constitution, by-laws, 
meml)ership li.st and a copy of the law 
which gives the association an appro- 
priation for .$2,000 from the State. 



At the convention of the Illinois 
State Bee-Keepers at Chicago last De- 
cember, Fred W. Muth, president of 
the Fred W. Muth, Company, of Cin- 
cinnati, who, by the way, knows a few 
things about honey himself, asserts the 
belief that Frank Rauchfuss, manager 
of tile Colorado Hone.v Producers' As- 
sociation, is the best-posted honey-man 
in the world. This is rather an envia- 



170 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



August. 



ble distinctiou, and it is interesting to 
luiow who is really "it." By the way, 
Mr. Raucbfuss is the American Be'e- 
Keeper'g Colorado agent, while Mr. 
Muth represents us in Ohio and adja- 
cent territory. The Bee-Keeper Is 
proud of these representatives. 



OBSERVATION HIVES. 

As a result of some correspondence 
v.-ith our readers in regard to observa- 
tion hives we reproduce in this num- 
ber a photograph of one which occupi- 
ed a place at the dining room window 
of the writer's home for several years. 
The hive was constructed to take 
Quinby frames, of which it accomodar- 
ed eight to the story. It is rather a mar- 
ter of regret at this time that the hive 
should not have been photographed in 
its usual position at the window; but 
ill order to include as much as we 
thought necessaiy at the time upon 
the photographic plate, the hive was 
moved back from the camera. It does 
not, therefore, give an idea as to the 
arrangement Avhicli permitted the bees 
to enter and escape, which was as fol- 
lows: 

Placed with the floor-board on a 
level with the window sill, and snugly 
against it, the space between the win- 
dow and the entrance was covered 
with a thin piece of board to which had 
been attached at each end a half inch 
strip. Thus, Avhen the lower sash had 
been lifted and blocked up even with 
the surface of the thin board, it will 
be understood that a passage-way Avas 
provided from the hive to the open air. 
Openings .-'t sides of entrance, below 
sash were then closed with strips of 
wood. 

The liive body was constructed by 
simply substituting for the side-boards 
two fraiu'.'s made of picture frame 
moulding?!, the rabbets of which had 
been reduced by ripping to the thick- 
ness of a double strength gla,ss. These 
were screwed to regular hive-ends, and 
the whole secured to an ordinary bot- 
tom, or floor board, around which was 
mitered another strip of gilt moulding 
to give a finished appeai-ance to the 
job. The ends and flat lid were then 
finished and grained in imitation of 
oak. 

\A'hen a second story became neces- 
cary, frames fitted also with glass were 
used for ends as well as the sides there- 
of. Later a large hole was cut 
through the flat lid and over it was 



placed an inverted glass globe, which 
had formerly been used for exhibitiag 
confectionery or something of that 
kind; and it served to impart the effect 
of a crystal dome which, when tilled 
with white comb honey was really the 
most beautiful part of the contrivance, 
which altogether was quite elaboratfe 
and attractive. We regret now that a 
photopraph of the hive was not taken 
at this latter stage. 

If nothing more, the possession of 
this hive, containing a strong colony 
of bees for several years, proved the 
fallacy of the popular belief that bees 
are reluctant to store honey where it is 
light, for, when crowded for room, and 
in the glass dome, cells, half of which 
the exposed glass really formed, were 
readily used for storing honey as were 
any others. j 

For several years this colony was ^ 
one of the best in the apiary, and it 
wintered perfectly in a room which 
was kept, by means of natural gas 
fuel, at the most comfortable tempera- 
ture for the family. 



our readers whi> have 
uarket, the "rabbit" is 



CUBAN COMPETITION. 
Someone asked W. L. Coggshall whv 
he located so many bees in Cuba. 
Foreseeing the condition Avliich is now 
upon us, and destined to become worse. 
yU: Coggshall replied: "I Avanted to 
be on the other side of the fence when 
the rabbit got out." According lo in- 
formation from 
large crops to m'arl 
out now. One correspondent recently 
wrote that he produced this season 
something over 200 32-gallon barrels ot 
extracted honey. But. like Dr. Blan- 
ton. he finds the market has gone to 
smash; and a trip to New York, a dis- 
tance of ovei' 1,000 miles, elicited no 
other satisfaction than hearing long 
iind strong Cuban honey talk on all 
sides. Tlie largest buyer in the City 
was, in fact, then in Cuba investigating 
the honey situation. It becomes dally 
more evident that The Bee-Keeper was 
a prophet when it warned producers 
of the seriousness of the West Indian 
problem. Mr. Morrison's idea, and 
that of so)ue of our contemporaries 
that the American ])ro(bTcer h,is noth- 
ing to fear from this source, is even 
at this early date becoming buried be- 
neath a burden of actual conditions 
tliat are drepressing in the extreme. 
With Cuba blocking the seaboard mar- 
k(>ts and Mexico coming in on both 



- - . ' ;--^« 




172 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



August, 



sides, it is time the American producer er, and that is the adoption of modern 
did a little thinking, even though he business methods and a thorough cam- 
may "fear" nothing. paign of education among the masses. 



'-KARO KORN" VS. THE REAL 
THING. 

Ml". Morley Pettit, one of Canada's 
I'ising apiarists, recently wrote: "I 
wrote the S. S. Times Co. mildly pro- 
testing against advertising Karo Corn 
syrup as better than honey. I en- 
close ^Ir. Howard's reply., You can 
take the matter up as you see lit." 

Following is the reply of the pub- 
lisher of the Sunday School Times to 
Mr. Pettit's "protest:" 
Dear Sir: 

"Your letter of June 27 has been re- 
ceived. I am not sure that there 
would be entire agreement among ex- 
perts as to your suggestion that honey 
is Nature's purest and most whole- 
some .sweet. 

"Reference to Gleamings in Bee 
Culture of ^lay 15, June 15 and Aug. 
1. 190.3 and to the American Bee-Keep- 
ev of March. June, July and November 
1903 furnish enough facts about honey 
to lead one to ask if after all Karo 
Corn Syrup is not a safer article of 
food. 

"It is our purpose to have only re- 
liable advertisements in The Sunday 
School Times but I do not see any rea- 
son for insisting that the advertiser 
should change the Avord 'better' in 
the adA'ertisement to which you refer. 
"Cordially yours, 

"Philip B. Howard." 

Though 'Sir. Pettit's ambition is 
eminently commendable, it is, obvious- 
ly, useless to ask publishers to turn 
down profitable advertising contracts 
upon the mere assertion of a competing 
industry that the wares of its com- 
petitor are inferior. Notwithstanding 
the fact that bee-keepers are sincere in 
tlie belief that "honey is Natui-e's pur- 
est and most wholesome sweet." as 
suggested by ^Ir. Howard, it is not 
improbable that experts might materi- 
jilly disgrace in regard to some minor 
points which a thoi-ough, scientific in- 
vestigation w(nild involve. It seems 
that everyone should know by this 
time, however, that glucose is not .a 
wholesome food, owing to the acid con- 
tained and -svliich. it api)ears, it is im- 
possible to eliminate during the pro- 
cess of manufacture. As seen from 
our view-point, but one means of i-e- 
lief presents itself to the honey produc- 



ANOTHER BEE— KEEPERS' 
SOCIETY. 

We have received a copy of the 
constitution and by-laws of theSouth- 
western ()hio and Hamilton County 
Bee-Keeper's Association, an organi- 
zation incorporated under the laws of 
the State of Ohio, June 14, 1904, also a 
report of its regular meeting, which 
was held .June 17, from Mr. Henry Red- 
dert, the secretary. 

The ob.lect of the new organization, 
as set forth in its constitution, is: 
"The promotion of apiculture in all its 
branches." 

Hamilton county, we have under- 
stood, already has a most prosperous 
and promising association, with a no 
less worthy object, and we are some- 
what puzzled to know why two bee- 
keepers societies should spring up i-u 
the same county within less than two 
years. The information as to the 
more recent • organization, however, 
comes to hand too late to investigate 
for this number of The Bee-Kee]ier. 

As the membership was not limited 
in the original association, it cannot be 
that a new society was necessary in 
order to meet au overwhelming num- 
ber of applications for admission; and 
the problem becomes more and more 
complex. 

Without inside information, as to 
the actuating motives, we strongly in- 
cline to a belief that a serious error 
has been committed somewhere, as the 
need of a second association in the 
territory already covered is not ap- 
parent. One stt'ong association la 
worth a dozen tottering concerns, none 
of which can hope for a membership 
list sufficiently strong to command 
either recognition or respect. 



"PAT" STILL IN CUBA. 
The surprise of the season comes on 
two postal cards from Cuba, dated July 
10, and signed, "Pat." By way of in- 
troduction our long-lost friend sa.vs: 
"La casa ^^'8 que tiene pocos las ebejas 
y ano 1903 estaba mal, y el punto tam- 
bien not extra fine." Continuing his 
mixture of Spanish, Russian and Eng- 
lish Pat advises, on postal card No. 2 
that he has taken in all since he ar- 
rived in Cuba about 90 fifty-gallon bar- 
rens of extracted honey; 2,500 pounds 



I90i 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



173 



of comb honey and 700 pounds of wax. 

Pat says, "Tengo ahora mucho 
trabajo" (I have now much work), in 
preparing 744 colonies for another 
move — 35 kilometers by stone road, 12 
by train and one and a half kilometers 
bj'' dirt road, and concludes: "I moved 
bees here two times already, and now 
getting ready for another move." 

If ambition and hard work will win 
out, Pat's success is assured. Seven 
hundred and forty-four colonies is an 
encoin-aging start. 



REGARDING THE DEACON. 
In a letter from Mr. H. J. Gardiner, 
dated at Christchurch, New Zealand, 
Feb. 22, and returned to the writer on 
account of insufficient address and re- 
mailed in New Zealand to the editor of 
The Bee-Keeper June 9, Mr. Gardiner 
says: 

'Give my love to the Deacon) I 
like this series of letters very much 
and they are always welcome." 

By this time Mr. Gardiner knows 
something of the difficulties under 
which we are laboring to secure a con- 
tinuation of the Hardscrabble letters 
for our readers. 

We have, we are pleased to say, 
been able to get several incoherent mis- 
sives, as well as some unsatisfactory 
photographs; but our medium advises 
us that he is now working on new lines 
and that within a few days he expects 
to have a very complete message from 
the Deacon. We therefore believe we 
ihall be able to present next month the 
new illustrated series of Hardscrabble 
letters. 

Though rather too indistinct for re- 

roduction ir. halftone, some of the 

hotographs secured are quite intet 

ting, and we shall have cuts made 

'pr next issue of some of these in the 

3vent of our inability to get something 

tronger. Meantime, our readers will 

lease not become neiwous over the 

atter, nor take things too seriously. 



THE EDITORIAL SHEARS. 
In The Bee-Keeper for July was 
|)ublished an article of exceptional 
lerit from the Florida Farmer and 
lit Grower, entitled, "Let the Hon- 
iy Get Ripe." It is so rarely that one 
pnds such reliable matter pei'taining 
apiculture in the agricultural press 
lat we sought to encourage the evi- 
dent talent by repn'oducing with favor- 
)le comment the entire 'editorial." Our 



attention has since been called to the 
fact that the Florida Farmer and Fi-uit 
Grower had absolutely nothing to do 
with originating this matter, which it 
published as original stuff. It Is a 
verbatim reproductiou of an editorial 
which appeared several months ago in 
the American Bee Journal, of Chicago. 
Whether the Florida Farmer and Fi-uit 
Grower stole the article from the Bee 
Journal, or not, we do not know; but it 
must have been aware of the fact that 
it was using reprint and not original 
matter — and using it without credit. If 
an agricultural periodical is too poor 
to employ competent talent to edit its 
various departments it should be hon- 
orable enough to give due credit to 
those upon whom it has to depend for 
its supply. "Faking" matter in this way 
is one of the most contemptible tricks 
of which any office • an be guilty; and 
if the general public is not aware of its 
thieving propensities itt.i contempor- 
aries are, and pity its vain ambition. 



Once more the editor begs to kindly 
and earnestly request his readers to 
send all remittances and letters per- 
taining to business matters to the 
Falconer, N. Y. office, and not to 
Florida. Your careful attention to 
and compliance with this request will 
greatly facilitate our work. Requests 
for sample copies or reports of non- 
receipt of The Bee-Keeper by sub- 
scribers may be sent to the editorial 
office. Fort Pierce, Fla. All ai'ticles 
intended for publication should also 
be sent direct to the editor; but all 
else should invariably be addressed to 
the business office, as stated — at Fal- 
coner, N. Y. 



Bees. 

A writer, from Portland, Oregon, 
sends to the Indiana Farmer an ac- 
count of his experience with bees in 
that western country. 

A friend, losing his health, was ad- 
vised to change his locality. He set- 
tled in the hill connti-y of our Oregon 
coast, and started with a few swarms 
of bees. 

Instead of selling his honey at iirst, 
he made it his staple diet, and entire- 
ly recovered his lost digestive powers. 
Gradually adding to his stock, togeth- 
er with the knowledge of manipulat- 
ing it, he has become the "bee-master" 
for the whole country side, adding 
thus to the good income made from 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



174 

his bee-prodnce. At the same time his 
occupation never becomes stale and 
flat; his interest in the wonderful lit- 
tle creatures never abating, while he 
keeps on learning more about bees and 
their ways. For years I took the same 
pleasure in bee-keeping, and but for 
altered circumstances and surround- 
ings, would do so still. 

In ray childhood the old country su- 
perstitions of Devonshire amused me. 
The bee-master would arrive, making 
a great racket with pots and pans to 
mesmerize his bees. He would not al- 
low us to purchase any, (with money) 
as being unlucky. He installed a new 
swarm with incantations, insisting on 
one of the family repeating the name 
of all the rest to them, "Or else," he 
explained, "It's In high dudgeon, that 
they'll leave ye!" They were to be in- 
formed too of a wedding or a .death, 
or "there never be no luck about the 
house!" 

The colony looked very picturesque 
each on its own stand in straw "keps," 
and straw thatch over them surmount- 
ed with a top-knot. 

Some years later Ave had Sir .Tohn 
Lulibock for a neighbor. He was liv- 
ing at the time on familiar terms with 
the bees, a glass window from their 
hive being right in his study, where 
his scientific observations were made. 
It was then that our gardener always 
kept a hive in his forcing houses for 
apricots, nectarines and peaches. "It 
saves me a sight o' time and trouble!" 
he would say. "for it's the bees what 
does ray fertilization for me. I don't 
'ave to bother with Addling little camel 
hair brushes!" Yet for fear they 
should not get enough for their bee- 
liread, I used to put out peaflour for 
their use; and it always managed to 
disappear. 

In the early days of our Oregon 
rai'jh, we had an Englishman with us 
wno had a regular bee mania. He was 
too scientific to be practical, and the 
queens from Palentine, Cyprus, and 
Italy ate up the profits that we should 
have made. The bee experiences 
that he poured into my delighted ears 
from time to time were most enter- 
tainng as well as startling. I studied 
my "Root" and took the greatest inter- 
est in the wonderful little sprites. Aft- 
er he had left us, and during the rent- 
ing of our beloved ranch, the foreign 



August, 



treasures went off on their aerial hon- 
ey moon with "burnt wood" scrubs 
obedient to "the call of the wild!" 
Our sons are now forever coming upon 
wild bee-trees in snug canyons or on 
the open hill side, of evident mixed 
breed. 

One can always get a pleasure out 
of bees, realizing what others have 
witnessed, viz., the order of the little 
community; the regulated activities- 
even to the watchman, and the hot-. 
Aveather gate fanner,— the indefati- 
gable nurses, the makers of the se- 
cret "royal jelly' for the embryo 
queens; the carrying off dead bodies 
to "without the camp" and many oth- 
er Avonders! 

And yet the bees are said to work 
only four hours a day, and live only 
six" weeks. Clever as they are, a good 
bee keeper knows hoAV to deceive and 
circumvent them Avhen necessary, 
keeping them under his scientific con- 
trol. 

In proportion to time wisely spent 
on them, more financial profit can, I 
think, be made on most things. Of 
course knoAvledge and facility in hand- 
ling them is needed; the locality be- 
ing adapted to their supplies, and the 
climate to their constitutions! With us, 
they work first on the vine maple, 
theia on orchard and wild bloom. La- 
ter on the much abused fox gloA^e 
takes their fancy, and Avhite clover 
first and last and all the time. Buck- 
wheat makes a good special crop as 
we shall not be likely to take them 
punting up and down stream, as did 
the Sctotch folk, in search of pastures 
neAV. Until he has become "immune" 
the bee-keeper must have ammonia 
handy in case of stings, for, as the 
Chinaman says, "'Melican butterfly, 
him bad! Him prick heap hard." 



Editor R. L. Pender, of the Austral- 
asian Bee-Keeper, West Maitland, N. 
S. W., is now in America and recently 
paid our business office a short visit. 



Bees Killed Horses. 

Mishawaka, Ind., July 19.— A team 
of horses belonging to H. W. Grant, a 
rural mail carrier, were stung to death 
yesterday by a swarm of bees. The 
horses, while grazing overturned a bee- 
hive. The honey gatherers attacked 
the horses and stung them until they 
both dropped dead. 




ONE-HALF INCH SPACE ONE YEAR ON THIS PAGE, $3.00. 



HE A. I. ROOT CO., MEDlisA, OHIO. 
Breeders of Italian bees and queens. 



QUEENS from Jamaica any day in the 
year Untested, 66c.; tested, $1.00; se- 
lect tested, $1.50. Our queens are reared from 
the very finest strains. Geo. W. Phillips, Sav- 
La-Mar P O., Jamaica, W. I. (5-5) 



I AWRENCE C. MILLER. BOX 1113, PROVI- 
*-- DEXCE. R. I., is filling orders for the popu- 
lar, hardy, honey-getting Providence strain of 
Queens. Write for free information. 



p- H. W. WEBER, CINCINNATI, OHIO 

P^' (Cor. Central and Freeman Aves. ) 
Golden yellow. Red Clover and Carniolan 
queens, bred from select mothers in separate 
t apiaries. 



lOHN M. DAVIS, SPRING HILL, TENN.. 
^ sends out the choicest 3-banded and gold 
en Italian queens that skill and experience 
can produce. Satisfaction guaranteed. No 
disease. 



KUIRIN, the Queen Breeder, has an ex- 
ceptionally hardy strain of Italian bees; 
;h^ wintered on their summer stands within 
I few miles of bleak Lake Erie. Send for 
Free Circular. Bellevue, Ohio. (5-5) 



C WARTHMORE APIARIES, SWARTH- 
'--' MORE, PA. Our bees and queens are 
the brightest Italians procurable. Satisfaction 
guaranteed. Correspondence in English, 
French, German and Spanish. Shipments to 
all parts of the world. 



QUEEN BEES are now ready to mail. 
Golden Italians, Red Clover three-banded 
queens and Camiolans. We guarantee safe 
arrivaL The Fred W. Muth Co., 51 Walnut 
St., Cincinnati, Ohio. (5-5) 



w. 



Z. HUTCHINSON, FLINT, :\[iCH. 
Superior stock queens, $1.50 each; 
queen and Bee-Keepers' Review one year for 
only $2.00. 



M 



OORE'S LONG-TONGUED STRAIN 
of Italians become more and more popu- 
lar each year. Those who have tested them 
know why. Descriptive circular free to all. 
Write J. P. Moore, L. Box 1, Morgan, Ky. 4 



pUNIC BEES. All other races are dis- 

^ carded after trial of these wonderful bees. 

Particulars post free. John Hewitt & Co., 
ShefBeld, England. 4 



HONEY DEALERS^ DIRECTORY | 



^"Qnder this heading will be inserted, for reliable dealers, two lines one 
year for $1.25. Additional w^ords, 12c a word. No announcement can 
be accepted for less than one year at these rates...^gg| 



OHIO. 


COLORADO. 


C H. W. WEBER, Freeman and Central 
Aves., Cincinnati, Ohio. If for sale, mail 
sample, and state price expected delivered 
in Cincinnati. If in want, write lor prices, 
and state quality and quantity wanted. 

(5-5) 


THE COLORADO HONEY PRODUCERS' 
ASS'N, 1440 Market St., Denver, Colo. 5-5 




We are always in the market for extracted 
honey, as we sell unlimited quantities. Send 
us a sample and your best price delivered 
here. THE FRED W. MUTH CO., 51 
Walnut St., Cincinnati, Ohio. (5-5) 


ILLINOIS. 


R. A. BURNETT & CO., 199 South Water 
Street, Chicago. (5-5) 



HONEY AND BEESWAX 

MARKET. 

Hamburg, Germany, June 15— The tendency of 
the honey market is still downward, contrary to 
expectation. The reports from Cuba and Califor- 
nia hardlv justify it. California whit«, 7.63 per 
50 kllogra'm ; light amber, 6.80. For baking, yel- 
low Cuba honey is preferred. For table use, the 
fancy white has the preference. Cuba yellow, 
3.71 per 100 lbs.; fancy white, in squre tin cans, 
4.77 per case. Demand not till fall and prices will 
vary or change, accordmg to supply and demand. 

L. Gabain. 

Kansas City, Mo., July 8 — We have received a 
few shipments of new comb honey from the West 
and find the demand equal to the supply. We 
quote: Fancv white, 24 section cases, $2.85 to 83.00, 
No. 1 white, 24 section cases, $2.75. There is 
scarcely any demand for extracted at present; 
market 5 1-2 to 6 cents for white stock. Beeswax 
per lb. 30 cents. C. C. demons A Co, 

Chicago, July 7 — There is a plentiful supply of 
honey of all kinds on the market, with no sales 
being made; prices therefore cannot be more than 
on an asking basis. Very little, if any, choice to 
fancy comb, but a large amount of what would 
average Xo. 1 is ofTered at lOo to 12c. no sale for 
off grades or damaged lots. Extracted White, 6 
to 7c, ambers, 5 to fie. Beeswax, 2Sc to 30c. 
R. A. Burnett & Co., 

199 South Water Street. 



Cincinnati, Ohio, June 15. — The demand for 
honey is slow for this season of the year, 
which is due to the vast quantities that were 
held over from last season, and the importa- 
tion of Cuban honey. We quote amber, in 
barrels and cans, at 5J4 to 6J^ cents. White 
clover, 6V^ to 8 cents. Beeswax, 30 cents. 
The Fred W. Muth Co., 

No. 51 Walnut Street. 



Dublin, Ireland, June 8.— Old crop all 
cleared up. No new stock offering yet. 

O. & R. Fry. 



Cent'a=Word Column. 



'INCREASE" is the title of a little book- 
let by Swarthmore; tells how to make up 
winter losses without much labor and with- 
out breaking up full colonies; entirely new 
plan. 25 cents. Prospectus free. Aa- 
dress E. L. Pratt, Swarthmore, Pa. 7 tf 



Boston, July S— Our market on honey, both 
comb and extracted, is practically in a slumber- 
ing condition as there is really no call whatever. 
Prices remain as before quoted, but are re»lly on- 
ly nominal. Blake, Scott it Lee. 



Denver, Colo., June 11. — The supply of ex- 
tracted honey is plentiful, with slow demana. 
We quote today as follows: No. 1 white, per 
case of 24 sections, $2.75. Extracted, in a 
local way, 7 to V/i cents. Beeswax, 22 to 28 
cents. Arrival of small fruits has depressing 
effect on honey market. We are cleared up 
on comb honey. 

Colorado Honey Producers' Assn., 

1440 Market Street. 

Matanzas, Cuba, May 26.— Old crop is about 

all sold. Last sales were at 26 cents a gallon; 

one cent additional for each gallon in casks. 

Beeswax is quoted at $31.25, Spanish gold, per 

w t. luan Landeta. 



FOR SALE— A Hawkeye, Jr., Camera com- 
plete. Uses both film and plates. Cost $3.00, 
will sell with leather case for $i.50 cash. 
Address Empire Washer Co., Falconer, N. 
Y. 



A TANDEM BICYCLE (for man and lady) 
cost J150, in first-class condition, was built to 
order for the owner. Tires new. Will sell 
for ?25 cash. Satisfaction guaranteed. Ad- 
dress J. Clayborne Merrill, 130 Lakeview, 
ave., Jamestown, N. Y. 



AGENTS WANTED to sell advertising nov- 
ties, good commission allowed. Send for 
catalogue and terms. American Manufac-' 
turing Concern, Jamestown, N. Y. 



WANTED— To exchange six-month's trial 
subscription to The American Bee-Keeper 
for 20 cents in postage stamps. Address, 
Bee-Keeper, Falconer, N. Y. 



When writing to advertisers mentioi 
The American Bee-Keeper. 



The Pacific States Bee Journal 

AND THE 

Rocky Mountain Bee Journal 

Have been cousolidated, and 
will hereafter be published as 
one journal under the name, 

WESTERN BEE JOURNAL 

The new publication will be 
larger and better than either of 
its predecessors, and its pub- 
lisher will make every effort to 
make it the best bee journal 
published anywhere. It is pub- 
lished in the west, where the 
largest apiaries in the world are 
located, and is therefore most in 
touch with what is best and 
most practical in beedom. 

Write for free Sample copy. 

Subscription $1.00 per annum. 

P. F. ADELSBACH, 
Editor and Publisher, 
HANFORD, CALIFORNIA 






Subscription Agencies. 

Subscriptions for the Ameri- 



•I 

2 can Bee-Keeper may be entered © 

3 through any of the following C 
J ag'ents, when more convenient © 
I than remitting to our offices at §! 



^ 



J Fort Pierce, Florida, or James- g 

I town, N. Y.: © 

i J. E. Jonhson Williamsfield, © 

I •^*- c 

a The Fred W. Muth Company, © 

I 51 Walnut St., Cincinnati, Ohio. © 

^ John W. Pbarr. Berclair, Tex. f! 



National Bee=Keepers' Association, 

The largest bee-keepers' society in the 
world . 

Organized to protect and promote the 
interests of its members. 

Memb ership Fee, $1.00 a Year. 

N.E.FRANCE, Platteville, Wis., 

General Manager and Treasurer. 



5 Miss S. Swan, Port Burwell, © 

^ Ontario. 

3 G. A. Nunez, Stann Creek, 

J British Honduras. 

^ Walter T. Mills, Burnham, N. 

^ Rochester, Kent Co., Ivan House, 

3 England. 

I G. J. S. Small, Marton, Wang- © 

J anul, New Zealand. S 

J H. H. Robinson, Independencla C 

J 16, Matanzas, Cuba 



t 



% 



Colorado Honey Producers' © 



I Association, 1440 Market St., © 
a Denver, Colo. ^ 




A Boon 
For 



PoDltrfKeepBrs 



How we make our hens pay 400 
per cent, proflt. new system, our 
own method, fully explained in 
i om- Illu.<4trated Poultry Book, which contains 
I PouUry Keepers' Aoc't and Esg Record showing 
gains or losses every month for oneyear. Worth 25 
I cts, sent to you for lt)c. If you will send names of 5 
I noultrv keepers with your order; Address, 
e. 8. VIBBERT. P.B. 56. Cliutonville. Conn 



CASH FOR YOl 

The American Bee-Keeper is in the market to buy arti- 
cles on bee-keeping subjects. Articles with photographs 
to illustrate are especially desired. We will pay well for 
good work. We want reporters in all parts of the world. 
Give us an opportunity to bid on your pen productions 
and the results of your photographic skill. Address, 

THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 

Fort Pierce, Fla. 



r^Special Notice to Bee=keepcrs! 

I BOSTON 

I Money in Bees for You. 

8 Catalog Price on 

ROOT^S SUPPLIES 

Catalog for the Asking. 



a/a/^ 



F. H. Farmer, 182 Friend St., 
Boston, Mass. 

LUp First Flight 



■::rJ_rE'rrP^r='rSI^-r^J 



^l-3J=?-'SJS]-^'^-f^ 



ICAVEATS, TRADE MARKS, 

i COPYRIGHTS AND DESIGNS. 

> Send your business direct to WashinRton, i 
' saves time, costs less, better service. 

> My office close to U. S. Patent Office. FREE preUmin- 

> ary Examinations made. Atty^a fee not dne until patent 

> is secured. PERSONAL ATTENTION GIVEN-19 YEARS 
» ACTUAL EXPERIENCE. Book "How to obtain Patents," 

iSrrs^ciarn^s^i^c^-'^wtt.^^rtt^^ 
JNVENTIVE ACE; 

JmuBtrated monthly-Eleventh year-terms. $1. a year.; 

, 918 FSt.. N. W.,| 

J, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Put 

Your 

Trust 




In 

Providence! 

Queens, 



Introduce new blood now tor next season's j 
service. 

Ti ROVlDENCE fi UEENS 
1 rove Their IJlJALlTiES 

To be of the Highest. 
LAWRENCE C. MILLER, 

p. O.Box 1113. Providence, R. I. 



Klf, EINGHAI 
5 has made all tho im- 
provements in 

k Bee Smokers a^iid 

€ Honey Knives 

made in ilie last 20 years, undou'Dt-.lly 
he makes the best on earth. 

Smoke Engine, 4 inch stove, none too Jury- s"nt 

postpaid, per mail * ' ^^'J* 

aHi inch l.'.O 

Knife, SO cents. 3 inch l-'iO 

2^ inch M'J- 

r. F. Bingham, j^l-^^-,-2,,; i» 

Farwell, Wlich. 



20pBrctnt P ofit 

Pineapples, Oranges, Grape Fruit 

Make a Specialty for Non-Resident Owners 
and Intending Settlers in the 

Lovely Lake Region of South Florida. 

20 er cent, aniiual return on investment. 

Pure air, pure water, no mosquitoes. High 
pine and oak land, bordered by fresh water 
lakes, suited to all citrus fruits and pineapples. 
Good title. Time payments. Address for de- 
scriptive matter, W. E. Pabor, Manager Pa- 
bor Lake Pineries, Avon Park, Fla. tf 



Pate-t Wired Comb Foundation 

has no sag in brood frames. 

TMn Flat Bottom Fou idattoi 

has no Fish-bone in Surplus Honey. 

Being fhe cleanest is usually worked the 
quickest of any foundation made. The talk 
about wiring frames seems absurd. We furnish 
a Wired Foundation that is Better, Cheaper 
and not half the trouble to use that it is to 
wire brood frames. 

Circulars and sample free. 

J. VAN DEUSEN <£ SONS, 

Sole Manufacturers 

Montgomery Co., Sprout Brook, N. Y. 



I. J. STRINQHAM, 105 Park PL, N. Y. City 

Keeps a full stock of hives, sections, and smokers— in fact 

everything a bee-keeper uses. 

Colonies of Italian Bees, in shipping boxes, $5.75 

3 fr. nuc. col, - - - " ^'j^ 

Unt. Italian Qtjeens, - - - '^ 

Tested Italian Queens, - - - **^" 

Apiaries. Glen Cove, L. I. Catalog free. 



THE ONLY GERMAN AGRICULTIRAL MONTH- 
LY IN THE INITED STATES Ji^^^^^^^ 

FARM UND HAUS 

The most carefully edited German 
Agricultural journal. It is brimful of 
practical information and useful hints 
for the up-to-date farmer; devoted to 
stock raising, general farming, garden- 
ing, poultry, bee-keeping, etc., and con- 
tains a department for the household, 
which many find valuable. Another de- 
partment giving valuable receipts and 
remedies called "Hasarzt," in fact every 
number contains articles of real prac- 
tical use. 

Price only 35 CENTS per year. Sam- 
ple copy free. 

Send subscriptions to, 

FARM UND HAUS 

& tf. BLUFFTON, OHIO. 



Attica Lithia Springs Hotel 

Lithia-SulpDur Water aud Mud Baths 
Xaturp's Own Great Cure for 

...RHEUMATISM.... 

and Kindred Diseases, such as Liver 
and Kidney Complaints, SItin and 
BI«od Biseases, Constipation, Nervous 
Prostration, etc. 

A new and up-to-date hotel. Large, airy, 
lin;ht and finely furnished rooms, with Steam 
Heat, KlectricLi-hts, Hot and Cold Water 
on en eh floor. Rates inoludins Room, Board, 
Mud Baths, Lithia-Sulphur Wiiter Baths and 
Medical Atte<]dnnc>e (no extras) $3.50 and 
J3.00 a dav, acoordinsj to room. 

WRITE FOR BOOKLET. 

Address Box 3, 



tf 



Lithia Springs Hotel, Attica, Ind. 



Are You Looking for a Home? 

No farmer should think of buying land 
before seeing a copy of THE FARM AND 
REAL ESTATE JOURNAL. It contains 
the largest list of lands for sale of any 
paper published in Iowa. Reaches 30,000 
readers each issue, and is one of the best 
advertising mediums to reach the farmers 
and the Home-Seekers that you can ad- 
vertise in. For 7oc. we will mail yoni the 
Journal for 1 year, or for ten cents in 
silver or stamps we will send you the 
Journal 2 months on trial. Address, 

Farm and Real Estate Journal, 

TRAER, TAMA CO., IOWA, 

10-tf. 



Strawberries. 

Young-, healthy, fresh, vigor- 
ous stock in prime conditioi? for 
spring planting. 

All 

Leading 

Varieties 

Write for prices and terms. 

MONROE STRAWBERRY CO., 

Box 66 MONROE, MICH. 



EXTRACTED HONEY. 

Mail Sample, state lowest price expected delivered Cincinnati. 
I pay prompt on receipt of goods. 



iOLDEN ITALIANS 

Untested. i, 75c. 



RED CLOVER 

6, $4.00. 



CARNIOLANS 

12, $7.50. 



C. H. W. WEBER, 



Ice and Salesrooms 2146-48 Central Ave. 
Farehouses— Freeman and Central Aves. 



CiNCINNATI, OHIO. 



La Compania 
Manufacturera Americana 

ofrece los mas reducidos precios en to- 
da clasc dc articulos para Apicultorcs. 
Nucstra Fabrica es una de las mas 
grandes y mas antiguas dc America. 
Especialidad en Colmenas, Ahumadores 
para Colmenas, Extractores, etc. In- 
ventores y perfeccionadores de muchos 
articulos de suma utilidad en la Apicul- 
tura. Enviamos gratis nuestro catalogo 
y precios a quienes lo solicitcn. Dinja- 

°^* *THE AMERICAN MFG. CO., 

Jamestown, N. Y., E. U. A. 



Chance 

Of a Life Time. 




100 



Wanted to raise 
Belgians 



The only strictly agricultural 
paper published in this State. The 
only agricultural paper published 
every week. It goes to every post 
office in State of Tennessee and to 
many offices in Kentucky, Alabama, 
Georgia, Mississippi, Arkansas, 
Texas, Florida and Louisiana. It 
is the official organ of the Agricul- 
tural Department of Tennessee and 
Live Stock Commission. Subscrip- 
tion $1 per year in advance. 

Tennessee Farmer Pub. Co^ 
^ Nashville, Tenn. 



Send for particulars and sample copy 
of the only 

Belgian Hare Journal 

Published in America. 

Judge R. J. FINLEY, 

227 Lamb St , MACON, Mo. 



BEGINNERS. 

shoM.Jbaveacopy of 

The Amateur Bee-keeper, 

a 70 pa-e book, by Prof. J. W. Rouse; written er 
pcclallyfor amateurs. Second edition just on 
First edition of 1,000 sold in less than two year* 
Editor York says: "It i« the finest little book pub- 
lished at the present time." Price 24 cenU; by 
mail 2s cents. The little book and 

The Progressive Bee-keeper, 

Ca liTC, progressive, 28 page monthly journal.) on* 
year for 6bc. Apply to any first-class dealer, or 
address 

LEAHY MFG- CO., HigginsrUle, m.. 



To Subscribers of 
THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 

And Others! 

Until Further Notice 

We Will Send The 

Country 
Journal 

to any address in the U. S. A. one 
year for 10 cents, providing you 
mention American Bee-Keeper. 

The Country Journal treats on 
Farm, Orchard and Garden, Poul- 
try and Fashion. It's the best pa- 
per printed for the price. 

Address 

The Country Journal, 

Allentown, Pa. 



W. M. Gerrish. R. F. D., Epping, N. H. 
keeps a complete supply °^ °?'^Z -Jtr 
Eastern customers will save freight by order 

ing of him. 

The W. T. Falconer Mfg. Co. 



AGENTS Wanted "washing Machines. 

You can double your money every time you sell one 

and they sell easily. We have sold over 150,000 in the last fourteen years. They 
are cheaper than ever. Catalogue Free. 

The Empire Washer Co. , Jamestown, N.Y. 




The Iowa 

Horticultural 

Paper. 

Monthly, 
50 cents 
per year. 

It is unique, 
planned on 
original lines. 

You cannot 
be up-to-date 
u fruit growing unless you read it. 

Balance of this year free to new 
;ubscribers. 

THE FRUITMAN, 

Mt. Vernon, Iowa. 



WTENTS 



promptly obtained OR NO FEE. Trade-Marks, 

Cavnats. Copyrights and Labels registered. 

TWENTY YEARS' PRACTICE. Highest references. 

I Send model, sketch or photo, for free report j 

Ion patentability. All business confidential. 

HAND-BOOK FREE. Explains everything. Tells 

How to Obtain and Sell Patents, What Inventions 

Will Pay, How to Get a Partner, explains best 

I mechanical movements, and contains 300 other 

I subjects of importance to inventors. Address, 

H. B. WILLSON & CO. ■'""' 



790 F Street North, 



Attorneys 
WASHINGTON, D.C.i 




BARNES' 

Foot Power MachiDery, 

This cut represents our 
Combined Machine, which 
is the best machine made 
for use in the construction 
of Hives, Sections, Boxes, 
etc. Sent on trial. Send for 
Catalogue and Price List. 
W. F. & J. BARNES CO., 
913 Ruby St., Rockford.111. 



50 YEARS' 
EXPERIENCE 




Trade Mahks 

Designs 

Copyrights &c. 

Anyone sending a sketch and description may 
quickly ascertain our opinion free whether an 
invention is probably patentable. Communica- 
tions strictly confidential. Handbook on Patents 
sent tree. Oldest agency for securing patents. 

Patents taken througb Munn & Co. receive 
special notice, without charge, in the 

Scientific American. 

A handsomely illustrated weekly. Largest cir- 
culation of any scientific journal. Terms, $3 a 
year ; four months, $1. Sold by all newsdealers. 

IVIUNN4Co.36'Broadway.NewYork 

Branch Office. 625 F St., Washington, B. C. 



ATHENS, GA, 



Subscription, . . . . 50 Cents a Year. 



Published the First of Every Month 

and Circulates in Every 

Southern State. 



ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLI- 
CATION. 



HOME SEEKERS 

AND INVESTORS, who are interest 
ed in tlie Soutliern section of the 
Union, should subscribe for THE 
DIXIE HOIMESEEKER, a handsomt 
illustrated magazine, describing: the 
industrial development of the South, 
and its many advantages to homeseek- 
ers and investors. Sent one year on 
trial for 1.5c. Address, 

THR DIXIE HOMESEEKER, 
West Appomattox, Va tf 



Honey 



PRODUCTION 

AND 

SELLING. 



These are the two main problems of the bee-keeper, and each is as im- 
portant as the other. Many can produce fine lioney,but fail to get the best 
prices. Your crop in attractive packages is half sold. The first honey in 
tile market sells thje best; so don't put off ordering supplies. 

No-drip Shipping Cases. 

Do not put your section honey in 
poorly made section cases. It avIU 
l)ring less if you do. We make our 
ca,ses of white- bass-wood, and they 
are constructed so they will not leak, 
Neither do the sections get stuck ui 
with honey.' Made for all kinds o1 
sections, and in all sizes. Also glass^ 
for fronts. For retailing honey then 
is notliing neater than the Danzj 
Carton. A,sk for our catalogue givinj 
complete, prices and descriptions. 




Hersiiiser Jars. 

The ifinest of all glass pack- 
ages for extracted honey. Made 
of clear glass with aluminum 
caps, which iseal them tight. We 
sell other styles of glass pack- 
ages. Don't fail to study the 
candied honey question. Thwo 
is a great fiiture for this. We 
sell the famous Aiken Honey 
BaK for retiiiling caiidied honey. 
See our general catalogue for 
further descrii)tion and prices. 







Five-Gallon Tin Cans. 

The favorite package for shippii 
extracited hoht^y. No leaking, 
tainted honey. The cans being .scpiar 
oconoihize spa(ce, and are easily boxe 
Also smaller sizes. Cans furnislu 
witli difliM-ent widths of screw ca) 
or honey gates. Don't fail to get o\ 
It,rices before ordering. Uememl) 
that freight charges ,sho)ild b«> oo 
sidered with tlie i)rices. We can sh 
from our branch houses. 



f 



Complete Description and Trices in General Catalogue. 

THE A. I. ROOT CO. 

Factory and Executive Office - = MEDINA, 0H| 

RRANCITES—Chicago, 111., 144 East Erie St.; Philadelphia. I'a., 10 Vine St. 
New York (3ity, N. Y., 44 Vesey .St.; Syracuse. N. V.; M(H-lianic Falls.Mr 
St. Paul, Minn., 1<>24 Miss. St.; San Antonio, Texas; Washington, D. ( 
1100 Md. Av.; Havana, Cuba, 17 San Ignacio; Kingston, .Jamaica, % 
Harbour St. 



f 



Homes in 

Old Virginia. 

It is gradually brought to light 
that the Civil war has made great 
changes, freed the slaves, md in 
consequence has made the large 
land owners poor and finally freed 
the land from the original owners 
who would not sell until they were 
compelled to do so. There are some 
of the finest lands in the market at 
very low prices, lands that produce 
all kinds of crops, grasses, fruits, 
and berries; fine for stock. You 
find green truck patches, such as 
cabbage, turnips, lettuce, kale, 
spinach, etc., growing all the win- 
ter. The climate is the best all the 
year around to be found, not too 
cold nor too warm. Good water. 
Healthy. Railroads running in 
every direction. If you desire to 
icnow all about Virginia send 10c. 
for three months subscription oT 

the VIRGINIA FARMER to 

Farmer Co., Emporia, Va. 



There is no trade or profession better catered to 
t>y good journals than that of the farmer. Unin- 
telligent unprogressiveness has now no excuse. 



IS a 
luxucj' 



A BATH 

wher UMPIRE 
taken in an ^ Portable 

Folding BATH TUB. 

Used in any room. 
AOKNTS Wanted. 
Catalogue Free. 
- THt EMPIRE 
^WASHER CO., 
Jamestown, N.r. 




$25,000.00 CASH 

in. 500 prizes. First prize, $10,000.00. T( 
those making nearest correct puesses of thi 
total popular rote to be cast November Sth 
1904, for President of the United States. 

There are eight special prizes of $500.00 eacl' 
for early estimates. 
This may be fortune's knock at your dooi 
It costs nothing to enter the contest am 
only a postage stamp for particulars. Addres 
Hostcrman Publishing Co., Box 16, Spring 
field, Ohio. 



THE DIXIE HOME MAGAZINI 

10c a year. Largest, Brightest and Finest lllustrnt( 
Magazine in the World for 10c a year, to Intri 
duce it only. 

It is brislit and ni)-to-(lato. Toll 
all about Southern Home Life. It 
full of fine engravings of grand scoi 
ery, buildings and' famous poopli 
Send at ouce. 10c. a year post]i!ii' 
anywhere in the U. S., Canada an, 
Mexico. 3 years 50c. Or, clubs of 
names 50c., 12 for $1. Send us a clnl 
Money back if not delighted. Stainj 
taken. Cut this out. Send today. 

TIIR DIXIE HOME, 

Birmingham. Ala. 

When writing, mention the Am. BeeKeeper. 



POULTRY success C( 

THE 20th CENTURY POULTRY 
MAGAZINE. 

1.5t+i year. 32 to 64 pages. Beautifully 
lustrated, up-to-date and helpful. Best kno\ 
writers. Shows readers how to succeed wi 
poultry. 50 CENTS PKR YEAR. Spec 
introductory "offers: 10 months, 25 cents, .i 
eluding large practical poultry book free; fo 
montbsl trial, 10 cents. Stamps accept( 
Sample copy free. Poultry Success Co., Dei 
16, Springfield, Ohio, or DesMoines, Iowa 



When writing to advertisers menti< 
The American BeeKeeper. 



SHINE! 

The Empire \\'asher Company, Jamestown, 
N. v., makes a Shine Cabiret, furnished with 
foot stand, blacking, russet dressing, shoe 
rubber — in fact, all articles and materials need- 
ed to keep shoes looking their best — rnd it is 
made to be fastened to the wall of the toilet 
room or kitchen. It does away with the vexa- 
tious searching after these articles which is 
altogether too common.. A postal will bring 
you details of this and other good things. 



American 




BEE 



Journa 



16 -p. Weekl 

Sample Fre 

US' AU about Bees and the 

profitable care. Bes t writer 

Oldest bee paper; illustrate 

Departments f<ir beginue 

and for women bee-keepers. 

Address, 

GEORGE W. YORK & CO., 

144 & 146 Erie St. ChicagoJi. 



f-^f-^p*|-^ Send 10 cents for one ywir's si; 
P l\ Cl sc'Pt'on to AMKIUCAN STOKI 
V'-'"-' the best monthly mngaziiH" pi 
lisheil, iind wo will send yon samples of UK) oth 
magazines, nil (filYorcnt, free. AMERIC/ 
STORIES, Dopt. H. I)., Grand Rapids, Mieh. 



■—^■"'"infiriiiiniii 



Bee H i ves 
Sections 



EVERYTHING 

THAT IS USED BY BEE-KEEPERS CAN BE 
PROCURED OF US AS CHEAPLY AS ANY- 
WHERE, AND WE KNOW. 

Our Goods are Superior 

BOTH IN MATERIALS AND WORKMAN- 
SHIP TO THOSE OF ANY COMPETITOR. 

One Trial Will Convince You 

THAT'S ALL WE ASK. WE KNOW YOU 
WILL NEVER BUY OF ANYBODY ELSE. 

Our new illustrated catalog and price list is now- 
ready. Send for one on a postal card. 



<^ 



The W. T. 
FALCONER MAIMFG. CO., 

JAMESTO\A/Ni, N. Y. 



THE BEST PRINTED PAPER 



^ ^ IN FLORIDA ej* J- 



Located in tbe Heart of the Cel- 
irated Pineapple Belt and sur- 
rounded by many of the finest 
orange groves on the Indian Riv- 
er. Fort Pierce Is the largest and 
most important town in Brevard 
county and 



The FORT PIERCE NEWS 



is the best paper in the county 
and the best weekly in Florida. 
It contains reliable information 
about this section in evei-y issue. 
Only $1.00 a year. Write for 
sample copy. tf. 

The News^ Fort Pierce,FIa 



$250.00 liV PRIZES 

Will be given away for 
the best articles submitted 
on Bee Culture, Honey 
Production and its distri- 
bution. Here is a chance 
to earn some money. Full 
particulars in the August 
number of the Journal. 
Write now. 

Western Bee Journal 

p. F. ADELSBACH, Editor & Publisher ^ 
Hanford, == California 



Beeswax 
Wanted 

We pay 25 cents cash or 28 cents in 
goods for good quality of Beeswax, 
freight paid to Fnlconer, N. Y. If you 
have any, ship it to us at once. Prices 
.sul)ject to change without notice. 
THE W. T. FA|LC0NER MFG. CO. 

ootrfldL 

YOURSELF, WASHING THE OLD 

WAY, BUT BUY AN E M P I R E 

W A S H E R , «n<;ncfcvc^ (A« 
frailest woman can do an or- 
dinary walking in «ne hour, 

teithout wetting her hand*. . 

Sample atwhoUfaUprice. Satisfaction Onanintevd.^ 
Nonavv.ntiltried. Write/or Illustrated Catalogyt^ 
anapricei ofWringertJroning Tablet, Clothes Eeeli^: 
DryingBari, WagonJaek*,<ke. AeentsWanted. Lilni 
•ral Terms. Quick Salesl Little Workll Big Pa/Ill 
Addreti.Tat EmpibiWabbkb Co.,Jamcstoira.H.T. 




MAPS. 

A vest pocket Map of your State. 

New issue. These maps show al] 
the Counties, ia seven colors, £,1' 
railroads, postofRces — anci nian) 
towns not given in the postal guidt 
— rivers, lakes and mountains, w' 1 
index and population of count. e.s. 
cities and towns. Census — it givci 
all official returns. We wUl senc^ 
you postpaid any state map yoi 
wish for 

20 cents (sHver) 

JOHN W. HANN, 
... Wauneta, Nebi 



CLUBBING LIST. 

We will send The American Bee-Keepeij 

with the— Price Bott! 

What to Eat 1.00 1.00 

Bee-Keepers' Review 1.00 1 

Canadian Bee Journal 1.00 1.3! 

Gleanings in Bee Culture 1.00 1 

American Queen 50 .60 

The American Boy 1.00 1.0( 

Irish Bee Journal 35 

Rural Bee-Keeper 50 .71 

Poultry Success, 50 .?{ 



The American Farmer 

AM) 

The American Bee=Keeper 

Both one Year for 50c. 



Sunshine 



is gaining ad- 
miration as a 
popinlar litera- 

ry family 

~~~~~™"™~"™~~"" MAGAZINE. 
It entertains its readers with good short stor- 
ies, sketches and poems by the most famous 
authors of the day and is a magazine of supe- 
rior merit. 

It is a welcome visitor in every liome. 

Price 25 cents a year. 

We wish to haye our magazine in your 
vicinity and as a special otTer for new readers 
we will send you 

Sunshine for i Year for lOc. 

Think of it. le-ss than one cent a copy. Can't 
you act as our agent ? 

ADD. MAYES PUB. CO., 
LOUISVILLE, = KENTUCKY. 



Clubbing Offers 

Here is a Sample: 

Modern Farmer $ .50 

Western Fruit Grower 50 

Poultry Gazette 25 

Gleanings in Bee Culture 1.00 

$2.25 
All One Year for only $1.00. 

Write for others just as groocl, or bet- 
ter. 

SAMPLE FREE. 

New subscribers can have the Amer- 
can Bee Journal in place of Gleanings, 
if the.v wish, or all for $1.G0. Renew- 
als to A. B. .7. add 40e. more. 

MODERN FARMER, 

The Clean Farm Paper 
St. Joseph, Mo. 



3 and 5=Banded Italian 
and Carniolan Queens. 

Say friends, you who have support- 
ed us during the past season, we 
desire to express our thanks for 
your patronage in the past, and 
respectfully solicit a continuance of 
your valued favors through the sea- 
son of 1904. 

Our queens now stand upon their 
merits and former record. We are 
preparing for next season, and seek- 
ing the iiatronage of large apiarists 
and dealers. We do not claim that 
our queens are superior to all oth- 
ers, but that they are as good as 
the best. We will furnish from one 
to a thousand at the following 
prices: ""-^sted of either race. $1; 
one unte d, 75c., 5 for $3.25, 10 
for $G. 15 for $8.25, 25 for $12.50, 50 
for $2:^50, 100 for $45. 
For descriptive circulars address, 

JOHN W. PHARR, Prop,, 

.\ew Century Queen Rearing Co., Ber- 
clair, Goliad Co., Texas. 

WANT TO GROW 





Vegetables, Fruits and Farm 
Products in Florida subscribe 
for the FLORIDA AQRICUL= 
TURIST. Sample copy sent 
on application. 

E.O. Painter Pub. Co. 

JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA. 




BEWARE 

where: you buy your 

BEEWARE 

WISI 



D E 

(WATCRTOWN, 



MAKES THE FINEST 



G. B. LEWIS CO.. 
Watertown. Wis. 



Send for 
Catalog. 



WANTED 



EXTRACTED HONEY. 



Mail sample, and ail ways quote lowest 
price dellvepedhepeiAA/e rem it imme- 
diately upon receipt of shipment. 



THE FFiED W. MUTH CO., 



References: 
German ^lational Bank. Cincinnati. 
Any Mercantile Agency, or the Editor. 



No. 51 Walnut Street, 

t^^^Hior^'- CINCINNATI, O. 



AUSTRALIANS. 

NOTE the address— 

Pender Bros., 

WEST MAITLAND, 
New South Wales, Australia. 

The largest manufacturers of Beekeepers' 
Supplies in the Southern Hemisphere, 
and publishers of the AUSTRALASIAN 
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American 




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AMERICAN BEE=KEEPER, Jamestown, N.Y. 




Vol. XIV 



SEPTEMBER, 1904. 



No. 9 





m^ 


"COUNTRIFIED." 


mn 




By James Buckham. 


7TS they call you "countrified?" 
-Si/ Let it be your joy and pride. 




^^' 


'^# 






You, who love the birds and bees, 






^^ 


And the whispers of the trees! 
Trust me. friends of flowers aud gv.'ass 
Little brown-faced lad or lass, 
Naught in all the world beside 


mri 






^i^^ 


Equals being "countrified." 


\0 






^% 


Up, of mornings, when the light 
Reddens on the mountain height; 
Hearing how the bird-throats swell 
With the joy they cannot tell; 


^^ 








Conscious that the morning sings. 


mi 






Like a harp with unseen strings. 






Over which the breezes glide — 








This is being "countrified." 










Roaming fat-, on svunnier days. 








*^vki^' 


Or when autumn woodlands blaze; 


mi 






mi 


I>'earning how to catch and tell 
Nature's precious secret well; 








Filled with sunshine, heart and face. 










Or. wher«> branches interlace. 










Dappled like the shv trout's side — 








%>^ 


This is being "countrified." 


'^>.\!^ 






^"fs 


What though little fit to pose 
In the city's ways and clothes? 
There is vastly more to love 


m^ 






^^ 


In the brawn of nature's glove, 








Health and happiness and tan 


%v^ 






^^^ 


Are best fashions for a man. 
All who near to God abide 
Are in some way "countrified." 


mi 





176 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



September, 



MIGRATORY BEE-KEEPING IN FLORIDA. 



BY O. O. POPPLBTON. 



THERE has always been a pecu- 
liar fascination in the subject 
of migratory bee-keeping, espe- 
cially when practiced on our river 
highways by the use of boats. 

I suppose that real migi-atory bee- 
keeping on the water means the keep- 
ing of bees on large flats, scows or 



work cannot be of much value to the 
fraternity, it may possibly interest 
some. 

Black mangrove is a semi-tropical 
tree oceum-ing in salt marshes, in close 
proximity to the ocean itself. There 
are three localities in East Florida 
where it grows in sufficient quantity to 




POI'I'Liri'dN'S KLKKT A'!' THK I.ANDIN'ii 



boats which are frequently moved from 
one locality to another so as to take 
advantage of different honey flows 
as they occur in different but not too 
distant localities. The only instance 
I know of this having been tried on a 
large scale in this country was a cost- 
ly failure. I douljt whether conditions 
in this country will ever allow of its 
being done successfull.v. 

Th(tt-e are localities, however, where 
a modified form of migratory bee-keep- 
ing can he practiced, and I happen to 
be lucky or unlucky, enough to be so 
located that I have to practice it to at- 
tain even medium success in my work. 
While a brief description of some of 
the conditions.etc, connected with this 



be of value to bee-keepers. One is near 
New Smyrna and Hawks Park, in Vo- 
lusia county, another is some 50 to 100 
miles southward in the Indian River 
Narrows, in Brevard county, and the 
other is on the kej's south of Miami in 
Dade and Monroe counties. 

Along almost the entire east coast 
of Florida extend estuaries or salt- 
water lagoons, and the mangrove la 
mostly found on marshy islands in 
these waters. In many cases, espe- 
cially at the New Smyrna field, the wa- 
ter is narrow enough between the is- 
lands and the mainland so that bees 
on the mainland have ready access to 
them;. but in much of the other loca- 
tions, the water is so wide that bees 



1'.»()4 



rilE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



177 



h.ive to be located on the islands while 
nianj^rove is in bloom. As a rule the 
islands are not as good locations at 
ntiicr seasons as is the mainland and 
111,, best waj^ of utilizing- the honey re- 
sources of the mangrove is to keep 
bees on the mainland most of the 
year, and move them to the mangrove 
locations while that is in bloom in 
June and July. If the good locations 
on the mainland were in all cases 
close by the mangrove locations, the 
moving of bees to and from same 
would be a small item, but such is not 
always the case. >Jy ovrn home 
apirnes are about 110 miles by water 



moved \ny bees to u location about 40 
miles from homo. This location is not 
so extensive nor does it yield as large 
quantities of honey as did the old 
place. 

For the first two or three .years I 
used sailboats to move with, since 
then until this year have carried the 
bees in my gasoline launch, a boat ca- 
p;ible of carrying about 30 of my large 
single-story hives. This year I luive 
built a large boat capable of carrying 
nearly or quite 125 of my large hives 
— would carry easily some 300 single- 
story Langstroth hives. This boat is 
all covered in with good roof and can- 




IXTERIOR OF EXTR.\CTIXG BOAT AXD TRAXSrORT.. 



from the nearest fair mangrove loca- 
'tion and the removal of 200 or more 
colonies becomes a costly and labori- 
ous job. 

When I first commenced keeping 
bees here in Florida, the mangrove lo- 
cation at Hawks Fark was so much 
better than the one I am now using 
that although much farther away (150 
miles) I moved my bees there each 
season. Two of us bee-keept rs united 
in hiring a small steamer to tow our 
bees on a large lighter at an expense 
of .$1.00 to .'i;i.50 per colony up and 
hark. This paid us fa'rly well until 
the freeze of 1895 ruined the mangrove 
there. Since then I have each summer 



vas sides. Sides can be fastened down 
or rolled up as seen in the , i;st pic- 
ture. This boat is used for carrying 
bees, being towed with the launch, af- 
ter which it is tied to the wharf and 
used as an exti-acting and storage room 
until ready to carry bees ba'-k home; 
then taken out of the water and used 
as a sterage house until next bee s, a- 
son. I expect to use it then as a mov- 
able extracting room, my out ai)iaries 
being all situated on the banks of the 
river, none of the colonies being over 
50 yards from where the ))oat will lie. 
Honey is all wheeled into tlie boat on 
a wheelb.-'.ri'ow in comb-boyes. The 
barrow stands just liack of the decap- 



178 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



September, 



per and extractor and equi-distant 
from eitlier, in the liamliost position 
possible for liandling' coail)s to and 
from tliese implements. 

Tlie photo showing the interior of the 
boat was taken aftci- extracting for the 
season was over and boat was well 
littered up with some refuse truck 
from an old apiary I had lately bought, 
and had partly broken ui) after honey 
flow v.-as over. The eilitor was quite 
disappointed that he couldn't get over 
to take the pictures while we were at 
work and deck properly cleared for 
action. 

Now does all this lal)or and expense 
of moving bees, as I do, pay? In my 



towing the other boat or any other use 
a power l>oat can be used for. The 
bees, about l."50 colonies at this place, 
are on a narrow shell ridge parallel 
with the shcive behind a low fringe of 
bushes that almost entirely hides them. 
As the editor said, the apiary is l)y far 
the best arranged one he ever saw to 
prevent a photographer from getting 
any view of it. The large tree in the 
middle of the picture is a date palm, 
one of the oldest if not the oldest one 
in this region. 

The third picture is a view of the 
shore above the landing, taken IV-om 
top of the big boat. It shows a fine lot 
of our cabbage palmetto trees on the 




OYSTER BARS AND SHORE— Loi (KING NORTHWEST, 



situation, yes! But I know of no other 
location in Florida or elsewhere wher-e 
it will pay and if I had a location to 
choose over again, I should certainly 
try hard to find one that had no mi- 
grator.v features about it. 

Perhai>s a little exidanation of the 
engravings will be in order: The first 
one shows the two l>oats as they la.v 
days which we are at woi'k extracting. 
The larger one is the lighter and work- 
room conil»ined, which is left moored 
at the wharf diu'ing the honey season. 
T1k> smaller one is the launch fitted 
with a three horse-power (iloVie gaso- 
line engine and used for going back 
and forth li'om aiiiai'ies to li\"ing i»lace. 



shore, also several oyster bars out ol 
the water at the time, it being low tide 
We can gather all the o.vsters we wist 
within a few feet of the boat on tht 
shore side and catch fish from th< 
other side, there being a fine fishing 
hole within 10 or 15 feet of the l>oat 
While my pai-tial migratory bee 
keeping makes plenty cjf hard wort 
with no great remuneration for it, yei 
there is something fascinating aboui 
the life in such a wild and out-of-the 
wa.v localit.v. This apiary is over tw( 
miles from the nearest house, about 
200 .vards from the ocean beach, anc 
near an inlet. The waters abound ir 
nianv and curious kinds of life. I havf 



1004 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



170 



seen dnrin;;' the present summer a man- 
atee of at least 1,000 [xinnds weiyht; a 
sawfish 15 feet long; sharks from 10 
feet down, scores of stlng-rays from 10 
to 100 pounds each; sea turtles from 
10 to 300 pounds each, thousands of 
large fish and innumtn'able quantities 
of other things found only near tide- 
water inlets. 

Several times during the summer 
personal friends living in town have 
fre(juently gone over to the apiary in 
the morning and occupied their time 
drying the day, while I was at my reg- 
ular work, in fishing, bathing in the 
Siu-f, shell gathering, etc. 

Fort Fierce, Fla., Aug. 11, 1904. 



THE SHALLOAV vs. DEEP FRAME 
CONTROVERSY. 



A Reply to Mr. Miller. 



By W. W. McXeal. 



M' 



R. ARTHUR C. MILLER, in his 

defense of the divisible brood- 
chamber, Page 30, P>ee-Keeper 
"1- i-vin-uary. wfites enthusiastically if 
I' it convincingly of the merits of the 
ittle hive. 

Shallow hives were a great fad with 
lit' at one time, and therefore it was 
vith much interest I read the article 
if s(i aide a writer as Mv. Miller, rath- 
'1- iioping that he would disclose ctr- 
ain practical truths which would en- 
li|<' me to "revise my theories" con- 
cientiously. But it seems he has 
ather suljstantiated the correctness of 
iiy claim — that hives shallower than 
ll^^ Langstroth do not properly meet 
lie requirements of a colony of bees 
uiiug the cold of winter and early 
;fing. Those conditions that favor 
"'st the welfare of the bees do not 
i'r\(' the interest of the bee-keeper so 
^ell. Either one or the other must be 
lie loser and usually it is the bees. 

-Man's own convenience has gradual- 
>■ •ncroached upon that of the bees till 
1 the construction of the motlern shsl- 
i\v hive, Mr. Miller tells us it was de- 
igned for "man's especial benefit!'' 
'nw that being .so, there remains but 
ttlc jjround for discussion, for I have 
I'ver said the hive was not a good 
arm-weather hive— one that strongly 
lijieals to the avaricious qualities in 
uiiian nature. The "i>ersonal ele- 
lent" or in other words "the man and 
'anagement" may either modify or in- 
'nsify unfavorable conditions aris- 



ing from unnatui'al suiii-oundings. P.ut 
hive manipulation, liowever systematic 
it may l)e with shallow hives, cannot 
make t-hose hives as warm as hives of 
natural built combs. 

The divisible brood-chamber must 
have outside protection to make it as 
warm as a large single-story hive of the 
same capacity would be without out- 
side packing. And it was this matter of 
greater warmth of single-story hives 
that caused me to change firom the 
shallow^ frames to those that Avere 
11 inches deep for the brood-chamber. 
When a colony of bees has weath- 
ered the bitter cold of winter and its 
vit.-ility is far spent, the arrangement 
of the combs for warmth and protec- 
tion is of the greatest importance 
when breeding is begun in erx'ly 
spring. We all know that brood can- 
not be reared profitably where chilling 
drafts of air circulate. The brood- 
chamber that is made up of two cases 
of shallow frames cannot save the en- 
ergy of the bees as it should, owing 
to the great amount of cold air pass- 
ing around the comlis and through the 
very heart of the brood-nest. 

One case of combs, containing as it 
UHist the necessary stores, is inade- 
quate to the purposes and require- 
ments of earl.v brood-rearing, and 
when another case of combs is added 
the conditions become such that, if 
they are not bad they are simply 
worse. The combs in the lower case 
that come directly under those con- 
taining brood in the upper one, cannot 
be warmed as economically as the low- 
er half of com))s in a large single-story 
hive. That must be evident to one and 
all for it is simply a physical impossi- 
bility for the bees to do it when the 
heat generated can so easil.v escape 
through that horizontal air-space be- 
tween the two sets of combs. The bees 
must I)e enabled to confine the heat of 
the cluster at the point of operations 
in Icood rearing or there will l)e a 
wanton waste of vitality in an effort 
to meet the growhig demand for brood, 
in the lower case. -u 

There must be corresponding means' 
for maintaining the same degree of 
warmth in that jtosition of the lower 
oase of combs which the bees desire 
to use for Ir-eeding imrposes and if 
the arrangement of the. combs does 
not allow of this, then the expense of 
additional outside protection must be 
carried to get the benefits of a double 
case of combs, in numerical strength. 



180 



L THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 
coming of settled warm 



September, 



in'ior to the 
weather. 

Whatever may become of heat after 
it escapes from the cluster, we may be 
assured that it does uot return. The 
accumulation of ffost and ice on the 
outer combs and upon the walls of the 
hive would seem to be sufficient to dis- 
pel any doubts on that score. 

Imagine, if you please, a person try- 
ing to keep warm and healthy during 
the long, c-old winter in an eight-room 
or a ten-room house with no ceilings 
to any of the rooms. Then let your 
fancy picture a midway opening in the 
walls of the rooms extending their full 
length and you Avill have conceived a 
iirst-rate Icind of atrangement for a 
corncrib but a poor one for the 
nursery. 

In attempting to prove that bees are 
not guided by any law of nature in 
forming the outline or shape of the 
coudjs, Mi: Miller gets wide of the 
mark. He does not deal with the 
question at issue but with results that 
are unavoidable in horizontal brood- 
chamber. For the sum of his figures, 
as represented by actual lateral growth 
of comb within a given time is made 
possible only by that feature of hive 
construction. It will be remembered 
that the assertion I made was that the 
depth of natural-built comljs always 
exceeded their width when the bees 
had room to construct them according 
to their own wishes. I said that the 
downward growth of comb was more 
rapid than the lateral and that when 
completed such combs conformed more 
fully to the needs of a spherical clus- 
ter of bees than shallow or horizontal- 
shaped combs. Taking the total later- 
al growth of four small combs in the 
sanu' frame, as Mr. Miller did. and set- 
ting that over against the downward 
growth of only one of them is neces- 
sarily misleading. With .iust as much 
force of argument I might say that the 
total downward growth of all the 
combs (one over the other) proved be- 
yond peradventure that bees prefer 
deep combs. Now notice: Mr. Miller 
says that a small spherical body of 
bees will start one comb and build 
downwards twice as fast as sidewise. 
He then further admits that each di- 
vision of the main cluster engaged in 
comb building Avill build downwards 
twice as fast as sidewise! Now, it be- 
ing so that all the combs simultaneous- 
l.v or otlierwise started in a horizontal 
"ten-frame hive" numbering "from two 
to five in each frame", is at the start, 



"built downwards twice as fast as, 
sidewise,"' 'twould seem to be incon-^ 
trovertible — that no one could fail to 
see Mr. Miller's position is not tenable. 

If I mistake not Mr. Miller makes; 
good capital of the theory of the deep 
or tall section box, whicli ever yon 
choose to call it. In fact nearly all the 
advocates of shallow hives whose 
writings have come to my notice hold 
to the belief that bees will complete a 
deep section quiclcer than one of a 
square shape. Fiuiny. isn't it? that a 
principle of hive construction said tc 
be so utterly at variance with the in- 
stincts of the bees M-hen emplo.ved Ir 
the brood-chamber, it should be so mu 
tually beneficial in the super arrange 
ment. With all due respect for th( 
opinions of those who differ with me 
I will add that the sectional brood- 
chambers and system is founded oi 
the strength of artificial resources an( 
unless it has the backing of the suga: 
liarrel it is necessarily shorn of it: 
chief allurement and ceases to he prao 
tical. 

I am willing that everyone shall uS' 
the hive that suits him best. Kut a 
for myself, after careful comparison o 
the two styles of hives I am decidel; 
in favor of the large single-story hive 
for winter brood-chamber. 

Wheelersburg, O., Aug. 11, 1004. 



PUNSC BEES. 



Peculiar Traits, etc., Described by One Who 
Breeds This Race for Market. 



T 



By John Hewitt. 

'WENTY or thirty years ago. gref 
hopes were entertained of bein 
aide to import the great hone 
bee — Apis Dorsata — into America. M 
I). A. .Tones, founder of the Canadia 
Bee .Tournal, spent large sums in tryiii 
to import it; which he said would prt 
duce "lakes of honey." Well he faile 
and so has everybody else who has trie 
to import it. It was to be used in cros) 
ing the Italians and they were goin 
to iiroduce a new l)reed of bee to tj 
called the Apis Americana; I just mei 
tion this because very many of yoi 
readers will be too young to have rea 
all the "big things'" expected to resu 
frohi its advent into America. 

If we have not been able to impo 
it, we have done something better, 
think, in int»"oducing a much bett« 
bee to work side by side with it, i.( 



l!_ii)4 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



181 



hv I'unie race, and we are now able 
glean many facts; tirst, it is prac- 
ically worthless as a honey bee com- 
)ared with Funics, and second, they 
ill not cross-mate and therefore it is 
[uite useless for "crossing" purposes. 

This bee I first imported in 1886. It 
s of the genus Apis Nigra, and there- 
ore all black, in fact blacker than any 
)ees native to any part of Europe or 
America; it comes from Ancient Poeu- 
a in North Africa, and was cultivated 
or its honey long before the Romans 
)egan to practice husbandry of any 
iud. ^^'e are indebted to the Poen- 
ans for the best features of horticul- 
ure and agriculture, whose success so 
ncited the Romans they at last suc- 
eeded in crushing them; the, bees 
lowever, remained pure and uncontam- 
uated up to 181(1, when I imported a 
arge number of queens to start their 
•reeding here. 

These bees ace proof against foul 
•rood, and if hives are large enough, 
hey will not swarm. They are the 
amest bees known; in fact just the 
)ees to produce honey in the greatest 
uantity with the least trouble, and it 
5 on these lines the most dollars will 
»e raked in. 

These bees have made themselves at 
lome In every country no matter hovr 
lot or how cold, hence when Major 
5mith wrote to the British Bee .Tour- 
lal on October 3rd, 1901, page 397. for 
dvice in starting bee-keeping in India, 
nd the editors told him to take out 
European queens and introduce theni 
the native stock of bees. Apis In- 
lica, I wrote to him to caution him 
gainst following such advice, as these 
»ees will not, on any account, accept 
ny queen of any European race, and 
iven if it could be done, the queen 
ould not lay eggs in their combs as 
he cells ace too small. These bees (A. 
ndica) build combs 5-8 inch thick, 
paced 7-8 inch from center to center; 
et these people who profess to know 
11 about all foreign bees, with a libra- 
y of 10,000 volumes, gave t^Js absurd 
dvice to Major Smith. They, know- 
Dg of Major Smith's success, told an- 
ther party on August 2()th, 1003. page 
36, that all the European bees sent to 
ndia have sooner cc later died off, and 
dvised the keeping of the Native 
pis Indica in English hives. 
In writing to Major Smith, I ad- 
ised him to try the Funics as they 
ad the happy peculiarity of making 
emselves at home and doing well in 
very country I sent them to and they 



were the only race I knew of which 
had not been tried in ludia and failed. 
Early in December, lOOl, I received a 
letter from him asking me to pack up 
a nucleus of Punic bees, for his broth- 
CB." to bring with him. As soon as I 
had read it, a telegram came from his 
brothei':- to send them that day for him. 
The bees had been unable to fiy for 
two months through ])ad weather and 
it was ^•ery frosty. The bees had to 
be safely packed and combs wired fast 
to the frames, but I got them off in 
time to reach London at 8 a. m., and 
I arranged the box so that the bees 
could l)e given a fly on the way, and 
particularly requested that this should 
be done. As a matter of fact, his 
brother was afraid to let them out 
and they never got even one fly on 
the way, with the result nearly all the 
bees were dead on arrival. 

Major Smith says under date of Jan- 
uary 11th. 1002, "I ct)uld only see very 
few bees between the combs ; to me 
there did not seem as if there were 
more than about a hundred, if so 
many, but did not lift out the frames 
and examine them as it was rather 
cold." Yet these self same bees in- 
creased to six full stocks in two-story 
hives and yielded 2.") pounds of honey 
before the end of the year. 

I soon after received another order 
for a nucleus of Punic bees for India, 
which I sent ofl" after the frost had 
broken up and they not only had a 
good fly before I sent them, but also 
three on the way. They arrived with 
two patches of sealed brood, though 
the queen was not laying when sent. 
These were for George Oakes, Esq., 
Walpole House, Ootacamund. India, a 
neighbor of Major Smith's, who has 
written to me several times. In one, 
dated April 11th. 1903, he says there 
is no "cross mating with Apis Dorsata 
or Apis Indica and I infinitely prefer 
Funics to either variety. A gentle- 
man near here expressed his surprise 
at my Funic bees, he said when he 
was last at home they had a bad name 
for viciousness, but as far as my ex- 
perience goes, one could not have bet- 
ter mannered or more tractable bees, 
and they will take a lot of beating in 
any respect.'' Since he wrote this I 
have noticed an editorial article in 
the "Field" for September 5th, page 
440. which reports their doings down 
to .Tune 1st. when eight of the lots had 
produced 13 sealed sections and 2.34 
pounds of honey, but as the best part 



1S2 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



September, 



of the year had to come it is safe to 
estimate a very big cirop. 

Uiie must uot attempt to treat tliese 
bees like Italians, for instance, for 
though they are a smaller bee, they re- 
quire larger hives for a brood nest. 
They -will require either a 12-frame 
Langstroth hive cf an eight-frame one 
with a half story above and the frames 
in this half story should be put the 
narrow way across the box. This one- 
and-a-half-story stack hive will nevek- 
need touching and all one will used to 
do is to put on plenty of room above 
and take oft" the surplus honey — no 
feeding if there is any honey above. 
These small narrow frames should 
have no bottom bars: they will be 
found very handy in making up nu- 
clei, as tl'.fee division boards put in 
one of these shallow boxes will make 
four nuclei with an entrance on each 
side and by being put across the bot- 
tom frames there will always be the 
best kind of winter passage ways. 

There is this other peculiarity, viz., 
the (jueens never attempt to mate till 
al>out 20 days old, but t-.ey Avill mate 
all right at ovtn- three months old, 
hence they will not be favorites with 
queen l)reeders who use a split on'e- 
pound section for a nucletis. It is htce 
that the value of the short, shallow 
frame will come in. 

There is another startling peculiar- 
ity. If you c-emove a queen and then 
on the iotli day cut out every (pieen 
cell, fertile workers will at once fill 
all the combs with eggs and they will 
begin qtieen cells on these eggs and 
develop and hatch (pieens from them, 
which will duly mate and a-epopulate 
the hives. I do not place much value on 
fills fact, except to prove that nature 
has a wise use for fertile workers, i. e., 
to l)e able to requeen a stock when a 
queen is lost in mating. Ho^v the bees 
do this, i.e., produce both males and 
females from unmated Avorker bees, I 
leave to someone else to .find mit. All 
who have these bees can verify the 
fact for themselves. 

Sheffield. Engh:ind. 



The article in "Field." September o, 
100:5. liy Major Smith, is quite interest- 
ing and we theu'efore present it in full, 
as follows': — Editor FVee-Keeper. 
ENGLISH BERS IN INDIA. 

The experiment of introducing the 
Punic l>ee at Ootacflmund, South In- 
tlia. was due to the enierprise of ^Major 
G. de Heriez Smith, of the Central In- 



dia Horse, who, in January, l'J02, im- 
ported a nucleus, sent out by Mr. .JohD 
Hewitt, of Sheffiield. In the following 
month Mr. George Oakes, after having 
for some yeafs kept stocks of the In- 
dian bee (Apis Indica), also imported a 
nucletis of I'unic bees from Mr. Hew- 
itt. In both instances the bees were 
brought to India liy friends travelini 
with the mails, and were eighteen tc 
twenty days on the journey. Thej 
were well packed on four frames 0I 
heather honey, re-Avired, and securec 
in an cfdinary Hollands gin ease. Yen 
tilation Avas provided at the door anc 
the top of the case by means of per 
forated zinc. The bees Avere flowi 
three times en route — at Port Said 
Aden, and Bonil)ay. From Bombay 
they Avere lirought by mail train direc 
to Ootacamund. 

On arrival the frames Avere at onC" 
tfansferred to clean hives, and the beei 
fed Avith stimulating syrup. .Within i 
Aveek the queen Avas busily laying, am 
the stock rapidly increased to tei 
frames. So rapidly did the stock Id 
crease that on May 12, 10b2. fou 
frames of capped brood Avell coverei 
with bees Avere placed by ^lajor Smiti 
in the traveling box and formed a nv 
cletis. the ([ueeii bee of which at one' 
started queen cells. The first SAvan 
ffom the first imported lot Avas throAV 
ofe on July 20, ino2, and four casts fo 
loAA'ed — on July ;^(),the first Aveek in At 
gust. Se]itember ]0, and September 1." 
The first sAvarin from the lot inqiorte 
later (kept by Mr. 'Oakes at Walpol 
House) Avent off on S<"ptember 12, an 
Avas successfully hived, and two fo 
loAved — on September 1.^ and 19. Th 
last tAvo casts Avere united, (me (piee 
being secured. 

Major Smith and :\Ir. Oakes eventi 
ally joined forcesi and located the bee 
on the DoAvnham estate (coffee) of tb 
latter. By the end of the year tb 
joint stocks ntimbered nine (six froii 
Major Smith's, three from Mr. Oakes') 
but only one of Mr. O's Avas reall 
strong and carried a doulde broo 
chamber). The honey yii'lded amounte 
to about 2.« pounds, but it Avas prove 
that the Irees Avould store surplus hoT 
e,y in sections, Avhich was a very grai 
ifying thing, never before done in Ir. 
dia. Tavo sert^ons Avere taken off Ms 
jor Smith's original stock from Ma 
hn, 11t02. 

The sejison of lOOf?, from January t 
June 1, records a yield of seventy-thre 
sections and 234 pounds of extracte 



»04 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



183 



nwy, notwithstanding tlie nine stocks 
iving been reduced to eight. Une 
ock was taken to Knlhutty and tried 
ith the coit'ee blossom when in full 
com there in May; but, though honey 
IS a))undant, the heat seemed to af- 
ct the bees. . A rack section was 
pt on the hive and a fair quantity 

lioney was dejiosited. but the sec- 
jns wet'e not capped. 
Ootacaniund appears, in fact, to be 
e best locality for bees, as there is 

all times in the year an abundance 

bee tloAvers in the gardens, and the 
calyptus is in blossom from January 

April, which yields a very superior 
mey. In .Tidy and August the yel- 
v\' and black wattles blossom, and 
so largely yield honey. September 
d October seem to be the months 
ien honey gets scarce. The queen 
en, to a great extent, stops laying, 
d stocks should lie overhauled. In 
)veml)er drones are killed, even the 
ubs being removed from the hives, 
irly in the year lioney seems to come 

again; eight sections were taken, be- 
les some well-sealed frames, for ex- 
iction. In January and February it 

advisable to see that the hives are 
ill covered, the nights being frosty 
d cold. A good gunny bag thrown 
er the hive equalizes the tempera- 
re, keeping off the sun by day and 
3 frost by night. 

[n March all the hives are at their 
st, with abundance of stores and 
ung brood. Racks of sections should 

placed on all strong stocks. Should 

' hive become crowded another inner 
.'e may be added lieneath the orig- 
\\ hive, which will aiford the queen 
iple foom for laying, especially if 
3Vided with drawn-out comb. This 
11 tend to keep the stoclc from 

arming, an event to be expected in 

igust or September. 



from a man's yard and my attention 
was excited from the way the bees 
were working on the bloom. 1 set 
tliem out on the Ixirder of my field in 
loam soil, a mere handful of plants and 
in two years they have fofced their 
way under unfavorable conditions to 
form a large lied. They grow very 
rank and bloom profusely and so on 
throughout the snnnner. The bees 
crowd the bloom, early and late. I am 
confident that an acre of this will tide 
a large apiary ovet- our destructive 
rainy seasons. 

No. 2 covers a field about five acres 
in extent, a half mile away. The own- 
er, a new-comer, calls it Japan clover. 
He may be mistaken. Last summer 
the field was in cow peas and beggar- 
weed. Last winter it bore a crop of 
oats. This summer he has stock on it. 
It is pine land. The plant has fought 
its way to supremacy against purs- 
lane, maiden cane, dog fennel and 
other thriving enemies. It is in bloom 
now and has been for the past month, 
while the bees are working on it 
smartly, but nothing like they do on 
No. 1, and only forenoons at that. 

Victoria. Fla., July 7, 1904. 



The specimens were received and 
submitted for identification to Prof. H. 
Harold Hume, State Horticulturist, 
Raleigh, N. C, who was formet'ly con- 
nected with the University of Florida 
at Lake City. Prof. Hume writes in 
response: No. 1 is Monarda puntata;No. 
2. Richardia scalira. The former is 
closely related to the catnip, while the 
second, although frequentl.v called Jap- 
an clover and Mexican clover, is not 
clover at all, but belongs to the Mad- 
der family. — Editor. 



ORANGE BLOSSOM HONEY 
SCARCE. 



TWO FLORIDA NECTAR 
YIELDERS. 



By. W. S. Blaisdell. 

^\ PAGE lis, June Bee-Keeper, 
* I Mr. Harris writes of his experi- 
ments with nectar producing 
I nts. I offer a few lines also in evi- 

C ICC. 

^iiii-losed are two specimen plants 
\ iili are supposed to lie, No. 1, cat- 
I : No. 2, .Tapan clover. Whether or 
1 t hey are so is for you to please de- 
I mine. 

\s to No. 1, I secured a few plants 



By :M. W. Shepherd. 

BRO. ITIIiL — I have kept a few bees 
in tlip midst of the orange groves 
and have yet my first cell of or- 
ange blossom honey to see in the su- 
pers. The A. I. Root Co., quotes prices 
on orange honey, and .vou can't call the 
quotations "inflated." Seemingly the 
(luality must be low judging from 
prices quoted. If I am rightly in- 
formed, the name "orange blossom" 
has lieen cop.vrighted by Aldeirman and 
Roberts, of Wewahitchka, Fla. Prior 
to the freeze of 1895 they were the 
largest producers of extracted honey in 



184 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



September, 



the -Uniteil States aud were located 
where tliere were many hundreds of 
acres of ornage groves accessible to 
their bees. Perhaps Mr. Alderman 
could tell something interesting about 
orange blossom honey. From the 
standpoint of the producer I am of the 
opinion that much of the orange blos- 
som honey sold was gathered from the 
"Tuiielo" of West Florida. 

But should not the dealers guard 
against giving misleading names to 
honeys from various souces? It is 
asked "what's in a name?", and I 
reply, "not much, generally,"' but some- 
times there is too much in a name, and 
then comes trouble. 

Say, what color is honey from "Or- 
ange blossom'?" It must be some color 
and can't he all colors. Is the aroma 
anything like orange bloom? If it is, 
it certainly would be very offensive to 
my olfactory organs to say the least, 
but then, I am official smeller fcr no- 
body biit myself. 

Hollister. Fla., July 10, 1904. 



THE MATING OF THE QUEEN. 



By SwarthmoB.-e. 

I HAVE this day witnessed the act of 
copulation between a queen and 
drone. About 2:30 o'clock in the 
afternoon of Thursday. July 21, I Avas 
standing near a fertilizing box filling 
a feeder when my attention was at- 
tracted by an uniisual commotion in 
the way of extra loud buzzing, as of 
drones on the wing; I looked and saw 
a queen rapidly flying toward the fer- 
tilizing box, evidently her home; she 
was closely followed by two drones, 
one of which turned and flew oft", but 
the other remained in pursuit. They 
were flying not six inches from the 
ground and were not over eight feet 
from the fertilizing box when the act 
took place. It was all done so quickly 
that I marvel at it and I wish to here 
record the facts as I witnessed them. 

I could not see that the queen was 
flying in any but the natural way re- 
turning to hcfi- hive, but the drone was 
uniisually swift of wing. They were 
both flying rapidly and as they flew 
the drone made two circles about the 
queen as though to head her off and as 
these circles were made about the 
queen she rose slightly each time. 

Directly after making the second cir- 
cle about the queen the drone flew at 
her about as a worker flies with the 
intention of stinging in earnest. His 




0^ Kv^VCvHT 



abdomen aaus curved and his wings 
rattled in about the same manned.*. Di- 
rectly the drone was in contact with 
the queen there was a sudden lurch to 
side and they went together to some 
distance into the field until I lost sight 
of them. As they flew together they 
much resembled workers when they 
attempt jointly to bear oft' their dead 
I remained by the fertilizing box per 
baps three minutes and saw the queer 
retutt-n and enter bearing the marks oJ- 
having met a drone. I still lingered bj 
the box and soon saw a worker bean 
out the tell-tale white speck. I latei 
opened the box and saw the queej 
bearing the usual thread. 

A queen bee is tremendous swift o 
wing but I am convinced that a droni 
is ten times swifter, for to be able t 
encircle the queen in the manner thi 
on did, such must be the fact. 

In the accompanying drawing I hav 
attempted to picture the exact cours 
of the queen and drone just previou 
to actual contact. 

Swarthmore, Pa.. July 21, 1904. 



LAYING WORKERS. 



I 



By Arthur C. Miller. 

N the American Bee-Keeper for An 
gust, pag'e 150, Mr. McNeal. wril 
ing on the question of the possibil 
ity of bees rearing drones ffom egg 
which would normally produce work 
ers, says, "From the size of the larva 
it was evident that fertile worker 
were not responsible for the state o 
affairs, for there had not been tim 
enough to attain that size fror 
eggs laid by them.'" He also say 
that seven days elapsed from th 
time he forced the swarm until he 83 
amined and found the cenditions r( 
ferred to. FurtluB', he says the force' 
swarm did nothing below the excluc 
er. 

Taking his statements as they stan 
I should sav he had been dealing wit 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



185 



i'ailing quxh'ii. and that she was re- 
ponsible for that cTii'ono brood. A fail- 
ng- queeu will lay in either worker cf 
Irone cells. But even if his queen was 
lot all right the presence of drone 
brood maj' have been due to laying- 
workers. These so-called pests are of 
far more frequent occurrence than has 
lieretofcce been suspected. This has 
become particularly noticeable since 
he introduction of the yellow blood, 
.. Syrians and Cyprians. These 
ave been used to brighten Italians 
nd have carried many of their traits 
s well as their color. 
Laying workers will appear under 
11 sovts of conditions. For example, 
)ne colony wj ^ accidentally divided by 
wo old, black combs. The queen did 
lot pass by them, and in a few days 
aying workers were doing a land of- 
ice business in the other half of the 
irood nest. Another case was of a 
irgin queen in a one-frame nucleus of 
3ld bees. She mated, began to lay and 
imultaneously so did the workers. 
The comb was a sight. Apparently the 
lueen was worthless, but the addition 
if two combs of emerging brood 
hanged the whole complexion of af- 
ak's. The queen enlarged her work, 
md though the worker's drone brood 
anie to maturity, their laying stopped. 
The presence of laying workers does 
lot necessarily mean queenlessness, 
or they are tjfteii present with a 
jueen under either of the following 
onditions: extremely small colony; 
Absence or scarcity of young bees; a 
iivided brood nest; a failing queen; 
Dr before a newly introduced queen 
aas got to laying. They cause but lit- 
le trouble other than occupying a lit- 
le Gonib which the queen could use. 
They do not interfere with the safe in- 
Toduction of queens when pa-oper 
oaethods are followed. 

A. failing queen is often said to have 
?one to laying an excess of drone eggs 
when as a matter of fact laying work- 
rs are responsible for much of the 
rouble. 

In relation to failing queens it will 
)e well for the novice to bear in mind 
hat before he (replaces such a queen 
e must be sure her daughter is not 
ilready present or that a ripe cell is 
lot there. I think it may be accepted 
IS a law that under normal conditions 
i.e., where man does not meddle or 
iisturb) the new queen always nia- 
iires and begins to lay before the old 
3ueen disappears. 
Providence. R. I.. August 10, 1904. 




Calaveras, Tex., 8, s, '04. 
Friend Hill— 

Your answer to a previous note was 
received but you did not answer a 
(iuestion that I asked, viz., Color of 
queens, workers and hustling qualities 
and proliticness of the Punic bees, also 
as to their gentleness. I would like 
to see an article in the American Bee- 
Keeper as to the:ii" characteristics if 
you feel like giving it. You, I believe, 
are testing them and no doubt others 
would like to learn something of them 
likewise. 

On page 14.3. W. H. F. tells of bees 
being killed when returned to their 
own hive. Now, of course, I am not 
a beginner nor am I hankering after 
that dollar but. that aside, there are 
some questions that might come up in 
order to understand the why and 
wherefore of such actions on the part 
of the bees. He does not tell if honey 
was coming in at the time, nor if they 
were left off any length- of time. Then 
returning them at night I do not think 
was best, as all the old bees were at 
home, also if the bees were left in a 
place whei-e they might acquire a dif- 
ferent odor I should expect them to 
be killed. They would be as strangers 
to the old colony. To sum up, it may 
have been caused by, 1st, No honey 
coming in; 2nd — Time of returning 
them; 3rd, Too long off the hive; 4th, 
Acquiring a different odor; 5th, The 
presence of some stranger bees. Re- 
member bees are not very discriminat- 
ing when they become angry. When 
they are in an angry mood from the 
presence of strangee- bees they are li- 
able to kill their own bees that had 
been off the hive for some time and 
perhaps acquired a different odor. Any 
of these may have caused it. I think 
along these lines may have been the 
cause but it is for a different purpose 
that I write this letter. I, for one, 
would like to see this formaline gas • 
treatment for foul brood stopped. 

If it is not a complete success with 
the experts (and it is not) what must 
it be with the novice? It Is a danger- 
ous experiment and the country will 
never be free from foul brood by us- 



186 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



ing fornialdeliyde. I liold that the ya!> 
caimot penetrate into the mass of mat- 
ter that dries down in the cell nor can 
it penetrate the honey or oappings. 
Undoubtedly the honey is full of the 
spofes; besides if it were possible to 
combine anything with the honey that 
would go through it or mix with it 
suffieiently to kill the spores it cer- 
tainly would kill the larvae and bees 
also by feeding on it. My first ex- 
perience with foul brood was in Can- 
ada. My bees had died out completely 
or nearly so, and 1 had made arrange- 
ments with Mr. J. B. Hall to let me 
have swarms at $1.50. I to furnish 
hives and combs. I took some half- 
dozen or so hives to his place to have 
swarms- put in. He was not at home 
but a couple of days after I got a letter 
from him telling me I had foul brood 
and to come and get the hives. On 
the colonies I had left I tried salycilic 
acid, which they claimed at that' time 
would cure it. Of course I lost "all 
I had. Then again I bought an apiary 
at Lake Charles. La. Did not examine 
all the colonies, but it seems I got it 
with the bees. I got them in the fall 
and it develoiied the following spring. 
I went after it with the McEvoy plan 
and rooted it out: only part of the yard 
was infected. I also treated a neigh- 
bor's bees the spring following and 
found it in one light colony which 
I promptly destroyed. I extracted all 
the honey from diseased colonies, cut 
the combs out, scraped the frames and 
scalded the hives thoroughly. The 
bees I put on foundation starters, then 
in two days shook them into clean 
hives on full sheets of foundation. Am 
using those same hives and frames to- 
day. No signs of the disease since. I 
boiled the honey for about an hour and 
fed it back and they raised brood with 
it. That was seven years ago. 

As to our cro]) here this year, it will 
not be more than one-fourth to one- 
third of last year, or about 4.1 to .10 
IiDunds. and dark (most of it) at that. 
Yours, etc.. 

H. FMner. 

In regard to Punic l)pes, we have said 
all our knowledge will justify. The 
ones we have are very gentle. Both 
queens and workers are black. In this 
namber of The Bee-Keeper will be 
found quite a long article upon the 
subject by Mr. John Hewitt. Avho ii;- 
troduced them into England. — Editor. 



September, 
12. 1004. 



Naples, N. Y., Auj. 
Dear Sir: 

I am afcaid buckwheat will not 
count much for us this year. It is cool 
and wet most of the time and the bees 
lie still with lots of bloom about them. 
We have not had a smell of buckwheat 
so far. 

Yours respectfully, 

F. Greiner. 



Haverhill. Mass., Julv ID. l'J04. 
Brother Hill— 

I would consider it a favor if you 
should see fit to publish in the Bee- 
Keeper a satisfactory method of mak- 
ing soft candy for queen cages. 
Very truly yours, 

J. W. Small. 

The most satisfactory candy for 
cages of which we know is sim- 
ply a combination of i^ure pulverized 
sugar and good ripe honey. Some 
powdered, or pulverized sugar, used 
for frosting cakes, etc.. by bakers, con- 
tains starch, which is injurious to 
bees, and should therefore be avoided. 
Coarse granulated sugar is decidedly 
preferable to the adulterated variety 
referred to, in powdered form. The ad- 
vantage of having it powdered is that 
it more readily absorbs the honey, and 
in combination therewith forms a 
dough- like confection which the bees 
are al)le to eat entirely; while the 
coarse granules of the ordinary granu- 
lated article are too large for them to 
take. The in'ocess of making is sim- 
ply mixing and kneading the honey 
and sugar together thoroughly. It 
should be made quite stiff — working in 
all the sugar the honey will take. The 
inexperienced manipulator will more 
likely err on the side of making it too 
thin than getting in too much sugar; 
and greater danger lies in the possi- 
l)ility of the bees l)ecoming drabl)led 
in the honey than in their inal)ility to 
use a candy containing an excess of 
sugar. It should be pressed firmly in- 
to the cage, the walls of which should 
be made non-al)sorbent l)y an applica- 
tion of paraffin or wax. — Editor. 

NEW ZELAND. 
Marton. N. Z., July 12, 1004. 

Dear Mr. Hill 

At the present time we are in the 
midst of our winter, which lias been 
fairly good so far as l)ee-keei)ing inter- 
ests are concerned. Our last honey sea- 
son closed rather suddenly in March, 
with but a small croii. 



1 '. M )4 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



187 



Swarming was very general througli- 
liiii New Zealand last season, whicli 
w.is donbtless a result of the scarcity 
(>r lorage. This seems to be the case 
111 re every alternate year. 

There is now a great quantity of 
• ululterated honey on the market, 
branded, "Pure Clover Honey."' There 
is scarcely any honey about it, it lie- 
ii:i: composed chiefly of sugar with a 
slight admixture of honey. At the rate 
tins stuff is getting into the markets 
it will be but a short time until the 
liouey trade is ruined. 

State aid is to be again brought be- 
lurc the govenment this winter ses- 
sion, by :Mr. Isaac Hopkins of Auck- 
land and the writer. It is proi)Osed to 
Hist have an experienced bee-keeper 
u(i around and lecture on bee-keeping 
and at the same time form bee-keep- 
irs" associations. By this system the 
l:(i\ eminent will then see by the report 
sent in by the one lecturing what is re- 
I mired and then take steps to carry 

ip.t the proposed system of helping to 
<\\ell the industry. It was rumored 
that an expert had been appointed "at 
!i(ime'' but thi.s, I am glad to relate, is 
initrue and a good thing, too. for by 
^uch an action as that, it would sim- 
ply kill the prospects of the industry 
fdi'ever more. 

Another honey poisoning case has 
taken place at Auckland. The follow- 

iig I take from an Aukland paper. This 
is the fourth case of its kind that has 
happened up there and is due to the 

ircsence of a plant called '"waikariki," 
\vliieh blooms in May: 



POISONED BY HONEY, 



A Shooting Party's Experiences. 
Thames, Thursday. 

A most regrettable honey -poisoning 
ncident occurred yestei'day to a duck- 
hooting party up the Piako River, as 
:he result of which two men are now 
n the hospital dangerouslj' ill, whilst 
wo others had a narrow escape from 

similar result. 

The party comprised four well- 
mown Ponsonl)y gentlemen — viz., 
Messrs. G. Carder. E. Owen dioth of 
he firm ofc Carder Brothers and Co.), 
Arthur Cooper, and .Tames William 
)ldham; also a ^Maori named Thomp- 
lon Hughes, the latter having joined 
he party at Kerepehi as a guide. 

On Friday night last the party pro- 
'eeded up the Piako River in an oil 
aunch, and went about 12 miles above 
he junction with the Waitoa River. 



All went well until yesterday morning, 
when the party discovered n quantity 
of wild honey in an old Ma< ri whare. 
situated in the k.-iliikatea l)usli, near 
Moi'risville. 

At first the Em-opean meml)ers held 
aloof from eating any of the honey, 
but being eventually assured ))y 
Hughes (the Maori), who partook of it 
pretty freely, that it was all right, 
Cooper and Owen finally sampled it, 
the former especially eating a fair 
(luantity. This was at eleven a. m. At 
two p.m. they ate some mcf-'e of the 
honey, being joined on this occasion 
by Carder, but Oldham declined to par- 
ticipate. 

About half past two the honey be- 
gan to affect the Maori, who was taken 
in the form of a tit, and soon after- 
wards Cooper developed symptoms of 
poisoning by violent vomiting. 

Shortly afterwards Carder and Ow- 
en also began to feel bad, but Owen 
at once took an emetic and kept on do- 
ing so. the others, however, declined 
to follow his example. 

Immediately on the Maori and Coop- 
er being taken ill theif comrades put 
them on lioard the launch, and made a 
start for the Thames, but by the time 
Kerepehi was reached the former two 
were unconscious, and Carder and Ow- 
en were gradually becoming weaker. 
Owen, however, was the only one who 
could manage the oil engine, and bad 
as he was he manfully remained at his 
post until Thames was reached, at 
about half past nine p.m., whilst Old- 
ham did what he could in looking after 
those who were so ill. 

As soon as possible, Oldham came 
ashore, informed the hospital-author- 
ities through the telephone what had 
occurred, and then assisted by Consta- 
ble Blake, the four sufferers were con- 
veyed in a cab to that institution, 
wlxei-e emetics were administered, and 
the stomach pumi» used. 

Carder's and Owen's condition at 
this time, however, was not considered 
serious enough for them to remain in 
the hospital, but at a later hour Owen 
began to feel bad again, and was re- 
admitted. He, however, is now nearly 
all right again, and so is Carder. 

Cooper and the ^laori were in a bad 
condition, and remained unconscious 
all through the night and today, de- 
spite the efforts made l)y Dr. Aubin 
and the hosjiital staff to relieve them. 
Towards evening, however. Cooper be- 
gan to show signs of regaining con- 
sciousness, and now seems to be in a 



188 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



September, 



fair way toward recovery. The Maori 
still remains unconscious, but there 
seems to be a slight change for the bet- 
ter setting in. 

Owen deserves credit for the pluck 
he exhibited in sticking to his post at 
the engine, for had he not done so it is 
hard to say what would have become 
of the party, as he alone, as previously 
stated, knew how to manage the oil 
engine. 

The inquiry at the hospital at nine 
o'clock to-night elicited the fact that 
both Cooper and Hughes (the Maori) 
are now conscious and progressing fa- 
vorably towards recovery, although 
not yet considered out of danger. 

In connection with the above. Mr. 
Isaac Hopkins, apiarist, of Auckland, 
informs us that the only plant likely to 
cause poisoning at the present time is 
the waikariki, a plant which much re- 
sembles watercress, and has a yellow 
blossom. The plant is in l)lo()m this 
month. Mr. Hopkins advises that care 
should be exercised not to eat wild 
honey at the present season of the 
year, as the honey will almost invari- 
ably be found to be poisonous. 



Hardscrabble Interviewed. 

To the Readers of the American Bee- 
Keeper: — 

At the request of the editor I have 
undertaken to commune with the spirit 
of the late Deacon Hardscrabble and 
to report to the editor the results there- 
of. I have already had one "inter- 
view" with the Deacon (the substance 
of which follows) and expect to be 
able to have others from time to time. 
If the results are fragmentaiy, blam'e 
not me, for spirits are "notional" and 
the Deacon is very far from being an 
exception to the rule. Not behig a 
professional medium. I beg you will 
forgive my passing incognito and per- , 
mit me to sign myself 

July 5, 1904. Merlin. 



THE NATIONAL CONVENTION. 
To American Bee-Keeper Readers: — 

The annual convention of the 
National Bee-Keepers' Association will 
be held September 27-30. in the audi- 
torium of the Christian Endeavor 
Hotel, within one hundred feet of the 
south entrance of the St. Louis Faii\ 
Vice-rres. C. P. Dadant has .iust re- 
turned from the fair and has secured 
the best possible for the members. 

Special rates: — Send at once 50c. 
to General INIanager N E. France of 
Platteville, Wis., to secure charter certi- 
ficate to insure your special rates at 
above hotel. $1 a day lodging, or $2 a 
day. boai-(d and i lodging. OtheiTvlse 
higher rates will be charged. Make it 
a point to attend the fair the week be- 
fore or after the convention, and thus 
continue your board I'ates. Other 
hotels near, but higher rates charged. 
Market St. street cars west l)ound in 
front of Union depot will bring you to 
above hotel without transfer. Missouri 
State Bee-Keepers' convention in same 
ball Sept. 2B. 

N. E. France. 



The subject of foul brood legislation 
is agitating the minds of beedom in 
the British Isles. 



The Deacon's Message. 

"A-h-h-h-h-h! You mortals are 
bloomin stupid! Here I've been a try- 
in all these months to make Harry un- 
derstand me and t'is but now that he 
l;as become cognizant of my presence 
and been bright enough to get someone 
as knows, to talk with me. Well that 
was bright anyhow — durn sight mor'n 
,some folks know. I uster tell hira 
'twas powerful bad a doin of so much 
work nights, but twas mightj^ fortunate 
arter all. else I 'low I'd never a got his 
attention. 

"I've just been all stirred up a want- 
in to say things to the boys and I'm 
right glad to get the chance. 

"No. you mustn't ask no questions as 
to why I am still interested in mundane 
things or what I be a doin here, for if 
you do I'll get called off. It's agin 
ther rules. 

"Say but there is one powerful ad- 
vantage in a lookin' at things from 
here, the perspectjv,e is most bee-auti- 
ful. Its plumb funny to see the boys a 
tumbling over theirselves to laud and 
worship every new star — provided he 
looks big enough. Now there's a chap in 
York State 'lows as how taint possible 
to overstock a locality, that he's got 
hundreds of colonies in a spot. Then, 
b'gosh, right in the same breath almost 
he" says he feeds TONS o^ SUGAR. 
Wal, there is ,some truth ii> sayin' yer 
can't overstock a sugar refinery loca- 
tion. D'ye spose he'd dare flavor that 
syrup strong with onions? No, not by 
the great Horn Spoon. 

"W^ho is he? Ask W. Z. of the Re- 
view. He is responsible for pasting 
him up in the bee-keepers firmament. 




THE DEACON INVADES THE EDITORIAL SANCTL^M. 

"Swift as thought the flitting shade 
"Thro' air his momentary journey made."' 



190 THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. Septeml)ei-. 

"The bad part of it is W. Z. eiKlorses In accorclaiice with the foregoing. 1 
the lu-aetiee. so do a lot of the BIG hereby asli all members of the ^Nation- 
producers, so do the Gleaning"s folks, al Bee-Keepers' Association to write 
If you will just sort of cast your eye me their choice of men as candidares 
over the writing of the boys as tells of for the following offices: 
the big yields you'll find every durned To succeed .Tas\ U. Harris, of Grand 
one of them says they feed early, feed Junction, Colo., as President, 
late, feed between times, feed slowly. To succeed C. P. Dadant, of Ham- 
I'eed steadily, feed any old way, only ilton. Ills., as Vice-President. 
FEED. Why say, the boys would tar To succeed Geo. AY. Brodbeck, of 
and featlier the chap as should get Los Angeles, Calif., as Secretary, 
through a law a compellin' of em to To succeed N. E. France, of Platte- 
flavor their syrup right up strong. ville. Wis., as General Manager. 

"Oh the wickedness of the Korn To succeed E. Whitcomb. "of Friend, 
Syrup folks and the sinful cussedness Neb., as Director. 

of the fellers as mixes in a little glu- To succeed W. Z. Hutchinson, of 
cose to keep the honey from candying. Flint. Mich, as Director. 
Don't you see them fellers is without To succeed Udo Toepperwein, of 
the ring, they don't belong to the graft. San Antonio, Texas, as Director. 
They don't keep bees, they're rank out- October 1st the votes will be count- 
siders. they're SCABS. Oh! ho! ho! ho! ed, and the names of the two men re- 
Say, its just royally l)lamed funny. ceivlng the most votes for each respec- 
"Bees eat up the feed afore it gets five office will be published in the bee 
into the surplus crop. You say color it journals, then, in November, a postal 
sky blue or flavor it rank and taste for card ballot will be taken which will 
yourself. No don't give one little dose, decide which of the nominees shall 
just 'feed accordin to the rules.' early hold the office, 
often and always. Send all votes to 

"There aint no such thing as 'o^Aer- N. E. FRANCE, 

stocking' so long as sugar holds out. Plattevilfe, Wisconsin. 

'If this be treason, make the most of — 

It. A-h-h-h-h-h." NOTICE TO FOREIGN P.ITRONS. 

" Fort Pierce, Florida, Is not a foreign 

NATIONAL BEE-KEEPERS' AS- money order office, hence orders drawn 

SOCIATION upon this office cannot be cashed. 

_____" ■ Please make all such orders payable at 

Officers to be Nominated in Advance of *'^*^ -Tamestown, N. Y., postoffice, to the 

Election order of the American Bee-Keeper or 

The W. T. Falconer Mfg. Companv. 

One of the latest amendments to the 

constitution of the National Bee-Kee])- Mr. S. T. Pettit, of Canada, it is said, 
ers' Association provides that the tests the atmosphere for humiditv by 
Board of Directors may "prescribe placing a i)inch of salt on a board in 
equitable rules and regulations gov- the extracting room. If the salt at- 
erning the nomination for the several tracts moisture from the air, extracting 
officers," and the Board has just decid- is deferred until It becomes dry, thus 
ed that the General Manager shall, in showing that conditions are safe for 
August, publish in the bee journals a handling honey. Owing to the well- 
call for a postal card vote of the mem- known affinit.v' of honey for moisture, 
bers of the Associati.m for the nomi- such a precaution, and the means are 
nation of candidates for the several all right. This is a point, however, in 
offices (stating the offices) to ))e filled which "locality" figures to the most 
at the next election. On October 1st extreme extent. It is probably a pra- 
the General Manager and one other lical plan in some certain localities, but 
disinterested member chosen annually during a great part of the year in the 
by the Board of Directors, shall count arid West, every particle of moisture 
the votes, and the two men receiving would be .?oon tjiken from the salt and 
the greatest number of votes for each it would remain perfectly dry. except- 
respective office are to be candidates ing at night. On the othtn- hand, if one 
for said office; the names of the nom- were to be guided In- the condition of 
inees and the officers for which they the salt in South Florida, he would 
are nominated to be published, AT probably have to wait for mouths for it 
ONCE, in the bee journals. to become drv. 



► ♦»♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦»♦ 




THE 



Bee « Keeping World 



staff Contributors : F. GREINER and ADRIAN GETAZ. 

Contributions to this Department are solicited from all quarters of the earth. 



BRAZIL. 

Uiulei' the initials .J. v. B., ;i (lesc-rip- 
tioii of ail ant, very hostile to the hon- 
i*y bee, is given in the Bienen-Vater. 
The ant is small, hiiii-dly one centimeter 
in length, reddish in color, and very 
strong. t:'he lives in hollow and de- 
cayed logs, and trees, nnder stones and 
other hiding places. Attacks on bees 
are made only dnring the night. The 
first colony, the writer says, he had 
was completely destroyed the first 
night. Colonies i>nrchased afterward 
were placed on cement foundations 
and surrounded by water. But even 
this did not always prove effectual. 
Sometimes a palm leaf would drop 
from overhead touching a hive at some 
point and thus form a convenient 
kc'idge for the robber ants; or a blade 
of grass would find a lodging place in 
the water some way as to form a 
bridge etc., etc. The ants would al- 
ways be very quick to take advantage 
of any such accident. The first ant 
Avhich succeeds and reaches the hive 
entrance returns to its home and 
spreadsthe news and an army of ants 
at once starts out. A short battle is 
fought at the entrance. It fequires 
two bees to kill one ant and they have 
to make the atLick together, one from 
the rear, the other from the front, and 
even then one of the bees generally 
loses its life in the battle. If the ant 
colony is a populous one. and they vnn 
fall upon a lie^ colony with an ai'niy 
from ().0(l() to 20,()()() strong, the swarm 
is soon whipped out. At first the bees 
fight like tigers, but after a while they 
become discouraged and then only tiy 
to fill themselves witli honey. The 
ants, however, are not satisfied to take 
possession of the stores, their aim also 
is to kill or so mutilate all the bees as 
to make them useless for the future. 
They do this by cutting off their wings 
and then dragging them out of the 
hives. A strong ant colony often 
cleans out a hive in one night com- 
pletely, bees, honey and brood. The 
writer of the article says that he has 



seen armies of ants sevtcal millions 
strong and that he has not found a 
practical method to destroy them. 



RUSSIA. 
A peculiar method of migratory bee- 
keeping is practiced in Russia on the 
larger rivers flowing south, according 
to the Rhein. Btzg. Large log rafts 
are constructed and covered with soil 
upon which some gardening is done. 
An apiary is located upon it and the 
attendants put up a tent for their shel- 
ter. I surmise the moving is done 
nights, rests are taken during daytime. 
The rafts are floated down the rivers 
during the season. The final stop is 
made at the end of the season in a sec- 
tion of the country whose timbe*r is 
scarce. The rafts are taken apart and 
the timbers sold. Bees and honey are 
disposed of and the attendants make 
their way homeward by rail or steam- 
boat. 



ENGLAND AND IRELAND. 
The British Bee Journal reports 
heavy winter losses throughout the 
Empire. Never before have bee-keep- 
ers had so many weak colonies in the 
spring. 



GERMANY. 

A good, honey crop is reported from 
many places in Germany. The win- 
ter iKis been mild and the spring early. 



Fcft- years I have had a feeling that 
the writings of the American Bee-Mas- 
ters did not receive consideration 
of the German bee-keepers as they 
should. The editor of Gleanings has 
of late expressed a similar opinion in 
his .lournal wliic-h induces Pfr. Buch- 
holz to niiiJve the following reply in 
Deutsche Bienenzucht: It is an undis- 
putable fact that we in Germany may 
learn a good d«kal from the Amen-ican- 
bee-keepers; but when all one's knowl- 
edge of a foreign people is based upon 
translations, misconceptions often re- 



192 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



September, 



suit. The masses, of course, are de- 
pending upon the transhitions for then- 
information." As a matter of fact, he 
— Buchholz — practices American meth- 
ods in reafinu' queens and rears fine 
queens. 



To improve the bee-pasturage the 
bee-keepers of a certain district haye 
put the following plan in opera- 
tion: Each bee-keeper pays five cents 
for every colony owned into a com- 
mon fund. The money is used in pur- 
chasing phacelia-seed which is distrib- 
uted gratis to such bee-keepers and 
farmers who will agree to sow the seed 
upon their lands within reach of the 
bees. A part of the money raised has 
been used for planting out Avillow 
ti'ees. 



AUSTRIA. 
It may be noticed that a great deal 
more artistic taste is exhibited in the 
construction of bee hives in p:ngland, 
Germany, etc., than is customary in 
America. In Carniola. a province of 
Austria, it is an old time custom to 
decorate hives very fancifully. Scenes 
from Biblical history are ve"y com- 
monly represented in fancy colors upon 
the fronts of hives, also historical facts 
as relating to the history of the coun- 
try. The common customs of the peo- 
ple receive attention also, and the 
humorous side is frequently brought 
out in a striking manner. Some of the 
oldcf pieces are real pieces of art well 
worth preserving. Professor Benton 
was showing such a one at a bee-keep- 
ers" meeting a year or two ago. The 
Americans always have and do yet 
push the practical side of the business 
only. Their hives are mmle simple and 
most convenient to handle. 



SWITZERLAND. 

The '"Societe des Apiculteurs 
Suisses" has just pulilished its annual 
report covering the work done du-ing 
last year at its diflPerent stations. The 
report is well printed, with maps, en- 
gravings, half-tones, etc. .\mong the 
advices and other items given, the etl- 
itor of the Rucher Beige has translated 
the following: 

Avoid air currents striking the en- 
trances of the hives. The nearest bees, 
the ones on the outside of the clusters, 
are sometimes chilled and being un- 
able to move to a warmer place, fall to 
the bottom of the hive and die. Ac- 
cording to some of the reports the loss 
may be much greater than usually sup- 



posed. Some protection should be pro- 
vided, (in Europe the bees are win- 
tered out of doors.) 

2. Avoid disturbing them. A knock 
on the hive will bring out a dozen or 
more bees which get chilled and are 
unable to return. Even if they do not 
actually come out of the hive they 
leave the cluster, and are chilled be- 
fore regaining their place. 

o.~ The minimum consumption of 
honey for the months of November, 
Deeembtc and .lanuary was five and 
one-half pounds. For Feltruary and' 
March seven and one half pounds. For 
the five months 13 pounds. The larger 
quantity during the last two months 
is due to brood rearing. One colony 
went through with only a little less 
than eight pounds while another con- 
sumed nearly 22 pounds. 

4. It is best not to visit the hives 
when the bees make their first flying 
out. They are apt to ball the (lueeu. 

^h Early in the spring the bees con- 
sume whatever is left of their winter 
stores and raise a considerable amount 
of brood. These stores are soon used 
up, and when IJiey are, the bees de- 
p;nid iipon what they gather to raise 
brood. As the bad weather often in- 
terferes with the gathering.the amount 
of brood is necessarily curtailed in pro- 
I)ortion (unless the apiarist feeds), and 
when the flow comes, there is not the 
population to gather it. that otherwise 
would have been. 

G. Honey is better than sugar for 
spring feeding. Probably because it 
contains .some pollen. The provision of 
pollen, like that of honey, may be too 
short. 

7. Have none but strong colonies. 
A good way to strengthen a weak col- 
ony is to add a swarm to it. keeping 
the queen of the swarm rather than 
that of the colony. Very often the 
weakness of a colony is due to the un- 
prolificness of the queen. 

8. "Many swarms, little surplus." 
A proof of this was seen at the Alt- 
staetten station. Two colonies of equal 
force had worked etpially well up to 
the time of swarming. The colony A 
swarmed; colon.v B didn't. Here is 
what surplus they produced during the 
three months: 

May June July Total 

Colony A 17 11-3 3 211-3 

Colony B 5.i 2-3 3 1-2 4 1-2 63 2-3 

The swarming of A occurred in the 
middle of the main surplus flow which j 
that year was of rather short dura 
tion. 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



193 



9. The report lias a chiirt in eulcn's 
showing the amount of nectar brouglit 
daily bj' several colonies on scales, and 
also the amounts consumed, taken out. 

The best colony of the 29 stations 
gave a surplus of 122 pounds. During 
only 21 days, the daily amount brought 
in amounted to four pounds or over. 
The remainder of the season it was 
much lower. 

Another colony on scales gave only 
33 pounds of surplus. Dut'ing only lu 
days the daily amount brought in (as 
sliown by the sea lei reached between 
two and three pounds. All this shows 
how few are the days during which 
the bees can gather large amounts of 
nectar, and how necessary it is to 
have the strongest possible colonies 
Avhen such days happen. 

10. The atmospheric electricity has 
an influence on tlie jiroduction of the 
nectar. During the stofmy or threat- 
ening days, the positive electricity of 
the atmosphere is constantly passing 
in the ground and accelerates the 
movement of the sap, the growth of 
the plants and the other features of 
vegetation. If, now, tlie ground is rich 
and sufficiently wet, the production of 
nectar will be increased. If the op- 
posite conditions prevail, the flow of 
nectac will be diminished. Sometimes 
in dry weather, a stormy condition of 
the atmosphere can cut ofE the flow 
entirely. That this double action ex- 
ists has been shown by sulimittlng 
plants cultivated in pots to an electric 
current. 

11. To cufe foul brood, it is recom- 
mended to take away the combs, shut 
the bees in a box without food during 
two days and return them after hav- 
ing disinfected the hive thoroughly. If 
tlie apiary has been badly diseased, the 
advice is given to move it elsewhere. 
Weak colonies should be united. 

12. In most localities (in Switzer- 
land) the main honey flow is during 
the last half of May. 

In one of the bulletins of the Suisse 
Romande Society is an interesting 
work on lioney, by Prof. F. Seller. The 
only part really new is on the produc- 
tion of the different kinds of honey 
dew. Here is what he says: 

"The bees also gather honey dew 
chiefly at the base of the leaf stems. 
The honey from that source is of a 
greenish-brown colcf, very thick, and 
of a peculiar strong taste. It is not ob- 
tained every ,vear. It is found on fruit 
trees only when the crop of fruit will 
be absent or very short. This honey 



dew is formed )iy tlie materials which 
ouglit to liave fiUed the fruits, ^^■hen 
tliere is no ffuit to till, these materials 
exude chiefly at the base of tlie leaf 
stems. The.v contain a small i^rojtor- 
tion of sugar, but are chiefly formed of 
dextrine. The dextrine is a gum verj' 
similar, cliemically speaking, to the 
different fruit sugars. The bees gather 
it and transform it into honey in the 
same manner in wliicli tliey transform 
tlie nectar of tlie blossoms. However, 
the transformation is not complete. 
A portion of it remains unchanged, and 
it is that portion which gives the hon- 
ey dew its particular consistency." — 
Le Rucher Beige. 



FRANCE. 
A discussion on the use of colonies 
on scales, and the meaning of the fig- 
ures in regard to the evaporation of 
nectar, consumption of the bees for 
living, ixoducing wax, raising brood, 
etc., is going on in the Apiculteur be- 
tween Messrs. Sylviac and Boris 
Spoerer. The whole thing does not 
seem very clear except one point. Up 
to this day it has l>een admitted that 
the amount of nectar gathered by the 
bees amounts to the difference in 
weight of the hive between early in 
the morning and late at night. But it 
is more than that. The honey or nee- 
tar evaporates during the day as well 
as dux'ing the night; the bees eat, se- 
crete wax and feed the brood as well 
during the day as during the night. 
So the difference in weight between 
morning and niglit does not show the 
whole amount lirought in. but only 
that amount less what is consumed or 
evaporated. Now suppose a hive 
weighs 40 pounds in the morning and 
.")0 in the evening and 45 the next 
morning. Five pounds will have been 
consumed and evaporated dtiring the 
night. Certainly something like five 
pounds must also have been used up 
during the day. So the l>ees must 
have lirought in not only the 10 pounds 
shown by the scale (the difference be- 
tween .">0 and 40) but also five pounds 
consumed ducing the day, that is 15 
pounds in all. — L'Apiculteur. 



To prepare l>arrels for honey Mr. 
Bourgeois gives the following: Use 
barrels with iron hoops. Thoroughly 
dry them in tlie sun before using. 
Drive the iiooiis as tight as possible 
and put in a few nails to keep them 
from slipping. Coat the inside with 
glue or gelatin. — L'Apiculteur. 



194 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



September, 




Remember the bis National conven- 
tion at St. Louis, the 27 th to 30th of 
tliis month, in Endeavor hotel near 
south entrance to fair grounds. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY. 



Mr. Leo F. Hanegan, the hustling 
general manager of the St. Croix Val- 
ley (Wis.) Honey Prodiicer's Associa- 
tion,' is endeavoring to arrange for a 
THE W. T. FALCONER MANFG. Co, tourist ear and bee^-keepers enough to 
PROPRIETORS. fill it, from St. Paul to the St. LouLs 

H. E. HILL, - EDITOR, couventlon. 

FORT PIERCE, FLA. ■ 

• Comb honey producers who tind 

Terms. Cuban competition an obstacle in the 

o^nt!*^'?''^"**-'^ ^*i%A '"i?*^'''",''*'' - ''^P'" ^-^ ^'^■a.v of successful future operations 

cents. 3 copies $1.20; all to be sent to one • \ t. a ^ -i. i • i i 4. .t +i • 

postoffice. ^ ^ ' ^ '■'^ ""^ might iind it advisable to convert their 

Postage prepaid in the United States and holdings into cash and join the ranks 
Canada; 10 cents extra to all countries in the of the speculators at Havana. Buv it 
postal union, and 20 cents extra to all other • ^i i i ^.i 

countries. u^ tli6 comb cheaper than we can pro- 

Advertising Rates. duce it, with no winter losses or foul 

Fifteen cents per line, 9 words; $2.00 per brood tO Contend with. 

inch. Five per cent, discount for two inser- 

tions; seven per cent, for three insertions; Brother Adelsbnuo-h of the Western 

twenty per cent, for twelve insertions. cioiuei .^uetsuaugu, or nie \\ l hceili 

Advertisements must be received on or be- Bee Journal proves to be a veritable 

fore the 15th of each month to insure inser- shark in the iournalistlc swini. Not COll- 

tion in the month followine. . . ..i , " ^^■ ., n -i. ..^j. ^ 

Matters relating in any way to business **'"* With handling the PacitlC States 

should invariably be addressed to Bee .Journal, he swallowed the Kiicky 

THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, ^ Mountain Bee Journal a few months 

Articles for publication or leUers ^cb,' ^' =^-»' '^"^1 "^W lias taken in the South- 

for the editorial department may be addressed h\nd Queeu, Of Texas. So far as OUr 

*o H. E. HILL, knowledge goes, he now has a corner 

Subscribers receiving their"'' pa^jer"in ^'blue "" western bee journals. SuCCeSS to lliS 

w_rapper will know that their subscription ex- enterprise. 

pires with this number. We hope that you 

will not delay favoring us with a renewal. „,. ^, , , . . , ^, 

A red wrapper on your paper inaicates that W. Iv. MoiTlSOn. lU la,st Gleanings 

you owe for your subscription. Please give corroborates his former Statement that 
t he matter your earliest attention. America has nothing to fear from for- 

eign competition, and Editor Root con- 
curs. A letter from an Indianapolis 
dealer dated August 16, concludes; 
"Comb honey situation very much de- 
moralized here on account of a lot of 
Cuban honey which sells at eleven and 
three-fourths cents." The 'future" 
may be all right — we don't know as to 
that — but heaven knows the ])reseiit is 
bad enough, from the standpoint of the 
American honey producer. 




Adultoration is a universal evil, 
with which the producer of all lands 
has to contend. 



As a result of the persistent visits 
of Deacon Hard.scrabble and the bat- 
tery of cameras which have been setfor 
him for some weeks, our readers are 
this month given a glimps-e of our 
private sanctum and the fountain head 
from which this department of Tlie 
Bee-Keeper emanates. 



Tlie bee-keeper who extracts green, 
raw honey for the market is a foe no 
less to be dreaded than the adulterator. 
Seeking a personal gain in quantity, a 
victim of his own ignorance, he deals 
himself the hardesr blow; for while his 
own crop is not perceptibly increased, 
the quality i.s such as to preclude a sec- 
ond .sale to a customer; and the ten- 
dency is to disgust those who might 
otherwise become habitual users of our 
product. 



1904 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPEK. 



195 



H. C. (MOREHOUSE DEAD. 

While the forms for the August Bee- 
Keeper were on the press, the follow- 
ing- announcement was received: 

Boulder, Colorado, July 26, 1904. 
Editor American Bee-Keeper: 

I am pained to have to report to you 
the death of our mutual friend. Harry 
Clinton Morehouse, editor of the 
"Rocky Mountain Bee Journal" former- 
ly of this city. Deatli occured Sunday 
morning at 3:30 after an eight day's 
illness; cause, appendicitis. He was a 
very prominent man in this city, espe- 
cially in his business among bee-keep- 
ers. He leaves a young wife and son 
fifteen months old. together with a wid- 
owed mother. I am reporting this by 
request of the wife, being a long time 
friend of the family. 

Respectfullj'. 

Leo Vincent. 




HARRY CLINTON MOREHOUSE. 



Thus we have to chronicle the demise 
of one of the most promising and dis- 
tinguished of the younger members of 
tlie apiarian craft. Mr. Morehouse 
Avas 35 years of age and was until re- 
cently the editor and publisher of the 
Rocky Mountain Bee Journal, one of 
the most ably edited journals of 
America. The fi*aternity has sustain- 
ed a great loss through his death, 
which comes as a severe shock to his 
host of friends and admirers from 
ocean to ocean. 

The American Bee-Keeper extends 
assurances of its condolence with the 
liereaved family. 

Through the courtesy of the Bee- 
Keepers' Review we present herewith 
a portrait of our dejiarted brother. 



BEES, OUR THEME. 

The fact, long established and un- 
questioned, that the bee keeping fra- 
ternity is composed A^ery largely of 
broad-minded, deeji-thinking, liberal 
and courteous genilomen, is, we are 
sure, well founded. It is not so very re- 
cently, however, that we made the dis- 
covery that there are some who are 
just the least bit peculiar. Though 
the ratio is, undoubetedly, low, the 
writer is not so sure that we haven't a 
slight sprinkling of cranks whose hob- 
bies run counter and ci'iss-cro,ss, in 
divers ways. Puobably there is no 
other point at which these freak no- 
tions and pet hobbies collide so 
frequently as in the sanctum of the 
editor of a bee journal. 

Evei-y enthusiafit, or nearly so. 
craves publicity for the theories and 
notions which he ,so tenaciously 
adheres to. May be they are sacred 
truths; that's not for us to determine, 
unless the subject relates directly to 
bees or bee culture. This journal cuts 
out "kindred topics." "home de- 
liartments," and all other side-shows. 
^Ye are running a bee journal, solely 
and exclusively; and yet certain cor- 
respondents think unkindly of us be- 
cause political convictions which 
weigh heavily upon their minds are 
not found available. Another who 
takes a deep interest in religious work 
persists in infusing his personal beliefs 
and deductions into_ his contributions 
to a bee paper, and calls us narrow- 
minded because our mission is not 
tlie promulgation or I'eligious doctrine. 
Then, there's the fellow who can't 
write a paragraph without straining 
himself to deliver a thrust at those who 
have espoused Christianity, and min- 
gles his bee talk with sneers and belit- 
tling insinuations; and then he is mad 
clear through because it does not ap- 
pear in print in The Bee-Keeper. He 
then feels it his duty to enlighten the 
editor, at great length, upon the subject 
of journalistic ethics, and particularly 
to define the limit of the editorial 
prerogative. In fact, to fully explain 
why it is that The Bee-Keeper is not 
more important and more widely cir- 
culated. The "reason" is, of course, 
because we don't know how to run a 
paper and haven't sense enough to ab- 
sorb the excellent ad-\ice of our emi- 
nently competent correspondent. 

Now, we had no intention of taking so 
much space to speak of this matter; 



196 THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. September, 

but iu as mucb as we are all concerned WHERE THEY GET ORANGE 
in tbe subject matter of The Bee- BLOOM HONEY. 

Keeper, it may be well to exhaust the 

question before concluding, which may The following is from the Bee-Keep- 
be briefly done: ers' Review for August: "Pure orange 

Every publication has its peculiar bloom honey is something secured in 
style — its likes and dislikes. Our large quantities; so writes Mr. Frank 
preference, first, last and all the time, McNay, of Redlands, California. He 
is for articles the publication of which says that near the coast, in California, 
will interest or instruct bee-keepers, the weather is seldom suitable (too 
separate and apart from all "home," cool) when orange blooms to seciu-e 
religious, political, medical or other much surplus from that source, b'lt, 
foreign sub.iects. We want to discuss farther inland, at Redlands, for in- 
bees. We are always in need of good stance, which is SO miles from the 
articles of this kind; but if the reader coast, the weather is warmer when the 
has some personal grudge which he orange is in bloom, and beelveepers se- 
seeks to proclaim indirectly, concealed cure not only barrels, but tons and ear- 
in an article purporting to deal with loads of pure orange bloom honey." 
any apiarian question, send it to some Yet we have said, and repeat, that 
othfer journal. We don't Avant it. but once in our life have we been per- 

We have recently been forbidden to mitted to taste what was said to be 
edit the copy of a correspondent, for pure orange blossom honey. And this 
the reason that unnecessary and un- "once" was in a grocery store in Red- 
charitable rleference to those who lands, California, where it was on ex- 
adhere to the Christian faith was cut hibition as a novelty, in a two-quart 
out, in a former article. It is our jar, conspicuously labeled. That was 
most earnest endeavor to treat every in 1891, at which time the writer was 
correspondent in a fair and courteous engaged in the apiaries of Messrs. 
manner; but it must be emphatically Wheeler & Hunt, embracing something 
and specifically understood that if cor- like 2000 colonies of bees, nearly 200 of 
respondents do not wish the editor to which were within the corporate limits 
take such liberties with their copy, of Redlands, surrounded by gi'oves in 
they themselves should cut out all such full bloom. Still other hundreds were 
lines before mailing it. situated near Riverside. Several 

It is by no means necessary that cars of honey were loaded at Colton 
matter for publication should be in ac- and San Bernardino under the writer's 
cord with the editor's personal ideas; direction; but, be it known, they were 
but so far as petty "scraps" and re- not loaded with orange bloom honey. 
Jigious references are concerneiV, iil Conditions may be different now, and 
must pass his scrutiny. We are not in Mr. McNay probably knows whereof he 
the business to insult one patron simp- speaks; but the fact remains that the 
ly to gratify another, nor, indeed, to writer does not believe that he has ever 
gratify any cheque. seen enough honey from the orange 

One bee-keepers' society officially bloom to fill a sixty-pound tin can. 

notifies this office that unless we see fit 

to publish any matter entirely as siib- WESTERN ILLINOIS CONVENTION. 

mitted, we must ignore it, and make no ■ 

comment. This is a most absurd idea. The Western Illinois Bee-Keepers' 
Infoi-mation relating to public matters Convention will meet Sept. 20th at the 
which affects our pursuit, and through courthouse in Galesburg, Ills. Con- 
public channels received, we presume vention will begin at 9 o'clock a. m. 
may be freely discussed by individuals All who are interested in bees or bee- 
or the press. An organization which keeping are cordially invited to attend, 
seeks to throttle free speech, or one whether members or not. 
which assays to bulldoze the trade E. D. Woods, Sec. 
press should remove its quarters to J. E. Johnson, Pres. 
other than American soil. 

The extreme importance of unity in In competition with an official trade 
our fraternal ranks at the present mark or seal of the National Bee-Keep- 
t'me should overshadow petty squab- ers' Association, the adulterator would 
bles. The situation demands seiious find his nefarious trade less lucrative 
unprejudiced thought and consistent than at present; and his loss would be 
action. the gain of the honest producer of pure 




ONE-HALF INCH SPACE ONE YEAR ON THIS PAGE, $3.00. 



HE A. I. ROOT CO., MEDlisA, OHIO. 
Breeders of Italian bees and queens. 



^ UEENS from Jamaica any day in the 
< year Untested, 66c.; tested, $1.00; se- 
;ct tested, $1.50. Our queens are reared from 
le very finest strains. Geo. W. Phillips, Sav- 
a-Mar P O., Jamaica, W. I. (5-5) 



AWRENCE C. MILLER, BOX 1113 PROVI- 
DENCE, R. I., is tilling orders for the popu- 
ir, hardy, honey-getting Providence strain of 
;ueens. Write for free information. 



H. W. WEBER, CINCINNATI, OHIO 
->• (Cor. Central and Freeman Aves.) 
lolden yellow. Red Clover and Carniolan 
ueens, bred from select mothers in separate 
piaries. 



OHN M. DAVIS, SPRING HILL, TENN. 

sends out the choicest 3-banded and gold 

1 Italian queens that skill and experience 

an prodluce. Satisfaction guaranteed. No 

'isease. 



^ UIRIN, the Queen Breeder, has an ex- 
<! ceptionally hardy strain of Italian bees; 
ley wintered on their summer stands within 
few miles of bleak Lake Erie. Send for 
ree Circular. Bellevue, Ohio. (5-5) 



\J J. DAVIS, 1st, YOUNGPVILLE, PA., breed- 
' * er of Choice Italian Bees and Queens, 
uality, not quantity, is my motto. 



o WARTHMORE APIARIES, SWARTH- 
v-5 MORE, PA. Our bees and queens are 
the brightest Italians procurable. Satisfaction 
guaranteed. Correspondence in English, 
French, German and Spanish. Shipments to 
all parts of the world. 



A RE YOU LOOKING FOR QUEENS? If so I 
can furnish you queens of the following races 
by return mail : Three- and flve-banded Italians, 
Cyprians, Holy Lands, Carniolans and Albinos. 
Untested of either race, 75c each; select untested, 
$1.00 each; six for $1.00: twelve for $8.00; tested, 
of either race, $2.00 each; six for $10.00; one dozen 
$18.00; Breeders, $4. -50 each. Safe arrival guar- 
anteed. B. H. Stanley, Beeville, Texas Aug 5 



QUEEN BEES are now ready to mail. 
Golden Italians, Red Clover three-banded 
queens and Carniolans. We guarantee salt 
arrival. The Fred W. Muth Co., 51 Walnut 
St., Cincinnati, Ohio. (5-5) 



w. 



Z. HUTCHINSON, FLINT, MiCH. 
Superior stock queens, $1.50 each; 
queen and Bee-Keepers' Review one year for 
only $2.00. 



IVA OORE'S LONG-TONGUED STRAIN 
of Italians become more and more popu- 
lar each year. Those who have tested them 
know why. Descriptive circular free to all. 
Write J. P. Moore, L. Box 1, Morgan, Ky. 4 



pUNIC BEES. All other races are dis- 
^ carded after trial of these wonderful bees. 
Particulars post free. John Hewitt «& Co., 
Sheffield, England. 4 



HONEY QUEENS AND BEES for sale. I ex- 
tracted 300 pounds per colony in 1903. Thos. 
Worthington, Leota, Miss. Aug. 5 



I 



HONEY DEALERS^ PIRECTORyI 



^" Under this heading will be inserted, for reliable dealers, two lines one 
year for $1.25. Additional words, 12c a word. No announcement can 
be accepted for less than one year at these rates._^gt 



OHIO. 



C. H. W. WEBER, Freeman and Central 
Aves., Cincinnati, Ohio. If for sale, mail 
sample, _ and _ state price expected delivered 
in Cincinnati. If in want, write lor prices, 
and state quality and quantity wanted. 

(5-5) 



We are always in the marktt for extracted 
honej', as we sell unlimited quantities. Send 
us a sample and your best price delivered 
here. THE FRED W. MUTH CO., 51 
Walnut St., Cincinnati, Ohio. (5-5) 



COLORADO. 



THE COLORADO HONEY PRODUCERS 
ASS'N, 1440 Market St., Denver, Colo. 5-i 



ILLINOIS. 



R. A BURNETT & CO., 199 South Wate 
Street, Chicago. (5-5) 



HONEY AND BEESW^AX 

MARKET. 

Denver, Aug. 16. — Supply of extracted honey is 
good. Demand only fair as there is so much 
fruit. We quote today : No. I white comb, per 
case, $2.75; No. 2, S2.50; extracted, 6?-i-7i4 in a 
local way. Demand light. Beeswax. 22 to 25c. 
Colorado Honey Producers' Assn., 
1440 Market Street. 



Cincinnati, July 29.— Tlie supply of honey at 
the present time is limited, with but moderate 
demand. New honey is beginning to arrive. We 
quote our market today as follows : Amber ex- 
tracted in barrels and cans, ^^i-Cilic. White 
clover extracted 6y«-Se. Comb honey, (demand 
limited) 13-14c for fancy and No. 1 Beeswax 
29c. The Fred W. Muth Co., 

No. 51 Walnut St. Cincinnati, 0. 



Marton, New Zealand, July 10.— The honey 
markets are very firm at present and will con- 
tinue so for some time to come. The demand for 
pure honey cannot be supplied, owing to the 
slack sy.stem of bee-keeping in New Zealand, 
The extracted market is as high at present as in 
years, while the market for comb is good. I 
quote ruling prices for the American Bee-Keepcr 
today as follows : Extracted, in bulk, 11 to 13c. 
In tin cans, 12c per lb. Strained honey, 8 to 10c. 
Comb, per dozen pound-sections, 82.00 to 82.50. 
G. J. S. Small 



Boston, July 8— Our market on honey, bof 
comb and extracted, is practically in a slumbei 
ing condition as there is really no call whatevei 
Prices remain as before quoted, but are really or 
ly nominal. Blake, Scott iV Lee. 



Cent=a=Word Columm 



"INCREASE" is the title of a little boo) 
let by Swarthmore; tells how to make v 
winter losses without much labor ana wit' 
out breaking up full colonies; entirely ne 
plan. 25 cents. Prospectus free. A 
dress E. L. Pratt, Swarthmore, Pa. 7 



Buffalo, N. Y., Aug. 11— The supply of new- 
honey is very moderate, and quite a lot of old 
stock yet here. Cannot advise shipments of new 
honey as yet. Too much fruit, and October is 
early enough. Wo quote : Fancy new, 15 to Idc 
Old, 5 to 10c. Extracted, 5 to 7c, with no supply, 
and not wanted. Beeswax, 30 to 32c. 

Batterson & Co . 



Kansas City, Mo., Aug. 11 —The supply of 
honey is increasing while the demand is improv- 
ing. We look for a general improvement next 
month with higher prices. We quote todav : 
Fancy, S2.75; extracted, slow at 5% to 6V4c;. 
Beeswax, 30c. CO. demons & Co. 



Chicago, Aug. 8.— A little new honey is being 
offered at 12 to 12VsC per lb. for No. 1 to fancy. 
Extracted, 6 to 7c for white and 5 to 6 for amber 
Beeswax, 28c. R. A Burnett & Co . 

199 So. Water Street. 



FOR SALE — A Hawkeye, Jr., Camera con- 
plete. Uses both film and plates. Cost I8-0 
will sell with leather case for S.^.50 casl 
Address Empire Washer Co., Falconer, > 
Y. 



A TANDEM BICYCLE (for man and ladj 
cost ^'150, in first-class condition, was built 1 
order for the owner. Tires new. Will se 
for ?25 cash. Satisfaction guaranteed. A 
dress J. Clayborne Merrill, 130 Lakeviei 
ave., Jamestown, N. Y. 



AGENTS WANTED to sell advertising nc 
ties, good commission allowed. Send f( 
catalogue and terms. American Manuf* 
turing Concern, Jamestown, N. Y. 



WANTED — To exchange six-month's tri; 
subscription to The American Bee-Keep< 
for 20 cents in postage stamps. Addres 
Bee-Keeper, Falconer, N. Y. 



FOR SALE— .50 colonies of bees, in Falcon 
S-frameandA. I. Root chaff hives. Desiri: 
to reduce my yards about one-half, no reasc 
able offer will be refused. Address, H. 1 
Harp, Marienville, Pa H 



When writing to advertisers menti( 
Tlie American Bee-Keeper. 



in the Front Rank 



Mr. W. Putnam, 
River Falls, Wis. 
Dear Sir:— I must congratulate you on 
the reading matter you have in the 

Rural Bee Keeper 

It is all that could be desired, and just 
what I have been wanting. I take seven 
bee papers and consider yours only 
equaled by one or two. Every number, 
so far, has been worth more than the sub- 
scription price to me. 1 do not see how 
you can fail if the present standard is 
kept up. Wishing you success, I remain, 
Yours truly, 

James T. Fennell. 
Beverly, N. Y. 



Send 10c for three back numbers, or 50c 
for one year. 

RURAL BEE KEEPER 

River Falls, Wis. 
SAMPLE COPY FREE. 



W^'tM^irf tM^(ufl^ufelLi|)|^utt^yi(^L;^^ L^^k^^i^^^i^C^^A l^^^^y^iyA^^^A^^ 



<3 Subscription Agencies. 

J Subscriptions for the Amerl- 
^ can Bee-Keeper may be entered 



through any of the following 
agents, when more convenient 
than remitting to our offices at 
Fort Pierce, Florida, or James- § 
town, N. y.: € 

J. E. Jonhson, Williamsfleld, 



:ii. 



National Bee=Keepers' Association, 

The largest bee-keepers' society in the 
world . 

_ Organized to protect and promote the 
interests of its members. 

Memb ership Fee, $1.00 a Year. 

N.E.FRANCE, Platteville, Wis.. 

General Manager and Treasure 



§ The Fred W. Mut